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Description: Cork City Development Plan Volume 1: Written Statement

Cork City Development Plan Comhairle Cathrach Chorca Cork City Council 2015 - 2021 Written Statement Volume One Written Statement Foreword Cork City is poised for recovery from recent economic challenges with strong signs for optimism and the beginnings of resurgence in growth and development. The adoption of a new Development Plan for the city is timely and will set the framework for the sustainable development of the city over the coming years. The City Development Plan is Cork City Council s main strategic planning policy document and it will guide the future development of the city between now and 2021. In essence it Provides a vision for the development and improvement of the city Sets out the priorities for investment on infrastructure over the Plan period Is the main reference point in determining planning applications for new development. The Plan is set within the national and regional planning framework provided by the National Spatial Strategy 2002-2020 and the South West Regional Planning Guidelines 2010-2022. The new Development Plan places increased emphasis on the renewal and development of the City Centre as the employment social and cultural heart of the city and the region. It also supports the gradual expansion of the City Centre eastwards into Docklands and the development of sustainable suburban neighbourhoods. The preparation of the City Development Plan involved extensive consultation at each stage of the process with the public and the various stakeholders in the city. The making of the Development Plan is a key function of the Elected Members of Cork City Council. Members participated in many meetings to discuss the policies to be in included and their input to this Plan was highly significant. We would like to thank all those who contributed to the preparation of the Plan including the many members of the general public and stakeholders who made submissions during the process the Members of Council and Cork City Council officials in particular the staff of the Planning Policy Section. We are confident that this Plan will help guide the renewal and development of Cork City as an attractive city where people want to live work visit and invest. Mary Shields Cllr. Mary Shields Lord Mayor of Cork City Ann Doherty Ann Doherty Chief Executive Cork City Council Volume 1 Written Statement Contents Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Core Strategy Chapter 3 Economic Strategy Chapter 4 Retail Strategy Chapter 5 Transportation Chapter 6 Residential Strategy Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure Chapter 12 Environmental Infrastructure and Management Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands Chapter 14 Suburban Area Policies Chapter 15 Land-use Zoning Objectives Chapter 16 Development Management Appendix A Compliance with Ministerial Guidelines 165 183 211 223 231 267 5 11 23 37 51 69 77 87 103 123 149 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 3 Volume One Written Statement 4 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Introduction Contents Introduction Strategic Framework The Strategic Vision for Cork City Legislative Background Ministerial Guidelines Structure of the Plan Local Planning 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 5 1 Volume One Written Statement The vision for Cork City over the period of this Development Plan and beyond is to be a successful sustainable regional capital and to achieve a high quality of life for its citizens and a robust local economy... 6 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction 1.1 The Cork City Development Plan 2015-21 sets out Cork City Council s policies for the development of Cork City to 2021 and beyond. It has been developed following a period of intensive consultation on issues to be included in the Plan and on the draft Plan which took the form of public meetings and workshops meetings with stakeholders and service providers written submissions and seminars for elected representatives. The process of reviewing the 2009-2015 Plan and preparing a new Plan formally commenced on 22nd April 2013 with an 8 week public consultation period. Following consideration of the Chief Executive s report on the consultation process by Council a draft Development Plan was prepared and approved by Council for public consultation. The public consultation ran for a 10 week period which concluded on the 17th June 2014. The Chief Executive then prepared a report for the Council on the issues raised in the submissions. Having considered the report Members agreed on a set of Amendments to the draft Plan which went out for a further period of public consultation concluding on the 21st of January 2015. The Members of Council considered the Chief Executive s Report on the submissions received on the Amendments and resolved to make the Plan at the Council Meeting of the 23rd March 2015. The Plan came into effect on the 20th April 2015. 1.2 Strategic Framework 1.3 The Plan is set within the strategic framework established by the South West Regional Planning Guidelines (2010) Cork Area Strategic Plan 2001-2020 (CASP) and the CASP update (2008). It has been prepared having regard to relevant National plans policies and guidelines that impact on proper planning and sustainable development. The main ones are z The National Spatial Strategy which provides a spatial planning framework for the country and designates Cork as a national gateway z Sustainable Development A Strategy for Ireland 1997 which provides a framework for the achievement of sustainable development at a local level z The National Climate Change Strategy 2007-2012 sets out how Ireland can meet its targets under the Kyoto Protocol z The National Climate Change Adaptation Framework outlines how Ireland will adapt and mitigate for climate change z Ministerial Guidelines and Directives including those on Core Strategies Housing Strategies Retail Planning Childcare Residential Density and Architectural Conservation and Urban Design (see Appendix A). Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 7 1 Volume One Written Statement The Strategic Vision for Cork City 1.4 The Plan is based on achieving the following strategic vision for the development of Cork City The vision for Cork City over the period of this Development Plan and beyond is to be a successful sustainable regional capital and to achieve a high quality of life for its citizens and a robust local economy by balancing the relationship between community economic development and environmental quality. It will have a diverse innovative economy will maintain its distinctive character and culture will have a network of attractive neighbourhoods served by good quality transport and amenities and will be a place where people want to live work visit and invest in. Legislative Background 1.5 The Plan has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Planning and Development Act 2000 (as amended). The Act sets out the mandatory requirements which must be included in a Development Plan. These include inter alia objectives for the zoning of land the provision of infrastructure the conservation and protection of the environment and the integration of planning and sustainable development with the social community and cultural requirements of the area and its population. The preparation of a Core Strategy consistent as far as practicable with the National Spatial Strategy and the Regional Planning Guidelines is also required. In accordance with European and National legislation Cork City Council carried out a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and an Appropriate Assessment under the Habitats Directive (AA) which informed the Plan. 1.6 Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) 1.7 Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is the process by which environmental considerations are integrated into the preparation of plans and programmes. The results of the SEA process were fully integrated into the preparation and making of the Plan. The SEA Statement accompanies this Plan and is available on CD and online at www.corkcitydevelopmentplan.ie Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (SFRA) 1.8 In compliance with the Strategic Environmental Assessment process Cork City Council carried out a Strategic Flood Risk Assessment of the objectives contained in the Draft City Development Plan. Appropriate Assessment (AA) 1.9 In accordance with requirements under the EU Habitats Directive (43 92 EEC) and the EU Birds Directive (79 409 EEC) and Section 177 of the Planning and Development (Amendment) Act 2010 the impacts of the policies and objectives of all statutory land use policies on certain sites designated for the protection of nature under European legislation must be assessed as part of the process of drafting the Plan. This process known as Appropriate Assessment is to determine whether or not the implementation of the plan policies or objectives could have negative consequence for the habitats or species for which these sites are designated. The Screening for Appropriate Assessment of the Plan finds that the Plan does not require further appropriate assessment. The Plan has been formulated to ensure that it shall not give rise to significant adverse impacts on the integrity of any Natura 2000 sites. 8 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.10 The Cork City Council will ensure that any plan project and any associated works in the city individually or in combination with other plans or projects are subject to Appropriate Assessment Screening to ensure there are no likely significant effects on the integrity (defined by the structure and function) of any Natura 2000 site(s) and that the requirements of Article 6(3) and 6(4) of the EU Habitats Directive are fully satisfied. Where a plan project is likely to have a significant effect on a Natura 2000 site or there is uncertainty with regard to effects it shall be subject to Appropriate Assessment. The plan project will proceed only after it has been ascertained that it will not adversely affect the integrity of the site or where in the absence of alternative solutions the plan project is deemed imperative for reasons of overriding public interest all in accordance with the provisions of Article 6(3) and 6(4) of the EU Habitats Directive. Ministerial Guidelines 1.11 The policies and objectives of the Minister contained in guidelines issued to Planning Authorities regarding their functions under the Planning Acts were considered in the making of this Plan and have been implemented in the various chapters in accordance with Section 28 of the Planning and Development Act 2000 (as amended). Appendix A contains the required statement relating to this Plan to demonstrate compliance with this requirement. Structure of the Plan 1.12 The Development Plan is presented in three Volumes Volume 1 Main Policy Document Volume 2 Zoning and Objectives Map Volume 3 Built Heritage Objectives. Copies of the Plan are available for purchase in hard copy or CD and it is also available on-line at www.corkcitydevelopmentplan.ie 1.13 In Volume 1 Chapters 1 and 2 set out the goals and core strategy for the city. The following Chapters 3-12 set out policies objectives and actions under a range of topic headings. Chapters 13 and 14 deal with area-specific policies in the City Centre Docklands and the Suburbs while Chapter 15 sets out landuse zoning objectives which are illustrated in Volume 2. The area-based policies need to be read in conjunction with both the earlier topic-based chapters and the Development Management principles set out in Chapter 16. Volume 3 contains the detailed Built Heritage objectives The Record of Protected Structures (RPS) the Record of Monuments and Places (RMP) Architectural Conservation Areas (ACAs) and Protected Views and Prospects. The Cork Authorities Joint Housing Strategy comes in a separate volume and constitutes an appendix to the Plan. The strategy is summarised in Chapter 6. The three volumes of the Plan are accompanied by a Strategic Environmental Assessment Statement and the Appropriate Assessment Screening Report. 1.14 1.15 1.16 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 9 1 Volume One Written Statement Local Planning 1.17 Where appropriate the policies of the Plan will be developed in more detail at a local level through local area plans area action plans and development briefs. Local area plans are statutory plans setting out the planning framework for an area with potential for significant development or renewal Area action plans are non-statutory plans generally for an existing developed area in the city such as a historic part of the city which needs a set of actions to renew and upgrade it. Development briefs are non-statutory and may be prepared to give guidance on the preferred layout and parameters for significant sites with development potential. Since the last Plan was adopted local area plans were completed for Farranferris North Blackpool and Mahon. Area action plans were prepared for Blackpool Village and the South Parish. There is also a Local Area Plan in place for the South Docks which has been extended to 2018. Most of these plans will come up for review and or extension over the period of this Plan. A new plan will be required for Tivoli in preparation for the relocation of the Port downstream. Other local area plans or area action plans will be prepared as the need arises and resources permit. The aim for the future will be to review non-statutory area action plans such as those listed in Table 1.2 on a six yearly basis and amend extend or revoke them as appropriate. Table 1.1 Schedule of existing local area plans Existing Local Area Plans South Docks Farranferris Blackpool Mahon Extent 2008-2018 2009-2019 2011-2017 2014-2020 Table 1.2 Schedule of existing area action plans Area Action Plan Cornmarket Street Blackrock Village Bishopstown Wilton Coburg Street St Patrick s Hill South Parish Blackpool Village Year Adopted 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2010 10 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 2 Core Strategy 2 Chapter 2 Core Strategy Contents Introduction National and Regional Context Strategic Goals Core Strategy for Development of Cork City Selected Development Scenario Population targets and Housing needs Housing Land and Supply Employment Targets Development Strategy Key Suburban Centres 13 13 14 15 15 16 17 19 19 22 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 11 Volume One Written Statement 2 The Core Strategy establishes a framework for the development of the city. It is derived from the seven strategic goals of the City Plan and the population economic land-use and transportation strategies 12 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 2 Core Strategy 2 CHAPTER 2 CORE STRATEGY Introduction 2.1 This Plan has been prepared at a time of uncertain national and global economic outlook. However after a period of dramatic decline there are signs of recovery in the global economy some increase in national employment levels and a number of sectors of the economy are performing well. This Plan is based on the assumption that the period from now until 2021 will see economic recovery and population increase in line with national projections. The vision set out in Chapter 1 is intended to guide the development of the city in the medium to long-term with the first steps being taken over the period of this Plan. National and Regional Context 2.2 The Plan has been prepared having regard to the national and regional plans outlined below as well as national planning guidelines and other relevant national policies. The National Spatial Strategy 2002-2020 (NSS) 2.3 The NSS sets out the strategic planning framework for the future development of Ireland. It promotes balanced regional development with a continuing major role for Dublin but greater distribution of development around the country. It designates Cork as a Gateway City to act as the driver for population and employment growth in the South-West Region. The Government has indicated its intention to review the NSS with a view to having its successor in place by 2015. Cork as the second city will continue to have a major role in national development and be the main focus for development in the South West in any future strategy. The South West Regional Planning Guidelines 2010-2022 (SWRPG) 2.4 The SWRPG take the NSS objectives to a regional level and provide the overall planning framework for the South-West Region. They set out population targets for growth to 2022 and planning authorities have to ensure their development plans are consistent with them. The SWRPG aim to concentrate population and employment in Cork City as the Gateway City and sets a population target of 150 000 for Cork City. Cork Area Strategic Plan 2020 (CASP) and CASP Update 2008 2.5 The Cork Area Strategic Plan and its update were prepared jointly by the City and County Councils and provide a non-statutory planning framework for the greater city area. CASP plays a significant role in the planning of the Cork Gateway and it aims to secure regeneration of Cork City as the engine of the region and to focus development in Cork City and adjacent parts of County Cork (which are together known as Metropolitan Cork). Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 13 Volume One Written Statement 2 Strategic Goals 2.6 The vision for Cork City will be achieved through a series of seven interconnected strategic goals and related chapters as outlined below GOAL 1 INCREASE POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLDS TO CREATE A COMPACT SUSTAINABLE CITY The SWRPG sets an ambitious target for population growth in Cork City with a view to concentrating development and creating a compact sustainable city. While the number of households in the city has been increasing steadily household size has declined in line with national trends and much new development has occurred outside the city boundary resulting in a falling population. This Plan will show that there is capacity within the city to meet the SWRPG population target but acknowledges that this target will only be met by the implementation of a co-ordinated approach to the development of the greater city area significant investment in infrastructure and an increase in the attractiveness of the city as a place to live and work in. GOAL 2 ACHIEVE A HIGHER QUALITY OF LIFE PROMOTE SOCIAL INCLUSION AND MAKE THE CITY AN ATTRACTIVE AND HEALTHY PLACE TO LIVE WORK VISIT AND INVEST IN The first step in reversing the decline in city population will be to improve its attractiveness as a living and working environment. A city that s attractive and provides a good quality of life and health for residents will also be attractive for workers investors and visitors. The approach will centre on the 5 minute city concept focused on residential neighbourhoods served by a range of amenities as well as an attractive City Centre. This is addressed particularly in Chapter 6 Residential Strategy Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods and Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands while wider measures to increase the attractiveness of the city and improve quality of life are a cross-cutting principle in the rest of the Plan. Promoting social inclusion and health (recognising Cork s status as a World Health Organisation Healthy City) is an integral part of this strategic goal and are also cross-cutting principles in the Plan. GOAL 3 SUPPORT THE REVITALISATION OF THE ECONOMY Supporting the creation of a diverse connected innovative economy in the city is a central goal of the Plan. Key to revitalisation of the city s economy is regeneration of the City Centre and adjoining areas. This will increase employment opportunities and build on the City Centre s role as the main retail commercial and cultural centre for the region (see Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands). The suburban areas also play a key role in the economy in particular the key development areas and district centres outlined in Chapter 14. Overall economic strategy is addressed in Chapter 3. Retail Strategy is addressed in Chapter 4. and Tourism is addressed in Chapter 8. GOAL 4 PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE MODES OF TRANSPORT AND INTEGRATION OF LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION At the national level there is a mandate to reduce emissions caused by fossil-fuelled transport to reduce use of the private car for commuting and to increase journeys by public transport walking and cycling. These objectives are central to the land-use and transport strategies in this plan and as well as having the significant societal benefits of a better quality environment can also give health benefits and cost-savings to the individual citizen. Achieving national targets is a long term objective which will require a move to more sustainable land use planning and a significant upgrade to public transport in the greater city area. This strategic goal is particularly addressed in Chapter 5. Transportation. 14 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 2 Core Strategy GOAL 5 MAINTAIN AND CAPITALISE ON CORK S UNIQUE FORM AND CHARACTER Cork City s unique character derives from the combination of plan topography built fabric and the setting provided by the River Lee valley. The dramatic east west ridges create the visual setting for the city. The goal of the Plan is to protect and capitalise on the unique character of the city both the character derived from the natural environment and the man-made character created by the built form while providing opportunities for new development. New development will be required to respect and reflect the dramatic topography as well as the landscape and ecology of the city. It must also respect the built heritage of the city in particular areas of significant historic character such as the City Centre the historic north-south spine and the historic villages in the suburbs. There are also opportunities for creation of new character areas in locations such as Docklands Mahon and Blackpool and at the arrival points or gateways into the city. This strategic goal is addressed in Chapter 9. Built Heritage and Archaeology Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage and Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism. 2 GOAL 6 TACKLE CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH REDUCING ENERGY USAGE REDUCING EMISSIONS ADAPT TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND MITIGATE AGAINST FLOOD RISK A key aim of the Plan is to reduce emissions that lead to global warming through sustainable energy usage in transport and buildings. It also aims to mitigate and adapt to the challenges of climate change such as the increased risk of flooding through the design layout and location of appropriate land-uses. This is particularly addressed in Chapter 12. Environmental Infrastructure and Management and Chapter 16. Development Management. GOAL 7 PROTECT AND EXPAND THE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE CITY The Plan seeks to strengthen the green infrastructure of the city for recreational purposes to promote biodiversity and to protect the landscape of the city. A diverse range of recreation and open spaces facilities such as sports pitches public parks amenity spaces indoor sports centres and walking cycling routes are vital to the health and wellbeing of Cork s residents as well as those working and visiting the city. This green infrastructure also provides a key ingredient for making the city an attractive place to live visit and do business in. The aim of the Plan is to ensure that people have access to an appropriate level of provision of the right quality. The Plan also seeks to provide linkages and green corridors between areas of open space to support bio-diversity. These issues are addressed in Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage and Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure. Core Strategy for Development of Cork City Selected Development Scenario 2.7 The Core Strategy establishes a framework for the development of the city. It is derived from the strategic goals of the Plan and the population economic land-use and transportation strategies of the South West Regional Planning Guidelines 2010 and the CASP Update 2008. The need to promote social inclusion sustainable economic development and access to sustainable transport are central to the strategy. A number of alternative development scenarios were considered for the city as part of the Strategic Environmental Assessment Process of the Plan. The Core Strategy includes the selected development scenario (see Figure 2.1) which focuses development in the City Centre and selected Key Development Regeneration Areas and Key Centres. The key development areas which are mainly brownfield land will be developed for a range of uses based 2.8 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 15 Volume One Written Statement 2 on strategies in the Plan or which have been developed in local area plans. They are becoming available for development because of the decline of low density uses such as traditional industries in Docklands and elsewhere and their replacement by more intensive employment and residential uses. These areas will accommodate the majority of growth and development within the city and they are selected based on their potential to accommodate growth and to be served by sustainable modes of transport. Other parts of the city will develop based on their capacity to absorb development without undue impact on existing character and residential amenities. In addition to these mixed use redevelopment areas a housing regeneration area in the North West will see significant redevelopment over the period of the Plan. 2.9 As well as having potential for development some of these key development areas are also major approaches to the city and if developed to a high quality urban design standard have the capacity to greatly improve the image of the city at the major city approaches by road and also by rail and air. Strategies for these areas will therefore place considerable emphasis on design quality. The Key Centres complement the City Centre and consist of a series of District Centres around the city which traditionally were mainly retail centres but the strategy sees them evolving into mixed use urban centres providing a range of services and employment to their local population. Objectives for the Key Centres are outlined in Chapter 14. The retail strategy for the city and the wider area is set out in Chapter 4 and is based on providing for the needs of the expanded population envisaged in CASP and the RPGs having had regard to the Retail Planning Guidelines. It is derived from the Joint Retail Strategy for Metropolitan Cork which was prepared jointly with Cork County Council. The Core Strategy includes an integrated transport strategy with particular focus on public transport walking and cycling with particular emphasis on providing sustainable transport choices to serve the key development areas and this is outlined in Chapter 5. Transportation. 2.10 2.11 Population targets and Housing needs 2.12 The population target for Cork City set in the SWRPGs is 150 000 by 2022. This has been converted to households and housing units in Table 2.1 below. The number of housing units needed by 2022 the horizon year for the RPGs has been estimated. Account has been taken of declining household size and a need to make provision for frictional vacancy and non-household or communal population in the estimates. The Housing Policy including the Housing Strategy is further detailed in Chapter 6 of this Plan. Table 2.1 Cork City - Population households and housing unit targets (Cork Planning Authorities Housing Strategy 2013) Population Population target for 2022 150 000 Census 2011 2011-2022 population increase 119 230 30 770 Total households 2011 47 163 Households Total Households 2022 64 955 Total new households 2011-2022 17 792 Approximate Housing Units Net housing units required 2011-2022 20 032 Allowing for 15% frictional vacancy etc and excludes completed but vacant units in unfinished housing estates in DECLG report. (See Cork Local Authorities Joint Housing Strategy) 16 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 2 Core Strategy 2.13 Given the uncertain economic climate the resultant dramatic slowdown in house construction the need for investment in infrastructure and the need for planning policies to target development towards the city these targets are not fully achievable in the timeframes set even with a return to normal levels of house construction over the period of the Plan. However the objective of planning for a significant increase in the city s population and targeting regional growth at sustainable locations particularly brownfield land in accessible locations such as Docklands remains valid and is central to the CASP and SWRPG objectives for sustainable development of the region. Therefore this Plan will indicate how the Regional Planning Guidelines population targets can be accommodated within the city. As mentioned in paragraph 2.3 a new National Spatial Strategy should be complete in 2015. This is likely to produce revised population targets for the regions which will be incorporated into the planned review of the Regional Planning Guidelines in 2016. This may require a review of the Plan to take account of any revisions to population targets. 2 2.14 Housing Land and Supply 2.15 All land within Cork City is zoned for some purpose in this Plan. There is very little developable greenfield land and most of the land identified as being suitable for development is brownfield land which is either vacant or underutilised with potential for intensification. The standard approach for Core Strategies cannot therefore be readily applied and a modified approach has been utilised. The Annual Residential Land Availability Survey for Cork City has been used to identify land with development potential which is suitably zoned i.e. for primarily residential purposes or for residential and other uses. Estimates have then been made of the capacity of this land for residential purposes with density assumptions varying with location. Table 2.2 Cork City Housing requirement and land availability Cork City Population allocation Housing Estimated Yield from Requirement zoned land residential (post 2013) (ha) for lands development 20 032 243 148 Yield from mixed use lands 95 2022 Total units By 2022 150 000 15 455 2.16 Table 2.2 above indicates land available in Cork City and estimates that there is capacity for an estimated 15 455 units on specific identified suitably zoned sites in Cork City. These locations are outlined in more detail in Table 2.3 below which shows the capacity of the key development areas for which there are currently local area plans as well as the City Centre and the rest of the city. The table also shows the estimated yield from additional development areas which have yet to have a local area plan prepared and estimated yield from zoned windfall sites which it is anticipated will arise in the City Centre and suburbs. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 17 Volume One Written Statement 2 Area Table 2.3 Indicative Capacity of Key Development Areas and rest of city for Residential Development Zoned land for development (ha) 8.90 81.10 20.17 30.30 18.10 74.30 232.87 60 Residential zoned land (ha) Estimated capacity (housing units) 474 839 916 1 013 206 2 975 6 423 Residential and Other Use Zoning (ha) 4.4 75.40 7.09 7.0 0 7.80 94.60 Estimated Capacity (housing units) 429 7 388 184 287 0 139 8 427 Total Units City Centre Docklands Mahon Blackpool North West Regeneration Area Rest of City Total identified zoned sites Tivoli LAP area Windfall sites Total residential yield 4.50 5.70 13.08 23.30 18.10 66.50 131.18 - 903 8 227 1 100 1 300 206 3 114 14 850 3 000 2 000 - - - - - 19 850 2.17 Tables 2.3 shows that there is land available in Cork City for development of just under 20 000 residential units close to the target set in the SWRPGs. It is anticipated that the pace of growth in residential development will be slow to start with but will increase over the period of the Plan. The first areas likely to be developed will be sites in suburban and City Centre edge of City Centre areas which are in attractive locations are served by existing infrastructure and in some cases already have planning permission. Development in other areas where infrastructural investment is required such as outer Docklands will be slower to get going but it is anticipated that it will increase in pace in the latter part of the Development Plan period. It is likely that delivery of development on all the available land will extend well beyond the Plan period. A strategy will be developed to support and promote development of lands in the city for residential purposes. Objective 2.1 Residential Land Management Strategy An active residential land management strategy (to include mapping the relevant lands identification of alternative lands if appropriate tracking of progress on planning permissions and identification of barriers to development) will be developed to promote residential and other construction on lands identified for development identifying barriers to development and developing appropriate responses taking into account the actions in Construction 2020 the Government s strategy for the construction sector public transport services and transport investment priorities. 18 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 2 Core Strategy Employment Targets 2.18 Employment in Cork City stood at 71 577 in 2011 (Cork City Employment and Land Use Survey 2011) down 2% on 2006. Some sectors such as the high tech manufacturing and service sectors grew while others such as retail and professional services declined. However the city region has a diverse economic base with a strong FDI presence and has performed better than most parts of the country in recent years. The assumption in the Plan is that national economic recovery will result in employment growth in the city over the period of the Plan in line with that envisaged in the CASP Update. On this basis a target of 16 000 additional jobs is assumed over the period from 2011 to 2021. This is an ambitious target and is dependent on a significant economic recovery and a concentration of jobs in accessible city locations rather than on greenfield land in less sustainable locations outside the city. Although there is little greenfield land to accommodate employment growth in Cork City there are substantial opportunities for employment growth well above the 16 000 target in a range of locations much of it through redevelopment of brownfield land in the City Centre and Docklands and intensification of existing employment lands in locations such as Mahon and Blackpool. The overall economic strategy is outlined in Chapter 3 but the proposed broad spatial distribution of new employment is shown in Table 2.4 below. More than sufficient land is zoned in these locations to allow these targets to be met. The City Centre and adjoining areas in inner Docklands will be the primary locations to be targeted for employment growth particularly office employment as well as retail services and entertainment. A range of other locations are also identified to accommodate growth in employment based on land available in suitable locations. 2 2.19 Table 2.4 Employment Distribution targets Location City Centre and inner Docklands Mahon Rest of Southside Northside Total % share of city Employment growth 47 22 12 19 100 Employment growth target to 2011-2021 7 500 3 500 2 000 3 000 16 000 Plus 2000 to allow for occupation of recently completed office blocks in Mahon Development Strategy 2.20 The areas which will be the main focus of new development in the city over the period of the Plan and beyond are outlined below and shown in Figure 2.1. These areas are mainly brownfield sites which can be redeveloped to enable the city to provide for the needs of the existing and expanded population as well as facilitating the implementation of the CASP update economic strategy. These areas will act as key development and employment nodes in the city. They will meet sustainable development objectives through the provision of A mixture of residential and non-residential development Economic activity and employment provision Higher density development where appropriate Potential for high quality public transport provision Good quality environment and services High quality urban design Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 19 2 Bando n 20 LEGEND C City Centre N Northwest Regeneration Area K Development Areas Key F Future Development Areas R RAPID Areas Volume One Written Statement District Centres Proposed District Centre Blackpool Fair Hill Commuter Rail Ballyvolane Blackpool Glanmire Indicative Rapid Transport Hollyhill Corridor Farranree Existing Primary Roads K Knocknaheeny Mayfield Dunkettle Gurranabraher Kent Station Montenotte Tivoli Sunday s Well City Centre Docklands Ballintemple Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Blackrock Mahon Ballinlough Ballinure Glasheen Ballyphehane Togher Tramore Road Bishopstown South Mahon Wilton Douglas Figure 2.1 Core Strategy Diagram Chapter 2 Core Strategy 2.21 The strategy for each area is set out in the Plan in Chapters 13 and 14. In most cases local area plans or Regeneration plans have been prepared or are envisaged. The regeneration of the City Centre and the development of a new urban quarter in Docklands are the key development opportunities for the city. However it is necessary to have a range of other development opportunities to allow choice in location and to facilitate a range of development types. In addition to these key development areas early opportunities for development are likely to come on stream on infill sites in other locations in the suburbs some of which may already have planning permission. City Centre A healthy City Centre is essential for the city region as a whole. There is considerable potential for further expansion in the economy of the City Centre through new developments in the retail core area and at the edge of the City Centre. A Cork City Centre Strategy (2014) was prepared and this has informed the Plan policy for the future development of the City Centre. The transition area to the east between the City Centre and Docklands has been identified as having particular potential for expansion of offices and other activities. As well as being the main retail area for the city the City Centre also has capacity for further expansion in residential and tourism functions particularly in the Shandon and South Parish areas. The strategy is for the City Centre to continue as the economic social and cultural heart of the city supported by further public realm improvements protection and enhancement of its existing character and upgrade in access through investment in public transport walking and cycling. This is described in more detail in Chapter 13. City Centre and Docklands. North and South Docklands The redevelopment of the North and South Docks as a major new mixed use quarter is the most significant sustainable development opportunity for the City Region. It has an attractive waterfront location adjoining the City Centre which can be well served by public transport. The overall strategy Docklands is set out in Chapter 13 and the South Docks Local Area Plan 2008 (SDLAP) contains the detailed planning strategy for the South Docks area. The SDLAP runs until 2018 and will be reviewed during the Plan period. The delivery of Docklands development is critical to the city achieving its population and employment targets and to the implementation of the CASP update strategy as a whole. The provision of the appropriate transport and other infrastructure in a timely fashion is essential to facilitate the development of Docklands as envisaged. It is envisaged that the western end of Docklands adjoining the City Centre has most potential for growth over the period of the Plan as it can benefit from existing City Centre infrastructure while other areas will develop over a longer time period as opportunities arise. Cork City Council will co-operate with relevant stakeholders to enable development of key opportunity sites including the preparation of local area plans masterplans and development briefs as appropriate. Mahon The Mahon area has seen significant new development since the last Plan with new residential developments in Jacobs Island and Eden retail development at Mahon Point and large scale office and technology developments in Loughmahon Technology Park. There is however potential for further development in the area through the development of remaining greenfield land and through the intensification of existing sites in particular areas currently in use for industrial and technology sites. There is a need for a balance between residential and employment uses and upgraded public transport provision is also required. The detailed strategy for the area is contained in the Mahon Local Area Plan (see Chapter 14 for further details). 2 2.22 2.23 for 2.24 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 21 Volume One Written Statement 2 2.25 Blackpool The Blackpool Valley Kilbarry and the Old Whitechurch Road area have opportunities for both brownfield and greenfield development for a range of uses. There is potential for mixed use development in Blackpool itself and in the Sunbeam Complex to the North while there are opportunities for residential development at Old Whitechurch Road and technology office based industry development at Kilbarry. The development of a new Blackpool commuter rail station will improve access to the area. The Strategy for a large part of the area is detailed in the North Blackpool Local Area Plan 2011 (see Chapter 14 for further details). North West Regeneration Area A major housing regeneration initiative is underway in the north-west of the city focused on the Knocknaheeney and Hollyhill areas as set out in the North-West Regeneration Masterplan 2011. When complete it will yield up to 600 residential units (a net increase of over 200 units) both social housing and private housing and associated recreational and community facilities and services as well as employment opportunities. Tivoli The planned relocation of the Port of Cork container operations from Tivoli creates the potential to consider the future development of this area for alternative more intensive uses. It will be important to ensure that the mix of uses and timing of development of Tivoli does not take away from the potential of the City Centre and North and South Docklands for economic development and employment generating uses. A local area plan will be prepared in co-operation with key stakeholders including the Port of Cork to determine the appropriate mix of uses access and extent and timing of development (see Chapter 14). The local area plan will seek to develop a planning framework for Tivoli as a new residential quarter with complementary employment uses appropriate to the location. The timing of the preparation of a local area plan will be linked to the need to prepare for the relocation and to facilitate lands becoming available for redevelopment. Tramore Road There is some potential for redevelopment of this area for a wider mix of uses which could help support the development of a high quality public transport route from the Northside through the City Centre to the airport. It currently houses low density employment uses and provides a suitable location for such uses in the City however some land in the area may be surplus to requirements for such purposes and its potential for other uses will be examined over the period of the Plan by local area plan or other suitable mechanism. The strategy for this area is considered in more detail in Chapter 14. 2.26 2.27 2.28 Key Suburban Centres 2.29 The key suburban centres are Mahon Douglas and Wilton District Centres on the south side and Blackpool and Ballyvolane District Centres on the north side with potential for a further District Centre in Hollyhill. While retailing to serve the local market will be the primary function of these centres the objective is that these centres would over time evolve into mixed use urban centres with good public transport access and high quality urban design. Objectives for these centres are outlined in Chapters 4 and 14. 22 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 3 Economic Strategy 3 Chapter 3 Economic Strategy Contents Introduction Strategic and Local Context and future growth sectors Cork s Economic Strategy Economic Diversity Innovation Skills and human capital Connectivity Place quality Strategic Governance capacity Locations for new employment Offices Retail Offices General Offices Technology Industries Technology and office based industry Light industry and other related business uses Commercial Leisure Education and Health Major Health and education institutions Smaller Scale Health Services Home-based Economic Activities 25 26 27 27 27 28 29 29 29 30 31 31 32 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 23 Volume One Written Statement 3 balanced and sustainable economic development and employment 24 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 promote Chapter 3 Economic Strategy CHAPTER 3 ECONOMIC STRATEGY Introduction 3.1 The overall aim of the economic strategy is to promote balanced and sustainable economic development and employment within the city and region and to enable the city to fulfil its role as a National Gateway City and the Regional Capital. The strategy will support renewed economic growth and the development of a diverse range of economic sectors. This Development Plan identifies a range of suitable locations around the city to facilitate businesses in a wide range of sectors. It also promotes delivery of high quality support services and an attractive environment to attract investment. Supporting the retention and expansion of existing businesses as well as the creation of new enterprises will be key objectives. 3 3.2 Objective 3.1 a. b. c. d. e. f. Strategic Objectives To create and maintain a unique and attractive city to attract investment and create employment To support innovation entrepreneurship and economic diversity to facilitate employment generation To support the development of local enterprises to balance our strong record in attracting foreign direct investment To promote the objectives of the national Smart Economy and Green Economy Initiatives To support growth of third level institutions in particular research & development and to foster links with business To identify attractive locations and sites for all sectors of business and to support improved connectivity and infrastructure in the selected locations To facilitate the development of an adequate supply of suitable buildings in particular office buildings to meet and drive demand in identified growth sectors To attract talented people address skill shortages and create an attractive environment for both business and residents To stimulate the regeneration of the City Centre and promote its continuing role as the main employment location in the city To support employment growth in other locations which are accessible by sustainable modes of transport and in particular to support economic growth in disadvantaged areas of the city. g. h. i. j. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 25 Volume One Written Statement Strategic and Local Context and future growth sectors 3 3.3 Cork is identified as an economic gateway for the region in the National Spatial Strategy. The SWRPG confirms that the economic influence of the Cork Gateway reaches the entire region. The Regional Indicators Report 2013 shows that the South West Region has a well balanced economy with an even split between services and industry and a significantly higher GVA per person than any other region except Dublin. This is largely due to the performance of the Greater Cork City area and indicates the importance of Cork City to the economic health of the region.The SWRPG key economic objective is to promote sustainable growth in indigenous and multi-national companies in the economic sectors where the region enjoys competitive advantage and in particular Knowledge based industry research and development with a strong emphasis on indigenous company growth Internationally traded services located in sustainable locations focused on Gateway and hub towns in brownfield locations within easy reach of public transport and support services It wants to provide for strategic sites at appropriate locations for large scale developments related to pharma-chem bio-medical IT and food sciences sectors. The Cork Region has been very successful at attracting FDI investment and this will continue to be a major source of high quality jobs and economic growth in the future. The IDA Horizon 2020 Strategy is focusing on Global Services high-end manufacturing and research development and innovation. The sectors they are seeking new investments in are Life Sciences (pharma and biopharma medical devices) Information and communications technology Financial Services Content industry consumer and business services Diversified industries and engineering Clean Technologies. At national level government enterprise and employment initiatives include focusing on areas such as the Smart Economy (i.e. boosting productivity and performance through better use of knowledge) and the Green Economy (aiming to create employment and export opportunities in areas such as renewable energy energy efficiency and waste management). In parallel with international companies indigenous companies particularly SMEs in sectors such as agri-food drinks maritime tourism and IT are important drivers in Ireland s economic recovery strategy and maintaining and enhancing SME performance and employment must also be a key element in Cork City s economic strategy. 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 26 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 3 Economic Strategy Cork s Economic Strategy 3.8 A recent international study into cities competitive performance (Second Cities in Europe In an Age of Austerity Why Invest Beyond the Capitals ESPON and LJMU) identified the six drivers. Cork s economic strategy is framed around ways of strengthening these drivers of economic development economic diversity innovation skills and human capital connectivity place quality strategic governance capacity. 3 Economic Diversity 3.9 Cork City has a diverse economic base with strong concentration of activity in ICT Life Sciences International Services Business Services Education Health and Retail sectors and is the main service centre for the South West Region. The wider city region also has a strong pharma and bio pharma sector. Cork has a strong record of attracting and retaining overseas companies such as Apple EMC and Flextronics. The city region is well placed to build on this base to further develop the FDI and indigenous sectors in line with national and regional objectives as outlined above. Objective 3.2 Economic Diversity Cork City Council will support the maintenance of a diverse economic base within the city and the Plan aims to zone land to accommodate a diverse series of economic sectors and facilitate the provision of a range of suitable locations and buildings. Innovation 3.10 Research and innovation in the Cork area are centred on institutions such as University College Cork the Tyndall National Institute and Cork Institute of Technology as well as the many companies located in the region with their own research and innovation teams. There are over 30 000 third level students in the city with 8.7% and 4.2% of students at UCC and CIT respectively being post-graduate students. There are 1 200 PhD students the highest per capita ratio in Ireland. Over 80% of these post-graduate students move on to work in industry. UCC and CIT have been the top-performing University and Institute of Technology respectively over the last 6 years for research income. There are a number of leading research institutes linked to the third level colleges which further support the research and innovation capacity in the Cork Region including Tyndall National Institute (ICT hardware research) Environmental Research Institute IMERC (Marine Energy) NIMBUS (Network Embedded Systems) and CREATE (Advanced Therapeutic Engineering). Cork City Council supports innovation through its involvement in the setting up and on-going support of IT Cork a business organisation for the cluster of IT companies in Cork and which represents 300 member companies with over 30 000 employees Energy Cork an industry-driven cluster which aims to strengthen enterprise and employment in the energy sector in Cork financially supported by Cork City and County Councils Cork Innovates aims to support job creation entrepreneurship and innovative business practices financially supported by Cork City and County Councils and hosted by Cork Chamber. 3.11 The Cork City Council aims to work with other stakeholders to create an innovation friendly culture within the city and will also pursue more direct actions to support innovation as outlined below. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 27 Volume One Written Statement Objective 3.3 Measures to support innovation 3 Cork City Council will support innovation in the local economy by the following actions Work with other stakeholders to support organisations such as Cork Innovates Energy Cork and IT Cork Reduce development contributions for development in targeted business sectors Pursue the branding of Cork as a European Tech Cluster Investigate the feasibility of National Food Innovation Hub in the City Centre Support a cluster of small to medium size Tech companies in the city centre Identify and develop space for Tech company start-ups in the City Centre. Skills and human capital 3.12 Over 10% of the population of the Metropolitan area are students in UCC and CIT. There are nearly 3 000 international students from over 100 different countries in Cork. In addition the Further Education and Training Sector has an enrolment of 10 000 students. A recent business survey carried out by Cork Chamber said that the skills commitment and dedication of staff within Cork-based offices and the overall accessibility to the required talent pool for workplace purposes (in particular the ease of accessing and attracting multi-lingual staff) are important to businesses. In addition the stability of the workforce the high retention rates and the low attrition rates was cited by all businesses as a selling point. Cork City Council will have an increasing role in supporting skills development and other business supports for small-to-medium sized businesses through the newly-formed Local Enterprise Office (LEO) and Cork Education and Training Board (CETB). The latter has a city and county remit and will deliver training services previously funded by FAS as well as the PLC provision formerly provided by the VECs. Since the economic downturn unemployment has resurfaced as a serious issue in Cork City as in the rest of the country. The overall unemployment rate for the city as measured by the 2011 census of population was 22% compared to the national average of 19%. Some wards have particularly high rates of unemployment and related social deprivation. The five wards with highest unemployment rates (averaging 41%) are located on the north side of the city in areas with concentrations of social housing. Many of the unemployed may not have the skill levels to benefit from the expansion in the high tech businesses. Training and up-skilling can address this somewhat. Furthermore the multiplier effect of high tech employment should result in employment growth in other sectors. Youth unemployment is a particular problem and it will be addressed in the Economic and Community Development Plan. The Cork City Council will seek to maintain and expand a diverse range of employment opportunities in or accessible to these areas of high unemployment and to support other agencies in providing support services such as education and training. It will also work with other stakeholders to help maintain and expand businesses through support networks such as the Northside Business Networks. 3.13 3.14 3.15 Objective 3.4 Skills and Human Capital Cork City Council will work with other stakeholders in the education and training sectors and through the Local Enterprise Office to develop skills within the Cork area to match the needs of existing and future businesses. It will work with other agencies to provide support services for the unemployed and to help maintain and expand businesses in areas of high unemployment. 28 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 3 Economic Strategy Connectivity 3.16 Cork has excellent roads and rail connectivity to Dublin and the east although the network to Limerick and Kerry is in need of further planned upgrades. The city has good air connectivity to European Hubs in London Amsterdam and Paris as well as connections to Regional Airports in the UK and to other European Countries. Transport connectivity is further described in Chapter 5 Transportation. Cork City Council commissioned a feasibility study on securing Tier 1 international telecommunications connectivity for Cork and a number of companies are now investigating the landing of a Tier 1 international cable into Cork and linking to the publicly owned Metropolitan Area Network. This will help reduce costs and increase security of supply making the area more attractive for companies needing high quality telecommunications infrastructure. The Cork City Council is also working with stakeholders and providers to attract data centres to the city. These facilities are necessary to retain existing enterprises and attract additional Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) whilst also proving a fertile ground for new indigenous industries. 3 3.17 Objective 3.5 Connectivity Cork City Council working with other stakeholders will support measures to improve transport and telecommunications networks into and around Cork City and region. Place quality 3.18 Cork City has strong place quality assets which have helped to attract and retain an increasingly international workforce. Place quality adds to quality of life and quality of life attracts the talented people that drive innovation. Cork City has an attractive physical setting on the river between two ridges at the point where the River Lee enters Cork Harbour and has an appealing natural hinterland. It still has a vibrant City Centre despite suburban competition an attractive townscape and built heritage good quality public realm an improving range of parks and sports grounds and a wide range of residential and employment opportunities. Overall Cork City offers a very good quality of life. Measures to build on these assets and to further improve the attractiveness of the city for residents and visitors alike such as strategies for improved public transport walking cycling and parks are outlined in succeeding chapters of the Plan. Strategic Governance capacity 3.19 Cork City Council provides local governance while the strategic guidance for the Cork Metropolitan Area in provided for by the Cork Area Strategic Plan (CASP) which involves local stakeholders and is led by Cork City Council and Cork County Council who have co-operated for over 40 years since the original LUTS Plan. As referred to in Chapter 2 Cork City Council works with Cork County Council and other stakeholders via the CASP Steering Committee in the implementation of an integrated planning strategy for the city region. A Place Marketing and Branding Strategy for Cork City and County is also being developed to promote Cork at an international level. Cork City Council is working with it Cork to brand Cork as a European Tech Cluster reflecting the range of international and indigenous Tech companies located here. 3.20 Objective 3.6 Strategic Governance Capacity Cork City Council will co-operate with other stakeholders particularly Cork County Council to deliver the strategic governance that ensures the Cork Gateway remains a competitive location for economic activity and also to maintain the excellent quality of life available in Cork which underpins the Gateway s competitiveness. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 29 Volume One Written Statement Locations for new employment 3 3.21 The CASP update economic strategy places strong emphasis on development of brownfield sites in or near the City Centre as new employment locations. This is reflected in the Core Strategy outlined in Chapter 2 which identifies the City Centre and its expansion into the western end of Docklands as the primary locations for new employment over the Plan period. The City Centre will continue as the focus for retail cultural and commercial activity and has potential for significant expansion and intensification while recognising the need to respect the existing intrinsic historic character of the area in new development. Over the period of the Plan there is significant potential for the City Centre to expand into the western edge of the Docklands area particularly for office and residential type uses. Docklands will continue to be the prime brownfield location with potential for very significant employment growth over the coming decades beyond the Plan period. There are also a number of additional locations in the suburbs in particular Blackpool Kilbarry Mahon Tivoli Model Farm Road and the Tramore Road area which provide significant employment and can over time through intensification of use provide a choice of locations to meet employment needs. The major educational and health institutions such as UCC CIT and CUH are also significant employment generators in their own right. The advantages of these city locations over more dispersed areas are that they Make optimum use of existing infrastructure such as water drainage transport and services Are close to existing residential areas or are in planned mixed use areas such as Docklands so that people can walk or travel short distances to work reducing the need to travel They are or are planned to be served by high quality public transport. The city provides locations for a wide range of employment types at present and will continue to have areas suitable for all such activities. However for the future the focus in new employment development in the city will be on the office and business and technology categories with less emphasis on new industrial and distribution developments which are more likely to be located in the county area in locations such as Ringaskiddy and Little Island Carrigtwohill. Objectives will be included however to ensure that lower value uses are not driven out unless there is demand from higher value uses to fill the space vacated. The following sections in this chapter set out in more detail the appropriate locations for different categories of employment use within the city. Retail policies are contained in Chapter 4. 3.22 3.23 3.24 Objective 3.7 Strategic Employment Locations The Cork City Council will support the development of the City Centre and Docklands as the primary strategic employment locations. Secondary locations in suburban areas at Blackpool Kilbarry and Mahon also have potential for growth as outlined in local area plans. There is also potential for employment intensification in the future in areas such as Tivoli Model Farm Road and the Tramore Road area. 30 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 3 Economic Strategy Offices 3.25 Office uses form an extremely important part of Cork City economy and provide a significant and amount of employment particularly in the City Centre. A wide range of activities now take place in an office environment including retail offices such as banks general business activities but also technology uses such as software development and various forms of research and development. Some of the international companies such as Apple although they may (or may not) have some manufacturing functions in Cork increasingly primarily perform service activities such as HR Payroll or customer support for the wider international company. The term manu-services has been used to describe these activities. There is considerable potential for expansion of these activities and they will require an office environment in which to operate. Office based activities tend to have a high density of employment (8-12 sq m per person)1 compared to manufacturing uses (18-60 sq. m. per person) and as such are better suited to locations which are accessible by public transport and other sustainable transport modes. Cork City and particularly the City Centre have therefore considerable potential for housing these activities. 3 3.26 Retail Offices 3.27 Retail offices are those where financial professional and other services are provided to visiting members of the public. The primary location for retail offices will continue to be the City Centre Commercial Core Area (CCA ) as defined in Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands and shown on Map 1 City Centre and Docklands Zoning Objectives. The City Centre is the most efficient and accessible location for such uses having the best public transport links and therefore less need for parking requirements. The City Centre also provides complementary activities and amenities for workers and recent investment in regeneration urban renewal and public realm works have served to enhance the image and attractiveness of the City Centre significantly. Retail offices providing a local service will also be acceptable in district neighbourhood and local centres identified on the Land Use Zoning Objectives Maps in Volume 2 at a scale compatible with the service function of the centre. This supports the concept of neighbourhoods or urban villages providing a range of services to local areas as outlined in Chapter 7. In order to secure an appropriate balance between shopping and other services guidance on the scale of retail office appropriate in each centre is indicated below. These figures are intended as guidelines and may vary somewhat depending on the nature and scale of the individual centre. District Centre Not to exceed 150 sq. m. per unit and not to exceed 10% of total ground floor frontage Neighbourhood Centre Not to exceed 100 sq. m. per unit and not to exceed 25% of total ground floor frontage Local centre Not to exceed 75 sq. m. per unit and not to exceed 25% of total ground floor frontage. 3.28 Objective 3.8 Retail Offices To facilitate and encourage the development of retail offices in the City Centre and to support the development of retail offices serving a local function in District Neighbourhood and Local centres commensurate with the service function and scale of the centre as outlined above. 1 Employment Densities Guide Second Edition 2010 Drivers Jones Deloitte for Homes and Communities Agency Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 31 Volume One Written Statement General Offices 3.29 3 3.30 General Offices provide a range of financial professional and other services and administrative services. In some instances they may be combined with a retail office in appropriate locations. As outlined above there is increasing overlap between technology and general office functions in terms of the type of accommodation they need and the density of employment. This has locational implications due to potentially high levels of traffic generation if alternatives to the car are unavailable. The main focus for office uses in the city has traditionally been the City Centre Commercial Core Area where the mix of retail office and general office activities are essential to the health and vibrancy of the City Centre. While there has been some new office construction in the City Centre in the last decade there has been a shortage of supply of modern large floor plate offices and an increase in vacancy in older offices in recent years. As a result new office developments in Mahon have proved attractive for some companies formerly located in the City Centre as well as international companies. There is considerable scope for development of large floor plate offices in the City Centre and eastwards into Docklands and around the railway station as a natural extension of the City Centre. This Plan will strongly support development of offices in these areas which can be served by existing transport and other infrastructure. The employment generated would also help support the City Centre retail and service functions. 3.31 Objecitve 3.9 Prime office locations The City Council will support the development of the City Centre and Docklands as the primary locations for higher order general office development in the city region. Any scale of general office is acceptable in the Commercial Core Area while general offices over 400 sq. m. will be acceptable in Docklands mixed use zones. 3.32 General offices will be open for consideration in Business and Technology zones in the suburbs of the city provided each office unit is greater than 1 000 sq. m. in area in order to encourage smaller office uses to locate in the City Centre. These zones are well dispersed throughout the city and currently provide a significant amount of employment. In order to increase focus on the City Centre and adjacent mixed use areas for office development over the next plan period the Cork City Council will have regard to the employment targets for different parts of the city outlined in Chapter 2 and the availability of suitable alternative sites in the City Centre when assessing applications for new general offices uses in these suburban locations. The capacity of these zones to take additional high intensity office uses from a transport perspective will also be a key factor for assessment. General office uses will also be open for consideration in District Centres provided they are in scale with the overall size of the specific District Centre and do not exceed a total of 10 000 sq. m. in any one District Centre. Specific policies and objectives for general offices which may be open for consideration in district and other centres are outlined in Chapter 14 and in local area plans. 3.33 Objective 3.10 Suburban General Offices General offices units over 1 000 sq. m. will be open for consideration in suburban Business and Technology Zones with due consideration given to the employment strategy set out in Chapter 2 availability of alternative suitable sites in the City Centre and adjoining mixed use areas in Docklands and assessment of the potential impact of the development on the City Centre. Availability of high quality public transport will also be a factor in determining the capacity of these locations to take more intensive office development. General offices may be open for consideration in District Centres to a scale appropriate to each centre overall and not exceeding 10 000 sq. m. in area in any one centre and subject to detailed policies in local area plans and subject to the specific policies outlined in Chapter 14. 32 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 3 Economic Strategy Technology Industries Technology and office based industry 3.34 Traditional industries are being replaced by new categories of business which provide a range of products and services in an environment which is frequently similar to a modern office environment. These businesses are sometimes known as office based industry. They include activities such as software development information technology telemarketing commercial research and development data processing publishing and media recording. They frequently locate in business parks such as those in Model Farm Road and in Mahon however internationally they are increasingly locating in City Centre and edge of City Centre locations as seen in central Dublin. The Cork City Council will support development of these activities particularly in the City Centre and Docklands and also in the suburban Business and Technology Zones. As these are frequently high intensity employment uses similar to offices the provision of high quality public transport will be a priority in determining the capacity of suburban locations to take these activities. 3 Objective 3.11 Technology and office based industry The Cork City Council will support the development of high technology businesses in the Commercial Core Area of the City Centre Docklands and Business and Technology zones. Light industry and other related business uses 3.35 There continues to be a need for a diverse range of employment opportunities in the city despite the increasing move towards knowledge based activities particularly in the context of high levels of unemployment in particular areas. Industry employs in the region of 9 000 people in the city around 4 000 of which is in traditional sectors. While it is acknowledged that there may be a decline of traditional manufacturing sectors over time it is considered that there should continue to be provision for light industrial activities small to medium scale manufacturing repairs warehousing and distribution uses in the city. There is a need to protect space for these uses due to increasing land values and higher density developments and this can be done effectively through zoning. (See Chapter 15).The general strategy will be to retain these existing industrial areas apart from those areas specifically identified for alternative uses or renewal. Offices or office based industry or retail uses will not be permitted in areas zoned for light industry unless they are ancillary to the primary industrial uses. Leisure uses (which will tend to be those seeking extensive but low cost space)which are compatible with the surrounding uses may be open for consideration in limited cases where no other suitable location is available the land is not needed for industrial uses (documentary evidence may be required) and taking into account access traffic and broader safety issues and amenity considerations. In determining the compatibility of any particular leisure use within this zone the Planning Authority will take into account inter alia existing levels of non-industrial uses in the surrounding zoned area the major land use in any area zoned for light industry purposes should be uses permitted under the primary objective of this land-use zoning. There are a number of general industrial uses in the city but apart from Tivoli they do not have a specific zoning and the Cork City Council would not envisage expansion in this sector. There is likely to be a gradual decline and or relocation of these industries over time and their replacement with appropriate alternative uses more compatible with surrounding uses. Future objectives for the Tivoli industrial estate to become a mixed use area are outlined in Chapter 14. 3.36 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 33 Volume One Written Statement Objective 3.12 Light Industry 3 To protect sufficient areas for light industry in order to maintain an adequate supply of light industrial space and employment in order to help ensure a diverse range of employment opportunities in the city. Commercial Leisure 3.37 Commercial leisure facilities are those run on a profit basis and include cinemas family entertainment centres such as bowling indoor children s play centres fitness centres gyms swimming pools hotels restaurants public houses etc. Commercial leisure facilities generate a high level of movement and are best located in places that offer the highest levels of accessibility to a range of transport modes in particular public transport. However it is also important to protect the amenities of the City Centre and of residential areas. It is therefore policy to control the location size and activities of entertainment uses that are likely to attract large numbers of people in particular super-pubs and night clubs in order to safeguard residential amenity environmental quality and the established character and function of parts of the City Centre. 3.38 Objective 3.13 Commercial Leisure To ensure that all major commercial leisure developments are located in accordance with a sequential test approach. The priority will be City Centre locations followed by edge of centre then district centres and neighbourhood centres. The availability of a choice of transport modes will be essential. Smaller scale pubs and restaurants will be open for consideration in these centres as well as local centres and areas zoned Residential Local Services and Institutional uses provided residential amenity and traffic aspects are acceptable. Education and Health Major Health and education institutions 3.39 The Employment Survey has highlighted that the education and health sectors are now two of the major employers in Cork City. The education and health sectors have a major role to play in the training of the workforce and also in research. It is therefore important to support their appropriate expansion and operation. The CASP update also highlights the need to ensure a labour and skills strategy which provide an education and skills base aligned with the requirements of inward and domestic investment. The role of UCC and CIT are of particular importance to the city as major employers as well as educational facilities. Recognition of the collaboration between University College Cork and Cork Institute of Technology is also important. CUH and the other major health institutions also contribute significantly to the economy of the city. Specific policies in relation to the major institutions are outlined in Chapter 7 and Chapter 14. Objective 3.14 Education and Health Institutions as major employers To recognise the contribution of the major education and health institutions in Cork City to the overall economy of the city and their role in training innovation and research and to support their continued operation and where appropriate expansion. 34 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 3 Economic Strategy Smaller Scale Health Services 3.40 Small scale GP practices and other small scale local medical service providers will be open for consideration within the Residential Local Services and Institutional Use zones provided general planning issues such as access are acceptable. There is a growing trend for provision of local health care services in Primary Health Care Centres where a range of health services including GPs and related services are grouped together in one location. The preference will be for these to be located in District Neighbourhood or Local Centres where they can link in with other local services including pharmacies and other shops and services in order to reduce the need to travel and to help support a range of local services in each area. Only in exceptional circumstances and if it is shown that there is not capacity within these centres will Primary Care Centres be open for consideration in Residential Local Services and Institutional Use zones. Specialist medical services should be located in the City Centre or District Neighbourhood or Local Centres and will not normally be permitted in other locations. 3 3.41 Objective 3.15 Health Care Services Health Care Services apart from the established major institutions should normally be located in the City Centre District Neighbourhood and Local Centres. Small scale local medical services are open for consideration in the Residential Local Services and Institutional Use zone. Primary Care Centres will only be permitted within the Residential Local Services and Institutional Use zone in exceptional circumstances where there is shown not to be capacity available within any District Neighbourhood or Local Centre in the area for such a use. Primary care centres and hospitals will be open for consideration in suitable Business and Technology zones i.e. those close to District Centres in Mahon and Blackpool where suitable space in the centres above is not available and access and amenity considerations are acceptable. Home-based Economic Activities 3.42 Home-based economic activities are small-scale commercial activities carried out by residents of a dwelling which are ancillary to the main use of the property as residential accommodation. The Cork City Council accepts the need to accommodate these activities and recognises their importance in terms of employment creation and sustainability. Such uses might include small scale childcare provision such as cr che or playschool art-based activities such as painting or craft workshops and single person offices such as professional services where public access is not a normal requirement. These activities can take place within existing buildings or in new live-work units specifically designed to accommodate home-based economic activities. This latter form of development would be appropriate in locations within the City Centre Docklands and in or close to District Neighbourhood or Local centres. 3.43 Objective 3.16 Home-based economic activities To permit home-based economic activities where by virtue of their nature and scale they can be accommodated without detriment to the amenities of residential areas. Objective 3.17 Live-work units To promote and encourage the development of Live-work units capable of accommodating home-based economic activities in areas around the City Centre Docklands and other sustainable development locations. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 35 Volume One Written Statement 3 36 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 4 Retail Strategy Chapter 4 Retail Strategy Contents Introduction Retail Trends Existing Floorspace Retail Hierarchy Cork City Centre District Centres Neighbourhood Centres Local Centres and Corner Shops The Need for Additional Retail Floorspace Core Retail Areas Distribution of Retail Floorspace Convenience Floorspace Comparison Floorspace City Centre District Centre Comparison Floorspace Distribution Retail Warehousing Bulky Goods Assessing Retail Developments Markets The Sequential Approach to Location of Retail Retail Impact Assessments Vacant Floorspace Monitoring and Review of Strategy 39 39 39 40 41 41 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 48 48 48 49 4 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 37 x Volume One Written Statement 4 It is important that new retail development occurs at the correct scale and in the right locations 38 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 4 Retail Strategy x CHAPTER 4 RETAIL STRATEGY Introduction 4.1 The Metropolitan Cork Joint Retail Strategy 2013 was prepared on behalf of Cork City Council and Cork County Council in accordance with the Retail Planning Guidelines for Planning Authorities (2012) issued by the Department of the Environment Community and Local Government. The strategy was informed by background study the Metropolitan Cork Joint Retail Study 2013. The strategy forms the agreed basis on which each authority will formulate appropriate development plan objectives policies for retail development and will be used to determine retail planning applications. The strategy identifies the broad floorspace requirements for additional retail development over the Plan period in support of the settlement hierarchy as set out in the core strategy and the location quantity and type function of retail floorspace within Metropolitan Cork. 4 4.2 4.3 Objective 4.1 a. b. c. Strategic Retail objectives To maintain and strengthen the role of Cork City Centre as the primary retail centre in the South-West region To create vibrant mixed-use district centres within the suburbs To provide good quality and accessible convenience goods shopping to all residents of the city. Retail Trends 4.4 The economic slowdown led to a very significant decline in the retail sector and in new retail developments. There has been an increase in vacancy and dereliction in some areas of town and City Centres countrywide. The potential for large scale schemes has reduced and the demand for retail warehousing has declined however some sectors such as the discount foodstore sector remain strong and some comparison retailers continue to expand and invest in Ireland. There are a number of extant permissions containing significant retail provision in the city and high levels of vacant floorspace in some centres in the Metropolitan Area. The extent of unimplemented permissions and vacant floorspace are key considerations in the strategy. 4.5 Existing Floorspace 4.6 In October 2012 it is estimated that there was a total of 403 244sq.m. net occupied retail floorspace within the Metropolitan Area which is made up of 27% convenience 46% comparison and 27% retail warehousing bulky goods. The Cork City Centre is the primary comparison goods retail centre within the Metropolitan Area with 48% of all comparison floorspace located here. Cork City Centre has a market share of 59.8% of comparison spend within the Metropolitan Area. Mahon Point Shopping Centre is the second most popular location with a market share of 15.7%. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 39 x Volume One Written Statement Retail Hierarchy 4.7 Central to the retail strategy is the retail hierarchy which will form the basis for determining the quantum and location of new retail development. This distribution of the identified retail floorspace potential within the Metropolitan Area reflects the existing and future target population in the Metropolitan Area having regard to existing vacancies pipeline permissions and the proposed retail hierarchy. The retail hierarchy for the Metropolitan Area is identified in Table 4.1 below. 4 Objective 4.2 Retail Strategy To have regard to the Metropolitan Cork Joint Retail Strategy and to adopt the Retail Hierarchy in defining the role of retail centres in preparing plans and in assessing planning applications for retail development. Table 4.1 Retail Hierarchy Metropolitan Cork Retail Hierarchy (Cork City locations shown in black Cork County locations shown blue) Level 1 Level 2 Metropolitan District Centres Cork City Centre Blackpool Douglas Large Metropolitan Wilton Mahon Towns Point Ballyvolane Cork Docklands Hollyhill Ballincollig Carrigaline Cobh Midleton Level 3 Level 4 Small Metropolitan Carrigtwohill Glanmire Passage West Blarney Monard Towns Neighbourhood centres and large village centres Bishopstown Bishopstown Court Blackpool Village Hollyhill Tory Top Road Curragh Road Blackrock Hall (Ballinure) Togher Clashduv Road Mount Agnes Road Avenue de Rennes Skehard Road Mayfield The Lough Cork Docklands Jacobs Island Designated Neighbourhood Centres Tower Little Island Grange and villages within the Metropolitan area. Local centres identified in the Land-use Zoning Maps Volume 2 Level 5 Local centres corner shops and small villages Ballyvolane is identified as a district centre to serve the northern suburbs of Cork City in accordance with the current City Development Plan and the land use zoning contained in the Blarney Electoral Area Local Area Plan. It is envisaged that the future expansion of retail floorspace in this area will be subject to a co-ordinated approach between Cork City Council and Cork County Council. The future development of Cork Docklands District Centre and Neighbourhood Centres is to be in tandem with the planned population growth and development of this area. Hollyhill currently operates as a Neighbourhood Centre. It is considered that it has the potential to develop to a district centre primarily based on convenience retailing and services. 40 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 4 Retail Strategy x Cork City Centre 4.8 Cork City Centre is the principal retail centre of the South West Region and forms the first tier within the retail hierarchy. The City Centre exhibits a number of higher order retail services and specialist functions not found elsewhere in the region and is the focus for higher order comparison retail development. The City Centre currently supports 111 414sq.m. net retail floorspace of which 88 407sq.m. (79%) is comparison goods. Over 14 000sq.m. (net) comparison floorspace has been developed in the City Centre since 2007. The Cork City Council s Strategy is to consolidate the City Centre as the primary retail destination in the region and to be the prime focus for future retail development in particular high order comparison retail. Significant extant permissions on prominent sites within the retail core such as those in Grand Parade should be prioritised for redevelopment in the interests of regenerating the City Centre (See Chapter 13). 4.9 4 Objective 4.3 City Centre To protect and enhance the role of Cork City Centre as the primary retail centre in the south-west region by facilitating the continued regeneration and modernisation of existing and the development of new retail building stock coupled with a range of complimentary leisure recreational and cultural uses and investment in public realm improvements. District Centres 4.10 The second tier of the hierarchy consists of the four existing district centres in the Cork Suburbs of Blackpool Wilton Mahon and Douglas (mainly in Cork County) and the planned district centres at Ballyvolane Hollyhill and Docklands. The existing centres are generally characterised by a large convenience comparison anchor a range of comparison outlets local retail services ancillary specialist convenience outlets community and social facilities. The centres serve a localised catchment and serve weekly shopping needs. Mahon District Centre is the exception providing a wide range of higher order comparison goods floorspace and a limited convenience goods offer. District Centres should evolve into vibrant mixed-use urban centres with a greater range of retail services community and social facilities in order to meet the day-to-day needs of the local population in particular convenience goods and lower order comparison goods shopping. The Cork City Council supports the upgrading and redevelopment of the existing Neighbourhood Centres at Ballyvolane and Hollyhill to District Centres and the development of a District Centre in South Docklands in tandem with future population growth. Ballyvolane Ballyvolane has an existing medium sized centre with potential to expand to a District Centre. Demand for additional comparison retail floorspace in Ballyvolane will be driven by future population growth in the northern suburbs. Delivery of comparison floorspace and ancillary services should be accompanied with a range of ancillary retail services community and social infrastructure. The future expansion of retail in Ballyvolane will be subject to a co-ordinated approach between Cork City Council and Cork County Council. Hollyhill Hollyhill has the potential to develop into a District Centre to serve the north-west sector of the city. The centre will be characterised by improved convenience goods floorspace lower order comparison goods retail services and social and community facilities. 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 41 x Volume One Written Statement 4.15 Docklands Docklands as a key development area requires investment in convenience and comparison retail and local services at a scale commensurate with the planned resident population and workforce. Blackpool Mixed-use development including additional comparison floorspace should be encouraged in Blackpool in order to facilitate improvements in the urban environment. Wilton The existing shopping centre at Wilton is of poor urban design and should be redeveloped as a mixed-use centre. Wilton has the potential to enhance its comparison goods floorspace and reinforce its role and function. Mahon No significant expansion of comparison floorspace in Mahon is envisaged over the lifetime of the strategy. The Cork City Council supports the development of non - retail uses and services in Mahon to broaden its district centre functions. 4.16 4 4.17 4.18 Objective 4.4 District Centres To support the vitality and viability of Suburban District Centres to ensure that such centres provide an appropriate range of retail and non-retail functions to serve the needs of the community and respective catchment areas with an emphasis on convenience and appropriate (lower order) comparison shopping in order to protect the primacy of Cork City Centre. Objective 4.5 New District Centres To support and facilitate the development of district centres at Ballyvolane Hollyhill and South Docklands in order to meet the day to day needs of their existing and or planned catchment populations. Neighbourhood Centres 4.19 Neighbourhood centres provide important top-up and day-to-day shopping and retail service requirements and play an important role in serving the needs of those without access to a car particularly the elderly. They are typically characterised by small scale convenience offer and ancillary retail services (typically uses include a newsagent supermarket grocery store sub-post office) and serve a small localised catchment population. They normally serve a pedestrian catchment of approximately 800m. New centres will generally be anchored by a small medium sized convenience store and should also include a number of smaller associated local service units to enhance the overall appeal of the centre in terms of service provision and design. Neighbourhood centre anchor stores should not exceed 1 500sq.m. net. Appropriate land uses within neighbourhood centres are outlined in the Land Use Zoning Objectives Chapter 15. New Neighbourhood Centres should be mixed-use schemes incorporating a range of local services a vertical mix of uses where possible and a high quality of urban design appropriate to their scale and character. In additional to retail neighbourhood centres may include residential and complementary local services such as childcare retail offices pharmacies medical consultancies public houses small shops etc. The Cork City Council will support and facilitate the designation of new and or the expansion of existing neighbourhood centres where significant additional population growth is planned or where a demonstrable gap in existing provision is identified. 4.20 4.21 42 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 4 Retail Strategy x Objective 4.6 a. b. Neighbourhood Centres c. To support promote and protect Neighbourhood Centres which play an important role in the local shopping role for residents and provide a range of essential day to day services and facilities To support and facilitate the designation of new and the expansion of existing Neighbourhood Centres where significant additional population growth is planned or where a demonstrable gap in existing provision is identified subject to the protection of residential amenities of the surrounding area and that they are adequately served by sustainable transport Proposals should demonstrate the appropriateness of the site by means of a Sequential Test Statement demonstrate retail impact and provide for a mix of uses appropriate to the scale of the centre. 4 Local Centres and Corner Shops 4.22 Small local centres and corner shops provide a valuable local and walk in role and function to the local communities that they serve. They generally have a pedestrian catchment of approximately 400m. Supermarkets should not exceed 400sq.m. net in Local Centres. Local centres should contain a comparable amount of local services floorspace and anchor convenience floorspace. Local centres should be supported and protected through the sensitive management and expansion of larger retail centres. The Cork City Council will support and facilitate the designation of new and or the expansion of existing local centres where significant additional population growth is planned or where a demonstrable gap in existing provision is identified. An analysis of current distribution indicated that there may be gaps in provision in Blarney Road and Old Whitechurch Road area (linked to development of greenfield lands). Proposals for other locations will be assessed on their merits. 4.23 Objective 4.7 a. b. Local Centres and Corner Shops To support promote and protect local centres and corner shops which provide an important retail service at a local level To support and facilitate the development of and the expansion of existing local centres and corner shops as appropriate where significant population growth is planned or where a demonstrable gap in existing provision is identified subject to the protection of residential amenities of the surrounding area. Proposals should provide a mix of uses and services suitable to the scale of the centre and demonstrate the appropriateness of the location. The Need for Additional Retail Floorspace 4.24 One of the key requirements of the retail strategy is to provide a broad assessment of the additional retail floorspace required over the lifetime of their strategy. The requirement for additional retail floorspace within the Metropolitan Area is estimated having regard to the population targets expenditure trends the quantum of existing retail floorspace existing vacancy levels extant planning permissions and the findings of the 2012 household and shopper surveys. Based on the above estimates Table 2 below summarises the requirement for additional retail floorspace within the Metropolitan Area by 2022 assuming population increases in line with targets. 4.25 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 43 x Volume One Written Statement Table 4.2 Metropolitan Cork Retail Floorspace Potential Retail Type Convenience Comparison Sq m (2022) 43 173 104 439 57 555 4 4.26 Bulky Goods Retail Warehousing The figures set out in Table 4.2 do not include pipeline floorspace i.e. permitted floorspace that is not constructed at this time. In light of economic conditions it should be recognised that any implementation of such permissions may be on a reduced scale from that originally approved and or on a phased basis. However it will be important that both vacancies and commitments are considered on a case-by-case basis when considering future applications for significant retail floorspace. Given the potential to extend the duration of permissions existing commitments have added weight and importance when assessing new applications. Furthermore the nature and commercial viability of pipeline floorspace should be considered when assessing applications for significant retail developments having regard to the role and function of the respective centre. Core Retail Areas 4.27 It is important that new retail development occurs at the correct scale and in the right locations. The City Centre and the District Centres are the preferred locations for significant new retail development within the city. It is important to develop and maintain a compact core where retail and commercial uses are close enough to each other to benefit from each other s pedestrian flows and to maintain their role. New development should enhance their attractiveness and safety for pedestrians and reinforce the diversity of uses throughout the day and evening. The City Centre Core Retail Area is defined in the land-use zoning map (Map 1 Volume 2) and this is there is significant capacity within it for further development and expansion of retailing. The existing District Centres have sufficient capacity within the zoned lands for expansion to meet the needs of the retail strategy if more efficiently used. (Where the core area of the district centre is not defined it is taken as being the footprint of the existing shopping centre building.) 4.28 4.29 Objective 4.8 Core Retail Areas Core Retail Areas are the preferred location for new retail development. Consideration of new retail development outside of the core retail areas will be guided by the provisions of the Retail Planning Guidelines and the objectives of the City Development Plan. Distribution of Retail Floorspace 4.30 The retail hierarchy set out in Table 4.1 determines the distribution of future floorspace having regard to the settlement strategy set out in the Cork Area Strategic Plan. 44 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 4 Retail Strategy x Convenience Floorspace 4.31 The distribution of convenience floorspace is allocated in accordance with population growth the existing quantum of development currently provided within each centre and extant permissions. The population targets set out within the Councils Core Strategies suggests that 47% of growth would be appropriate for the Cork City Council area and adjoining Suburbs (Ballyvolane and Douglas) and the remaining 53% would be appropriately allocated to the rest of the Metropolitan Area. Table 3 below applies these population ratios to the total available floorspace figures. 4.32 4 Table 4.3 Convenience Floorspace Distribution Convenience Floorspace Distribution Metropolitan Cork Settlement Cork City and Suburbs including Douglas and Ballyvolane Rest of Metropolitan Area Total 4.33 Percentage Growth Allocation 47% 53% Floorspace Allocation (sq.m. net) 20 291sq.m. 22 882sq.m. 43 173sq.m. Within the City and Suburbs the focus will be on improving the range and quality of convenience floorspace in sustainable locations and providing additional convenience floorspace to match planned populations expansions such as that envisaged for Docklands and Ballyvolane. It is noted that the southern suburbs of the City are better served in terms of convenience provision than the northern suburbs. In this regard it will be an objective of the Cork City Council to promote further convenience development in the northern suburbs. There is scope to enhance the existing convenience offer in the northwest suburbs of the City and to strengthen and reinforce the retail function and role of existing neighbourhood centres. In this context Hollyhill neighbourhood centre has the potential to develop to a District Centre. It is also envisaged that there will be a significant future requirement for convenience development in developing areas of the City in particular Docklands. Extant permissions in Docklands includes 5 747 sq. m. of convenience floorspace. It is evident that some of the towns within the Metropolitan Area could improve their current convenience retail offer. Most towns will need to expand their level of retail floorspace provision in line with their population growth targets. Convenience development will be promoted in these urban centres in order to improve competition choice and diversity in the retail market. 4.34 4.35 4.36 Objective 4.9 Convenience Floorspace To improve the quality of convenience retail floorspace throughout the Cork City and environs in accordance with the retail hierarchy and settlement strategy. The provision for distribution of new convenience floorspace is outlined in Table 4.3. Comparison Floorspace 4.37 The preferred option for the distribution of comparison floorspace is illustrated in Table 4.4. This option distributes future floorspace based on a combination of existing market share and future population increase. The allocation to the City Centre is set at 60.4% maintaining its existing market share in order to reflect its prominent role and function as the main location for comparison goods within the Metropolitan Area. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 45 x Volume One Written Statement Table 4.4 Comparison Floorspace Metropolitan Cork Comparison Floorspace Distribution Settlement Growth Allocation Floorspace Allocation (sq. m. net) 60.4% 23.9% 15.7% 63 081 24 961 16 397 104 439 sq.m. 4 Cork City Centre Suburban Centres (including Douglas & Ballyvolane) Rest of Metropolitan Area Total City Centre 4.38 The allocation of retail floorspace outside of the City Centre is based on the role of each centre within the retail hierarchy population targets and current market share. New developments permissions must be linked to population and economic growth. When considering the future allocation of floorspace regard must be had to the extent of existing vacancy within the core areas of the City Centre and the towns within the Metropolitan Area as well as the extent of unimplemented permitted pipeline floorspace. The Planning Authority will take a cautious approach in permitting significant comparison goods retail schemes within the district centres in order to protect the primacy of Cork City Centre within the hierarchy. Objective 4.10 Comparison Floorspace To improve the quality of comparison retail floorspace in the city and throughout the Metropolitan Area in accordance with the retail hierarchy and settlement strategy. The provision for distribution of new comparison floorspace is outlined in Table 4.4 District Centre 4.39 Suburban District Centres shall continue to provide a wide range of convenience floorspace as well as appropriate levels of lower order comparison floorspace in locations close to significant centres of population. The provision of comparison floorspace in the city suburbs will be more evenly distributed by providing new floorspace (as indicated in table 7.3.2 of the Metropolitan Cork Joint Retail Study 2013) at the ratio of 40 60 to the Northside Southside respectively. No suburban centres should have a greater comparison floorspace than the current largest District Centre (Mahon) which will not grow significantly over the period of the strategy. Future retail expansion within the Suburban District Centres will be carefully managed in order to develop into vibrant mixed-use urban centres and that the primacy of the City Centre is maintained. Objective 4.11 Comparison Floorspace Distribution To ensure an even distribution of comparison floorspace within the city suburbs new floorspace shall be distributed around the District Centres at a ratio of 40 60 to the Northside Southside respectively. No District Centres should have a greater amount of comparison floorspace than the current largest District Centre (Mahon) which will not grow significantly over the period of the strategy. 46 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 4 Retail Strategy x Retail Warehousing Bulky Goods 4.40 The quality and provision of retail warehousing bulky goods facilities throughout the Metropolitan area varies considerably from planned Retail Parks such as Mahon Blackpool and Kinsale Road Retail Parks to ad-hoc retail warehouses within industrial zones such as the Tramore Road. The capacity assessment of the retail study demonstrates that there is potential for additional retail warehouse development over the period of the strategy (57 555 sq. m. by 2022). The key consideration in determining the distribution of floorspace is the appropriate and sustainable location for such retail activity. In accordance with the Retail Planning Guidelines there will be a presumption against the development of out-of-town retail parks and a preference for sites in or adjacent to the District Centres. Certain sites within Docklands may also be appropriate. It is important that the range of goods sold in retail parks retail warehouses is tightly controlled to protect the comparison shopping function of the City Centre and other comparison locations identified in the hierarchy. The Retail Planning Guidelines acknowledge that there are ancillary items associated with an otherwise bulky good but recommend that the retail floorspace devoted to such ancillary products should not exceed 20% of the total net retail floorspace of the relevant retail warehouse unit. 4.41 4 4.42 4.43 Objective 4.12 Location of Retail Warehousing To improve the quality of retail warehouse bulky goods floorspace throughout the Metropolitan Area in accordance with the retail hierarchy and settlement strategy. The preferred location for new retail warehousing bulky goods floorspace is within or District Centres or other lands zoned for retail warehousing as opposed to the development of out-of-town retail parks or locating within industrial estates business parks. Objective 4.13 Retail Warehousing It is an objective that the range of goods sold in retail warehouses be restricted to the sale of bulky household items. The floorspace within retail warehouse bulky goods units devoted to ancillary products shall not exceed 20% of the total net retail floorspace of the relevant retail warehouse bulky goods unit. Assessing Retail Developments Markets 4.44 The Cork City Council recognises the benefits of casual trading in the form of on-street outdoor markets to the city as attractions and in terms contributing to the local economy and generating vibrancy and vitality to the city streets and drawing in new visitors and traders. Markets can be mainstream alternative or niche events regular weekly or monthly events or seasonal in nature. Objective 4.14 Markets It is an objective to support and promote the use of on-street outdoor markets in appropriate City Centre locations and the suburban District Centres and to pursue the development of a Market Strategy by 2016. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 47 x Volume One Written Statement The Sequential Approach to Location of Retail 4.45 The order of priority is to locate retail development in the City Centre and designated District Centres and to only allow retail development in edge-of-centre or out-of-centre locations where all other options have been exhausted. Where an edge of centre site is proposed the applicant must demonstrate that no other sites or potential sites including vacant units are suitable available and viable within the centre. Where an out-of-centre site is proposed the applicant must demonstrate that no other sites or potential sites including vacant units are suitable available and viable within the centre or on the edge of the centre. Only in exceptional circumstances can such sites be considered. The sequential approach should be applied to new development change of use and extension applications that are of a scale that is likely to have a significant impact on the role and function of existing retail centres. 4 4.46 Retail Impact Assessments 4.47 Significant retail proposals should be supported by a Retail Impact Assessment in order to demonstrate compliance with the City Development Plan and that there will be no adverse on the vitality and viability of any existing retail centre. Retail Impact Assessments shall be in accordance with the requirements as set out in the Retail Planning Guidelines. The requirement to submit a retail impact assessment shall be determined by the Cork City Council and may be done so at pre-planning discussions or in the course of determining the application. Objective 4.15 Retail Impact Assessments All significant retail planning applications must be supported by a comprehensive Retail Impact Assessment as outlined on the Retail Planning Guidelines. The Cork City Council will determine the requirement to submit a Retail Impact Assessment prior to or during the determination of an application. Vacant Floorspace 4.48 Retail vacancy levels vary widely throughout the city. The City Centre has a vacancy level of 31% whereas in the suburban District Centres it ranges from 9% in Mahon to 27% in Douglas. The level of vacancy is an important indicator of the health of a town centre and can have a detrimental impact on the visual appearance of a town centre. The Cork City Council will support the reconfiguration of existing vacant uses at appropriate locations to meet market demands for appropriate retail developments including sub-division and or merging of existing units and the change of use of retail units to either retail services or non-retail uses. The Cork City Council will seek to reduce retail vacancy levels in the short term by 50%. Half of which should be re-occupied by retail uses and the remainder by non-retail uses including retail services. Of the retail-use units two-thirds should be re-occupied by comparison goods retailing and one-third by convenience goods. 4.49 4.50 Objective 4.16 Vacant Floorspace To seek to reduce the level of vacant floorspace within Core Retail Areas by 50% half of which should be occupied by retail use and the remainder by non-retail uses or retail services. Re-occupied retail units should be at a ratio of 2 1 comparison convenience goods. 48 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 4 Retail Strategy x Monitoring and Review of Strategy 4.51 The Retail Planning Guidelines advise the relevant planning authorities to regularly monitor trends in their area and update retail policies if appropriate. A monitoring system will be put in place by the City and County Authorities to ensure that any necessary adjustments in policy can be made. The quantum of new retail development is based on the population targets set by the South West Regional Planning Guidelines 2010 to further the implementation of the National Spatial Strategy. The retail strategy will be monitored over the lifetime of the Plan and if necessary reviewed to take account of lower than expected in-migration and population growth and consequent lower growth in consumer expenditure. The future population distribution of the Metropolitan Area is based on population projections set out in the South West Regional Planning Guidelines. In order to acknowledge the uncertainties that exist in relation to future population growth a review of the population targets may be carried out during the lifetime of the development plans having regard to the intended reviews of the National Spatial Strategy the South West Regional Planning Guidelines the Central Statistics Office s review of National Population Forecasts and the outcome of the 2016 Census of Population. 4 4.52 Objective 4.17 Review of Strategy The Cork City Council will undertake a review of the Retail Strategy in consultation with Cork County Council during the lifetime of the Development Plan having regard to the forthcoming reviews of the National Spatial Strategy the South West Regional Planning Guidelines the Central Statistics Office s review of National Population Forecasts and the outcome of the 2016 Census of Population. Objective 4.18 Monitoring of Strategy The Cork City Council in conjunction with Cork County Council will develop a retail development monitoring system in order to review and to facilitate future policy adjustments if required. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 49 Volume One Written Statement 4 50 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 5 Transportation Chapter 5 Transportation Contents Introduction Strategic Objectives Landuse New Development Workplace and School Travel Planning Area-Based Strategies City Centre Strategic Transport Corridors Walking and Cycling Targets Strategies Design Public Transport Bus Services Bus Rapid Transit Rail Services River Harbour Ferry Local Street Network Strategic Road Network Multi-Modality Alternative Fuels Fuel Efficiency and Electric Vehicles Smart Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems Carpooling and Car Sharing Parking City Centre Park and Ride Resident Street Parking Airport Freight Management Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning 53 54 55 55 55 57 57 58 58 58 59 60 60 60 60 61 61 63 64 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 5 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 51 x Volume One Written Statement 5 focused on providing a balanced and integrated transport system 52 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 5 Transportation x CHAPTER 5 TRANSPORTATION Introduction 5.1 While private cars are an integral part of the transportation system overuse of private cars can have negative economic environmental and social consequences. Traffic congestion can negatively impact the economy and building new roads and associated infrastructure to cater for increased traffic can cost a significant amount in taxes or tolls. Environmentally cars are a primary source of emissions contributing to climate change. Socially quality of life is affected by noise air pollution health problems related to physical inactivity and a negative impact on the public realm. In addition a transport system overly focused on private cars does not provide access for sections of the community who choose not to drive or cannot drive including children some elderly and those unable to afford a car. An integrated transport system with complementary land use policies can deliver a broader range of transport options reduce congestion and the economic and environmental cost of congestion and reduce car dependency whilst strengthening the basis for investment in sustainable transport alternatives. With this in mind national policy is focused on providing a balanced and integrated transport system which offers a variety of ways to move around the city region. The national policy document Smarter Travel A Sustainable Transport Future 2009 - 2020 sets a long-term objective to reduce the percentage of single occupancy car-based work trips to 45%. Currently 69% of people working in Cork City drive to work a further 6% are driven to work as passengers and 65% of primary school students are driven to school. However the share of total travel by car when journey to work education of those both living and working in Cork City is considered falls to just 45% reflecting the impact that compact cities where journey are short can have on travel patterns and mode choice. ( Modal splits for workers in each sector of the city in 2011 are set out in Table 5.1 below.) Given these considerations and national objectives transportation planning during the lifetime of this development plan will primarily be focused on increasing transportation choices within Cork City and its Metropolitan Area. Transport plans for Cork City are set within a strategic framework provided by the National Transport Authority the National Roads Authority and the Cork Area Strategic Plan (CASP) the objectives of all three are incorporated into this Chapter. It should also be noted that Cork City is not directly responsible for the provision of many aspects of transportation infrastructure but rather works in conjunction the National Roads Authority National Transport Authority Bus ireann Iarnr d ireann Cork County Council the private sector the Transport and Mobility Forum and advocacy groups. These partners will be referred to throughout this chapter as Transport Stakeholders . 5 5.2 5.3 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 53 x Volume One Written Statement Table 5.1 Modal Split by City Sector Mode Walk Bicycle Bus Train Passenger in a car Driving a car Other Cork City City Centre 13% 2% 6% 0.9% 6% 69% 4% 100% 20% 2% 9% 2% 7% 57% 3% 100% North East North West South Centre South East South West 14% 1% 4% 0.5% 6% 70% 4% 100% 9% 1% 8% 0.2% 6% 71% 4% 100% 10% 1% 3% 0.2% 4% 76% 6% 100% 8% 2% 5% 0.2% 4% 78% 4% 100% 10% 2% 3% 0.3% 5% 77% 3% 100% 5 Total Strategic Objectives 5.4 Cork City Council aims to develop an integrated transport system that supports economic growth provides all sections of the community with access to transport systems fosters a high-quality built environment and reduces emissions in order to combat climate change. To this end the following strategic transport objectives have been set Objective 5.1 a. Strategic Transport Objectives b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. Provide for the greater consolidation of development within the City Centre Docklands Key Development Areas and Strategic Corridors facilitated through the integration of landuse and transport planning investment and service provision To reduce the percentage of persons who drive to work to 60% by 2021 To invest in transport infrastructure based on the transport user hierarchy pedestrians cyclists public transport users freight delivery and waste vehicles private vehicle users To encourage and facilitate cycling and walking for short local trips by providing appropriate infrastructure promoting soft-measures that influence change in transport behaviour and by encouraging proximate compact landuses To encourage increased use of rail services bus and carpooling car sharing for longer journeys by providing local access infrastructure to key transport nodes by using information pricing mechanisms and other soft-measures to influence change in transport behaviour and by encouraging publictransport orientated development To develop a Bus Rapid Transit system from Ballincollig to Mahon via the City Centre and Docklands To work with transport stakeholders to further integrate transport modes and facilitate multi-modal trip chains To protect the capacity efficiency and safety of national roads and associated junctions while maintaining and enhancing the economic vibrancy of Cork City To provide new local roads streets upgraded streets and pathways where required to increase connectivity To actively manage capacity of the city s street system to reduce the negative impacts of congestion and to maximise the use of the existing street network To control the supply and price of all parking in the city in order to achieve sustainable transportation policy objectives while recognising the need to maintain economic vibrancy until more gaps in the existing alternative transportation systems are filled To encourage the use of innovative measures to reduce the requirement for car parking To support actions aimed at improving the fuel efficiency of motorised transport To facilitate operation (and expansion) of Cork Airport and Port of Cork recognising their significant role in the economic vitality and quality of life of the region To work closely with other transport stakeholders to achieve strategic transportation objectives incorporating the SUMP (Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning) process where feasible. 54 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 5 Transportation x Landuse New Development 5.5 The provision of sustainable transport alternatives is contingent on supportive landuse patterns. Creating sustainable neighbourhoods that provide a sufficient level of facilities and services within walking cycling distance are a significant component and are addressed in Chapter 7 (paragraphs 7.2 7.4). A second key component is to provide for the location consolidation of trip-intensive land uses in a manner that enables the optimal use of existing public transport assets and provides the basis in demand for further investment in sustainable transport infrastructure and public transport services. In accordance with national guidelines development proposals should account for sustainable transportation requirements at the earliest stages of development design. Substantial developments will be required to document these considerations as part of a Transport Assessment. A Travel Plan will also be required (see Objective 5.3). 5 Objective 5.2 Transport Assessment Planning applications for substantial developments (i.e. those that Cork City Council considers may have significant travel implications) shall include a Transport Assessment the assessment shall demonstrate how sustainable transport patterns can be achieved by the development. Workplace and School Travel Planning 5.6 A Travel Plan is a package of measures aimed at supporting sustainable travel. Travel Plans comprise actions to promote walking cycling public transport car sharing the use of technology instead of travel and flexible working practices. Full details are provided in Achieving Effective Workplace Travel Plans Guidance for Local Authorities Work Place Travel Plans A Guide for Implementers and Toolkit for School Travel (all developed by the National Transport Authority). The Smarter Travel Workplaces Programme which is managed by the National Transport Authority continues to engage with a number of larger employers in the Cork area in the development and implementation of Workplace Travel Plans. Travel Plans will also be required for new developments. Travel planning for schools continues to be promoted through the Green Schools Travel Programme which is managed by National Transport Authority. Objective 5.3 Travel Plans Planning applications for new and significantly extended developments shall include a Travel Plan or a Travel Plan Statement in accordance with the following a. Those with more than 100 employees shall include a Travel Plan b. Those with approximately 25 99 employees shall include a Travel Plan Statement c. A Travel Plan or Travel Plan Statement may also be required in association for any proposed development that Cork City Council considers may have significant travel implications this includes non-employment uses such as significant educational and residential development. Area-Based Strategies 5.7 Integrating landuse and transport requires enhancing transport options between key origins and destinations as well as directing major new developments to areas where public transport options are already available and to areas that have been prioritised for investment in public transport infrastructure and service improvements. Within Cork City key origins destinations comprise the City Centre district centres clusters of major employment and the satellite towns in the metropolitan area. These key origins and destinations are illustrated in Figure 5.1. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 55 x 5 56 Blackpo kpo Blackpool Fair Hill LEGEND Zones of Employment Employ Volume One Written Statement Education Centres Centr Ballyvolane olane olane lane Bl Bla Blackpool re Glanmire Hollyhill ee Farranree Knocknaheeny Mayfield Montenotte Kent Statio tion Station Dunkettle Gurranabraher Tivoli ivoli Sunday s Well y Centr Centre n r City Centre re Docklands ands nds Ballintemple Ballinlough Ballinlough n Blackrock Blackro Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Glasheen Mahon Ballinure nure Bishopstown n South ut Mahon aho Ballyphehane Wilto Wilton il o Togher Douglas Figure 5.1 Key Transport Origins and Destinations in Cork City Chapter 5 Transportation x City Centre 5.8 The transport strategy for the City Centre is the re-allocation of roadspace on City Centre streets to balance out the needs of each transport mode and remove through traffic from core streets (the central island in particular). Such re-allocation will improve the environment for public transport pedestrians and cyclists and will facilitate the development of rapid transit (Objective 5.13). Infrastructural works will include a combination of footpath cycleway and streetscape improvements the re-introduction of two-way streets traffic signal upgrades and revised signage and road markings. A broad approach to these improvements is set out in The City Centre Movement Strategy (adopted 2013). It is intended that the phasing of works will broadly follow the phasing outlined in the City Centre Movement Strategy (see Figure 5.2). Objective 5.4 City Centre Movement Strategy 5 Implement the principles outlined in the City Centre Movement Strategy during the lifetime of the Development Plan in accordance with Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets. Figure 5.2 City Centre Movement Strategy Strategic Transport Corridors 5.9 Area-based strategies are also being prepared for suburban areas of the city to identify key strategic corridors connecting to the City Centre to determine how to best optimise transport provision along these corridors and to prioritise implementation of measures with the greatest potential to maximise modal shift with regard to return on investment. Upon completion landuse and transport plans for each corridor will be revised and updated accordingly to encourage higher-density uses along key public transport corridors where feasible. This will reduce trip length (proximity principle) and increase demand in order to provide more frequent bus services. Objective 5.5 Strategic Transport Corridors Cork City Council has commissioned studies to determine how to best optimise transport provision along strategic corridors within the city and will prioritise implementation of measures with the greatest potential to maximise modal shift to public transport walking and cycling and in doing so maximising return on investment. Upon completion landuse transport plans for each corridor will be prepared (see Objective 5.6). Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 57 x Volume One Written Statement Objective 5.6 Landuse Strategies for Key Public Transport Corridors To develop landuse strategies that provide for the consolidation of development at higher densities along key public transport corridors. 5.10 During the lifetime of the Development Plan infrastructural transport investment will primarily be focused on the City Centre and strategic corridors which connect the City Centre with Key Development Areas. Corridor studies have been completed for the South-Eastern Sector and will be completed for the entire city during the lifetime of the Development Plan. 5 Walking and Cycling 5.11 Walking and cycling as modes of transport offer several personal and societal benefits including zero emissions in respect of climate change and air and noise pollution (Chapter 12) affordability increased physical activity that supports better health (see Objective 7.1(n)) and greater social interaction that contributes to strong neighbourhoods (Chapter 7). Targets 5.12 Walking as a mode of transport is primarily aimed at trips of 2 km or less and cycling is particularly targeted at trips of up to 5 km (except where topography poses a significantly limiting factor). In 2006 over 80% of persons working in the city commuted 5 km or less to work. However in 2011 only 13% of persons working in Cork City walked to work and 2% cycled. The National Cycle Policy Framework (Department of Transport 2009) sets a national target of 10% of all journeys being made by bicycle by 2020. Strategies 5.13 Pedestrian infrastructure improvements in the City Centre have been identified in the City Centre Movement Strategy. The Cork City Walking Strategy addresses suburban areas and identifies proposals for pedestrian network improvement infrastructure improvements and behavioural change measures infrastructure objectives are set out in Objective 5.11 further infrastructure improvements will be assessed as part of strategic corridor studies (see Objective 5.5). In 2014 a public bike sharing scheme was implemented by the National Transport Authority. The scheme provides 315 rental bikes and 31 docking stations in the vicinity of the central island. There are no definitive plans for expansion of the scheme at this time but expansion may be considered at a later date based on the uptake of the current scheme (paragraph 5.34 Multi-Modality). The preparation of a Cycle Network Plan for the Cork Metropolitan Area is currently underway. The Plan will identify both an urban cycle network and a green way network (routes developed predominately for tourist recreational and leisure purposes). It will also provide for inter-urban links into the National Cycle Network. When the Plan is complete the proposed networks will be considered for adoption into the Cork City Development Plan. Programmed cycle infrastructure improvements are noted in Objective 5.11. To complement the network plan additional strategies and supporting measures will be required to promote cycling and to overcome barriers to its uptake. Some of the identified issues include integration with other transport modes suitable storage and parking (including secure facilities at major transport nodes and in inner city neighbourhoods) wayfinding end of trip facilities cycling skills training driver education perceptions of cycling and promotion of cargo bikes for business use. Various supporting measures were undertaken in recent years including the installation of cycle parking HGV re-routing and travel planning in schools and workplaces. To build on and 5.14 5.15 5.16 58 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 5 Transportation x prioritise these measures Cork City Council will work with other transport stakeholders to develop a comprehensive Cycling Strategy to address barriers to cycling and subsequently increase cycling uptake. In respect of cycle parking more detailed guidelines and standards to guide cycle parking associated with private development will also be developed. Objective 5.7 Cycling Strategy Cork City Council will develop a Cycling Strategy during the lifetime of the Development Plan to address supporting measures required to increase cycling uptake. Objective 5.8 Cycling Parking Guidelines Cork City Council will develop more detailed standards to guide the provision of cycle parking in private development. 5 Objective 5.9 Behavioural Change Measures Cork City Council will continue to initiate and support behavioural change measures that promote walking and cycling as modes of transport particularly in areas where upgraded infrastructure is being provided. Design 5.17 A high quality public realm that provides an attractive and comfortable walking and cycling environment is a key component to encouraging increased uptake of these modes. In this regard the public realm is addressed in more detail in Chapter 13 the importance of street trees is acknowledged in Paragraph 10.59 and Objective 10.10(a) and national standards are set out in the Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets. Designing for the consideration of all users including those with impaired mobility is also a key consideration. Cork City Council will continue to work with advocacy groups such as Cork Access Group in the review of streetscape design proposals. 5.18 Objective 5.10 Pedestrian and Cycling Infrastructure Design The design of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure will be in accordance with the principles approaches and standards set out in the National Cycle Manual the Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets and international best practice. Objective 5.11 Infrastructure Pedestrian and Cycling Infrastructure Objectives Status Planned Development Map No.3 2 2 UCC project in conjunction with redevelopment of site 5 UCC project on hold pending funding 9 a. Pedestrian Cycle Bridge from Parnell Place to Harley Street b. Pedestrian Cycle Bridge from former Beamish and Crawford Site to Crosses Green c. Pedestrian Cycle Bridge North Mall Distillery Site d. Perrott s Inch Pedestrian Bridge e. Pedestrian Cycle Bridge at Tramore Valley Post 2021 Park f. Ballyvolane Cycle Route g. Cycle Route by River Lee Route via Sharman Crawford Street to Donovan s Road h. Cycle Routes linking South-western institutions (CUH CIT etc) with City Centre Programmed Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 59 x Volume One Written Statement Public Transport Bus Services 5.19 Bus services in Cork City are currently provided by Bus ireann who operates 18 routes within Cork City as well as 8 routes serving Metropolitan Cork. Bus ireann is currently working in collaboration with the National Transport Authority to reconfigure the bus network for Metropolitan Cork in order to provide improved frequency and new routes. Integrated ticketing ( Leap Cards ) were also introduced in 2014. Improvements are being carried out within the strategic framework provided by Action 13 of Smarter Travel which sets high-level objectives of providing bus services in urban areas which where feasible provide bus routes within 800 m of all houses daily buses from 6 am to 1 am (depending on demand) running at a frequency of 10 minutes at peak hours and 20 minutes at non-peak hours a prepay cashless system to minimise delays at stops and a defined level of comfort and cleanliness on vehicles. 5 Objective 5.12 Support Bus Network Improvement Cork City Council will work with other transport stakeholders to facilitate the delivery of a legible and reliable network of bus services including actions such as the elimination of pinch points on streets and the provision of footpath to major nodes as identified in corridor studies (paragraph 5.9) and the City Centre Movement Strategy (paragraph 5.8). Bus Rapid Transit 5.20 The principle of developing Bus Rapid Transit was adopted in 2010 on foot of the Cork Area Transit Study ( CATS ). A light rail system was considered. However given the higher costs associated with light rail it would require extensive higher-density redevelopment along the route to make it financially viable. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) provides a frequency and carrying capacity similar to light rail without the major capital costs or requirement for high-intensity redevelopment. The proposed Bus Rapid Transit Corridor would run from Ballincollig to Mahon via the City Centre and Docklands. The first phase to be developed would connect Bishopstown to the City Centre. During the lifetime of the Development Plan key actions in respect of BRT will include reducing traffic congestion in the City Centre and thereby creating an environment through which public transport can move more efficiently (paragraph 5.8 City Centre Movement Strategy) building up existing bus ridership to support the future BRT (paragraph 5.19) reviewing landuse along potential BRT corridors in (paragraph 5.9) and agreeing the sequencing of strategic landuse transport planning in respect of BRT with other transport stakeholders. The latter two issues will require further consideration of the likely BRT route for Phase 1. 5.21 Objective 5.13 Bus Rapid Transit Cork City Council will identify the preferred route for Bus Rapid Transit in conjunction with Cork County Council and the National Transport Authority. Rail Services 5.22 As shown in Figure 5.3 Irish Rail currently provides three commuter services from Kent Station to Cobh Midleton and Mallow. The Cork Area Strategic Plan proposes the development of a railway station at Blarney. The development of this station would facilitate re-opening the Kilbarry station which would provide a commuter railway station to serve Blackpool. Improvements to improve cycle and pedestrian access from Kent Station to the City Centre are currently underway. Details of local access infrastructure to serve Kilbarry Station are set out in the North Blackpool Local Area Plan 2011 (paragraphs 4.153 4.160). 5.23 60 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 5 Transportation x Objective 5.14 Kent Station Local Access Infrastructure Support the re-orientation of Kent Station including the delivery of local access infrastructure (i.e. pedestrian and cycle connections) from Kent Station to Cork City Centre. Objective 5.15 Kilbarry Station Local Access Infrastructure Support the opening of Kilbarry Station including the delivery of local access infrastructure (i.e. pedestrian and cycle connections) around Kilbarry Station in tandem with and prior to the opening of Kilbarry Station. 5 Figure 5.3 Rail Network 2014 River Harbour Ferry 5.24 The provision for a ferry service from Cork Harbour to the Cork City was previously investigated by a private developer though no active plans are currently underway. Such a service could potentially serve Cobh Passage West Rochestown and Blackrock for both commuting and tourism uses as well as strengthening the metropolitan area s connection with maritime heritage (Chapter 8 Maritime Harbour ). Planning permission was previously granted for a ferry landing station at Blackrock Harbour but has now expired (Ref. ABP 28.231351). Current plans for the Eastern Gateway and Water Street Bridges (Objective 5.17 (a-b)) include adequate height clearance to allow for a ferry service such clearance is not feasible for the public transport bridge at Mill Road (Objective 5.17(c)). 5.25 Local Street Network 5.26 The local street network is used by used by pedestrians cyclists private cars and buses and heavy goods vehicles for getting around the city. In addition to facilitating traffic movement streets also create a sense of place . Sense of place issues relating to a quality built environment and public realm are addressed in more detail in Chapters 13 (City Centre and Docklands) and 16 (Development Management) full principles are set out in the national Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets.2 Objective 5.16 Design Approach for Local Streets Both the construction of new local streets as well as works to the existing local network shall be in accordance with principles approaches and standards set out in Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 61 x Volume One Written Statement 5.27 Extensive new local streets infrastructure is planned to facilitate redevelopment of the Docklands including three bridges there are also plans for new streets in some suburban locations. New local streets objectives and the status of each are as follows Objective 5.17 Additions to Local Street Network Infrastructure a. Eastern Gateway Bridge - connecting Lower Glanmire Road to Monahan s Road Location Status Planned Development Map No. 3 2 5 Docklands Planning approved construction may commence during lifetime of Development Plan Docklands To follow eastern Gateway Bridge b. Water Street Bridge 2 c. Public transport bridge at Mill Road Docklands Long term objective 2 d. Local collector streets bridge approaches e. Redevelopment of Centre Park and Monahan s Road f. New street layout in North Docklands including replacement of the Horgan s Quay traffic route by a new street to the north Docklands Long term objective 2 Docklands Planning approved construction may commence during lifetime of Development Plan Docklands In conjunction with redevelopment of site may commence during lifetime of Development Plan In association with Northwest Regeneration 2 2 g. New street from Harbour View Road North through St. Mary s Orthopaedic Hospital to west Baker s Road h. Indicative new street layout in North Blackpool area. North 11 Details in North Blackpool Local Area Plan n a 2 As published by the Department of Transport Tourism and Sport and the Department of Environment Community and Local Government March 2013. 3 Development Plan Volume 2 Mapped Objectives 62 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 5 Transportation x Strategic Road Network 5.28 The strategic road network of Cork City comprises eight national roads as shown in Figure 5.4. 5 Figure 5.4 Strategic Road Network 5.29 The planning construction and maintenance of the strategic road network is the remit of the National Roads Authority (NRA). The NRA in cooperation with Cork City Council and Cork County Council has set the following objectives affecting the Strategic Roads Network around Cork City Objective 5.18 Infrastructure Strategic Road Infrastructure Objectives Details c. 13 km of dual carriageway construction Upgrade to fully free flow in all directions (current north - south traffic and turning traffic to use a traffic signal controlled roundabout) and remove locally generated traffic from the interchange. c. 24 km of dual carriageway completing the ring of Cork City from the N8 (Glanmire Bypass) to the N22 (Ballincollig bypass) also connecting with the N20 (to Blarney- Limerick). Routes have been selected currently suspended. Part of the Letterkenny to Rosslare Atlantic Corridor comprises c. 42 km of motorway commencing at Blarney and ending north of Mallow currently suspended. N25 Carrigtwohill Midleton and N25 Midleton Youghal currently suspended. c. 43 km of new carriageway from the end of the Ballincollig Bypass to Ballyvourney including a bypass of Macroom town Ballyvourney to Macroom in Planning stage. a. N28 Cork Ringaskiddy route upgrading b. Dunkettle Interchange Upgrade c. Northern Ring Road d. M20 Cork to Limerick (Southern Section) e. N25 Cork to Waterford f. N22 Cork to Killarney Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 63 x Volume One Written Statement 5.30 The N28 Dunkettle Interchange Upgrade and the Northern Ring Road are the key strategic road priorities for the city. At this time there are no planned improvements within the City Council s administrative area that requires reserving lands for potential capacity enhancements key issues relate to demand management. A demand management study of the N40 is in preparation by the National Roads Authority. In the past a considerable amount of development in Cork City and the Metropolitan Area (e.g. satellite towns) has been designed in a manner that is dependent on the national roads network. However in recent years a roads hierarchy has been clarified and the primary purpose of the national road network has been clearly defined as providing strategic movements of goods and people between major cities and regions and between key international gateways such as the main ports and airports (Ministerial Guidelines Spatial Planning and National Roads January 2012). Reserving adequate capacity for strategic traffic on the national roads network will require providing alternative means of access for existing development that was constructed around the national roads network as well as limiting the extent of future development in locations that would give rise to the generation of short trip commuter traffic on national roads. Altering such patterns will require close cooperation with Cork County Council as part of the Cork Area Strategic Plan. It is a strategic objective of Cork City Council to protect the capacity efficiency and safety of national roads and associated junctions while maintaining the economic vibrancy of Cork City. Specific objectives in this regard are 5.31 5 5.32 5.33 Objective 5.19 Improve Local Streets for Local Traffic To cooperate with the other Transport stakeholders to improve the operational efficiency of the non-national road and transportation infrastructure for local traffic (e.g. promoting adequate local transportation infrastructure and alternative transport travel modes). Objective 5.20 Mitigation of Adverse Impacts on Strategic Roads To require development proposals that would materially impact the capacity of strategic national road network to remedy or mitigate any adverse effects of their development on transport systems and or infrastructure and make reasonable contributions towards the costs of any required mitigation alterations or capacity enhancement works to transport systems and or infrastructure as required. Multi-Modality 5.34 Objective 5.1 includes a strategic objective to work with other transport stakeholders to further integrate transport modes and facilitate multi-modal trip chains and several issues in Chapter 5 relate to the facilitation of multi-modal transport including the improvement of pedestrian infrastructure around major public transport nodes (Objectives 5.18 and 5.19) the improvement of bus access to rail stations park and ride (paragraph 5.46) the provision of cycle parking at major public transport nodes and park and ride facilities and Intelligent Transport Systems solutions such as the NTA Journey Planner (paragraph 5.39). Increasing the potential to mix modes will be a key factor in fostering sustainable transport during the lifetime of the Development Plan. Particular emphasis will be placed on maximising the potential of multi-modality associated with the public bike scheme (paragraph 5.14). 5.35 64 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 5 Transportation x Alternative Fuels Fuel Efficiency and Electric Vehicles 5.36 Cork City Council is supportive of actions that improve the fuel efficiency of motorised transport including improved fleet infrastructure increased use of biofuels energy efficient driving alternative technologies and electric car initiatives. During the lifetime of the Development Plan particular emphasis will be placed on electric vehicles ( EVs ) as there is a national target for 10% of all road vehicles to be powered by electricity by 2020. Biofuels and EVs improve air quality (fuel combustion for transport is a primary source or air pollution in the city (paragraphs 12.57 12.60)) EVs also reduce noise levels (road traffic noise is a predominant noise source in Cork City Objective 12.20 Joint Action Noise Plan.) National government has deemed the ESB responsible for providing electric vehicle ( EV ) charging infrastructure nationwide. Cork City Council will work with ESB to deliver on-street charging infrastructure parking standards have also been updated in Chapter 16. In addition the Cork City Council will also continue to incorporate electric vehicles into its own fleet. 5.37 5.38 5 Objective 5.21 Electric Vehicle Charging Cork City Council will promote and facilitate the use of Electric Vehicles including the provision of both on and off- street charging points. Smart Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems 5.39 The incorporation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and smart technologies to manage traffic and mobility and provide the public with transport information is already underway in Cork City and ties in with Strategic Objective 12.1(k) of ensuring adequate infrastructure to develop Cork as a Smart City. Current measures include the City Council s Mobility Management Centre the NTA s journey planner cycle planner Bus ireann s real-time information signs and public private sector lift sharing carpooling applications. Cork City Council will continue to incorporate and support ITS during the lifetime of the Development Plan. Objective 5.22 Intelligent Transportation Systems To support and promote continued use of Smart Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) to improve access and mobility in Cork City in conjunction with other transport stakeholders. Carpooling and Car Sharing 5.40 Carpooling (also referred to as lift sharing and car sharing ) describe the sharing of car journeys so that more than one person travels in a car. Car sharing (also known as car clubs ) describes a group of people who have an arrangement for sharing a car or cars. The national policy document Smarter Travel (Actions 18 and 19) support both initiatives as car pooling can help reduce fossil-fuel based emissions and traffic congestion and car sharing can reduce transport costs for households and reduce the need for parking. The primary carpooling initiatives in Cork currently include the NTA s website carsharing.ie (which facilitates carpooling) and private sector company Carma which facilitates real-time carpooling using ITS. Car sharing is currently provided by the private sector company Go Car. Cork City Council is supportive of such initiatives and will work with transport stakeholders to promote car pooling and car sharing. 5.41 Objective 5.23 Car Pooling and Car Sharing To work with other transport stakeholders to support and promote car pooling and car sharing. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 65 Volume One Written Statement Parking 5.42 Car parking is a key issue both from the point of view of the continuing health of the city s economy and its influence on the choices made amongst modes of transport. The Cork City Council is committed to encouraging alternatives to the private car and will continue to encourage a shift toward increased use of sustainable transport. Current car parking standards are set out in Chapter 16 Part G. Objective 5.24 Review Parking Standards To review and revise car parking standards and their application by 2017 (in conjunction with Cork County Council) in support of a range of sustainable landuse and transport objectives. 5 5.43 City Centre The desired outcome for the city centre is for it to be easily accessible for work business shopping and leisure. Accessibility can be provided by means other than private car but will require a transition particularly when the City Centre is competing with suburban areas that provide free parking. The provision of alternative transport options will be considered in combination with the reduction in the demand for parking. In addition it is noted that Action 2 of the national policy document Smarter Travel 2009 2020 calls for consideration of the introduction of parking charges at out-of-town retail centres. This will be considered further in respect of a parking strategy for the City Centre. Chapter 13 sets out plans to increase the residential and employment population of the City Centre. The general approach will be to ensure an appropriate supply of short-stay parking for shoppers and to restrict long-stay parking while encouraging alternative modes of transport and park and ride for commuters. As set out in Table 5.1 57% of those working in the City Centre drove to work in 2011. It is intended to reduce this percentage substantially over the lifetime of the Development Plan. However acknowledging the current gaps in the existing public transportation system should several major developments come on line at once this may require temporary parking measures to allow for the transition to more sustainable means of transport. In such a scenario a sequential approach will be to used maximise the use of sustainable transport maximise the use of existing (authorised) carparks (many of which are not used to full capacity at present) then consider the provision of temporary parking (such as temporary surface park and walk arrangements located outside the City Centre) before finally considering the construction of any new multi-storey car parks. No new multi-storey car parks are open for consideration on the City Centre Island. 5.44 Objective 5.25 Multi-Storey Car Parks No new multi-storey car parks shall be permitted on the City Centre Island. Objective 5.26 Balanced Parking Provision Cork City Council will discourage long-term commuter parking in the City Centre while ensuring adequate but not excessive parking provision for short-term shopping business and leisure use. Transitional temporary parking arrangements outside the City Centre for new City Centre office developments may be open for consideration subject to the sequential test conditions attached to planning and preparation of a Travel Plan. Objective 5.27 Parking at Suburban District Centres To explore the potential for the introduction of parking management measures including the potential for charges at suburban district centres in support of improved accessibility by public transport walking and cycling and to reduce car-based congestion. 66 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 5 Transportation x Objective 5.28 Parking Capacity Study During the lifetime of the Development Plan Cork City Council will conduct a capacity study of existing parking assets in the City Centre and develop a strategy to maximise usage of existing parking assets in order to facilitate new development in the City Centre without the need for the construction of significant new parking structures. 5.45 Coach parking has also been identified as an issue in the City Centre both in respect of tour buses and private bus operators. A strategy for coach parking will be published in 2015. Park and Ride 5.46 Action 14 of the NTA s Smarter Travel Plan includes the provision of park and ride facilities at the edge of major urban centres and at important public transport nodes with efficient transport connections to the urban centre. Park and ride facilities offer car-based commuters the option of changing from cars to public transport or cycling before they enter the city thereby reducing congestion and providing lower-cost travel options than City Centre car parking. There is currently one existing Park and Ride at Black Ash near the Kinsale Road interchange plans have been completed for a Park and Ride at Carrigrohane (see Map 10 Volume 3) but the proposal awaits funding. 5 Objective 5.29 Park and Ride Objectives Infrastructure a. Carrigrohane Road Park and Ride Status Planned Development Plans complete await funding from National Transport Authority Post 2021 Map No. 10 b. Other major radial routes into the city n a Resident Street Parking 5.47 Within suburban areas residents parking zones have been established to protect residential amenity from intrusive commuter parking. Currently disc parking cordons are extended at the request of local communities. On-street parking constitutes a significant public asset which can be managed in a manner that promotes fairness and the achievement of sustainable transportation policies. To this end the allocation of residential parking permits will be reviewed to ensure that the process is in keeping with strategic policies objectives. Objective 5.31 Residential Parking Permits To review the allocation of residential parking permits to ensure policies promote sustainable transportation objectives and best use of public infrastructure. Airport 5.48 Cork International Airport located a few kilometres south of the city (in the County Council s administrative area) serves an important role for both business and the tourism industry providing access to Britain and other destinations in Europe in particular. The County Development Plan prioritises the delivery of a high quality public transport connecting the Airport to the City Centre the City Council is supportive of this objective. Public Safety Zones related to the airport that may affect development proposals in the city are accounted for in Chapter 12. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 67 x Volume One Written Statement Freight Management 5.49 Efficient freight transport is essential for both existing businesses and anticipated growth. The efficient transfer of freight also contributes to reduced emissions (see Chapter 12). Factories production and distribution units need good transport connections to ensure certainty of supplies and deliveries. Retail outlets need efficient distribution systems. All businesses need efficient freight movement to operate effectively. A CASP working group is currently (2013) investigating a framework for sustainable and efficient freight distribution to reflect and influence the various ways businesses need to operate in regard to the movement and storage of freight. The framework may include a HGV (Heavy Goods Vehicle) Management Strategy for Cork City Centre. Such details will be incorporated into the Development Plan when the framework is finalised. 5 Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning (SUMP) 5.50 Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning is an EU-developed framework for addressing transport-related issues in urban areas more efficiently. It is characterised by A participatory approach involving citizens and stakeholders from the outset and throughout the process of decision making implementation and evaluation building local capacities for handling complex planning issues and ensuring gender equity A pledge for sustainability balancing economic development social equity and environmental quality An integrated approach of practices and policies between policy sectors and authority levels (local regional and national) and between neighbouring authorities A focus on achieving measurable targets derived from short term objectives aligned with a vision for transport and embedded in an overall sustainable development strategy A review of transport costs and benefits taking into account the wider societal costs and benefits also across policy sectors A method comprising the following tasks 1) status analysis and baseline scenario 2) definition of a vision objectives and targets 3) selection of policies and measures 4) assignment of responsibilities and resources 5) arrangements for monitoring and evaluation. 5.51 Many aspects of the SUMP process are already incorporated into the City Council s processes additional best practice will be incorporated where feasible during the lifetime of the Development Plan. 68 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 6 Residential Strategy Chapter 6 Residential Strategy Contents Introduction National Housing Policy The Draft Joint Housing Strategy Cork Planning Authorities 2013. Key Principles of the Joint Housing Strategy Social Housing Social Housing under Part V Working with Voluntary Private and Co-operative Housing Sectors Regeneration & Maintenance Specialised Housing Needs Housing Demand & Supply Sustainable Residential Development 71 71 72 72 72 72 73 73 73 74 75 6 69 x Volume One Written Statement work with local communities to 6 plan and build better places to live for everyone 70 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 6 Residential Strategy x CHAPTER 6 RESIDENTIAL STRATEGY Introduction 6.1 Housing is important to everybody and is essential to achieving a good quality of life. The residential strategic focus is on achieving a diversity of housing in self-sustaining communities. Cork City Council aims to work with local communities to plan and build better places to live for everyone. This includes building affordable housing improving the quality of rented housing and providing housing support for vulnerable people. It will seek to address the housing needs of the community not only for people already living here but for future residents. A profile of the City shows that the City Centre has a predominance of people in their twenties. 20% of the population of Cork City is aged 0-18 years while 15% is aged 65 and over. The elderly cohort is set to increase in line with European trends. The majority in the 65 age cohort is located in the south sectors of the city. Owner-occupier units and social housing are clustered in the suburbs while private rental units make up the majority of units moving towards the City Centre. The Joint Cork City & County Housing Strategy considers the housing needs of residents future population targets and local requirements. Wherever possible the opportunity will be pursued to recycle derelict neglected and underused sites in urban areas with the purpose of safeguarding greenfield sites and promoting regeneration. Encouragement will be given to upgrading the quality of housing areas and extending the range of accommodation to improve the vitality and quality of residential provision throughout the city. 6 6.2 6.3 Objective 6.1 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Residential Strategic Objectives To encourage the development of sustainable residential neighbourhoods To provide a variety of sites for housing to meet the various needs of different sections of the population To continue to work with the Approved Housing Bodies and to actively engage with all key stakeholders in the provision of housing To continue to regenerate and maintain existing housing To encourage the use of derelict or underused land and buildings to assist in their regeneration To promote high standards of design energy efficiency estate layout and landscaping in all new housing developments To protect and where necessary enhance the amenities and the environment of existing residential areas. National Housing Policy 6.4 The national vision for the future of the housing sector in Ireland is based on choice fairness equity across tenures and on delivering quality outcomes for the resources invested. The overall strategic objective will be to enable all households to access good quality housing appropriate to household circumstances and in their particular community of choice. 7 7 Housing Policy Statement June 2011 Dept. Of Environment Community and Local Government. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 71 x Volume One Written Statement The Draft Joint Housing Strategy Cork Planning Authorities 2013. 6.5 The development plan provides for the housing of the existing and future population of the area in an appropriate manner. To this end the Draft Joint Housing Strategy Cork Planning Authorities aligns with the population and housing targets set out in the Regional Planning Guidelines for the South West 2010-2022. The Joint Housing Strategy forms part of this City Development Plan. Key Principles of the Joint Housing Strategy 6.6 The four key principles that guide the Housing Strategy are as follows Principle 1 To provide for a diverse range of housing needs to suit varying income levels and social circumstance Principle 2 To promote a socially balanced and inclusive society in all housing area within Cork City and County Principle 3 To promote high quality and sustainable communities in the Urban and Rural Environment through the implementation of the Sustainable Residential Development in Urban Areas Guidelines for Planning Authorities and Best Practice Urban Design Manual 2009 Principle 4 To monitor the Housing Strategy and to allow for consultation with those who are central to the implementation of the policies of the strategy. 6 Objective 6.2 Housing Policies To have regard to National Regional and Local housing policy documents including the Joint Housing Strategy for Cork Planning Authorities. Social Housing 6.7 8 Housing needs can be met from a variety of sources in addition to the private sector including local authority provision and the voluntary and co-operative housing sector under an array of different tenure and contract forms. Social Housing under Part V 6.8 The provision of housing for all has long been a fundamental requirement of public policy. While the Planning & Development Act 2000 (as amended) provides for both social and affordable housing in June 2011 the Government published their Statement on Housing Policy which included a number of measures amongst then the standing down of all affordable housing schemes. A review of Part V of the Planning & Development Act 2000 (as amended) is underway. Each application which is subject to Part V requirements will be considered on an individual basis and the actual mechanism used to satisfy same shall be the one that best facilitates the development of strong vibrant mixed tenure communities. Objective 6.3 Social Housing under Part V To require that 14% of units on all land zoned for residential uses (or for a mix of residential and other uses) to be reserved for the purpose of social housing and specialised housing needs. Each application subject to Part V requirements will be considered on an individual basis to the prior agreement of the Local Authority. 8 The City Council shall have regard to the following national documents (and subsequent updates) Statement on Housing Policy DoEHLG 2011 Quality Housing for Sustainable Communities Best Practice Guidelines for Delivering Homes Sustaining Communities 2007 72 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 6 Residential Strategy x Working with Voluntary Private and Co-operative Housing Sectors 6.9 Housing needs can be met from a variety of sources including the private sector local authority provision and the voluntary and co-operative housing sector under an array of different tenure and contract forms. The Cork City Council will continue to work with the private voluntary and co-operative housing sectors in the provision of suitable housing. Models of letting (e.g. Rental Allowance Scheme) and allocation operating within the current supply levels are limited given the continuing high demand for social housing support and the emergence of high demand areas. Choice Based Letting models provided for under Section 6 Section 11 of the Social Housing Allocations Regulations 2011 are a useful model of letting combined with needs based models. This model places an element of choice in the hands of qualified applicants of social housing support. The Cork City Council will continue to work with Approved Housing Bodies to meet housing needs through the social leasing model which is emerging as the main model for securing social housing through Long-term Leasing Capital Advanced Leasing Facility and Build-to-Lease agreements. The Cork City Council will seek more active engagement with all stakeholders involved in such provision including owners developers financial institutions estate agents etc. 6.10 6.11 6 Objective 6.4 Housing Provision To support and facilitate the provision of housing through various sectors including private voluntary and cooperative housing sectors. The Local Authority will continue to implement and operate a range of housing schemes and will continue to look at viable alternatives in the delivery of suitable accommodation for all. Regeneration & Maintenance 6.12 By improving existing residential areas through environmental improvements and by ensuring good quality in new developments such areas will become more attractive as places where people choose to live. Pressure for new housing elsewhere can thereby be reduced as such areas regain or improve their vitality. To this end work on the regeneration of the Northwest Quarter in Knocknaheeny is ongoing with the initial phase commenced of a 5-phase programme of demolition and construction along with public realm improvements over the next 10 years. 6.13 Specialised Housing Needs 6.14 The Joint Housing Strategy sets out the housing needs of categories which require special attention. These are as follows Student Accommodation Accommodation for the Elderly Accommodation for Travellers Accommodation for People with Disabilities Accommodation for People of Diverse Cultures Accommodation for the Homeless. The following polices support the detailed analysis of the different categories of households which require special attention as specified in the Joint Housing Strategy. 9 6.15 9 To be read in conjunction with the Cork Planning Authorities Joint Housing Strategy Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 73 x Volume One Written Statement Objective 6.5 Student Accommodation Any change of use from student accommodation to any other type of accommodation shall require planning permission. Generally such applications shall be resisted unless it can be adequately demonstrated that an over provision of student accommodation exists in the city. Objective 6.6 Meeting Housing Needs of Special Categories 6 Cork City Council will actively seek to meet the housing needs of special categories requiring housing by a) Supporting the concept of independent living for older people to provide purpose-built accommodation suitable to their needs in areas with good access to community facilities b) Implementing the Disabled Persons Grant Scheme to provide for necessary accommodation alterations to better meet their needs c) Providing suitable accommodation for Travellers designating the use of particular areas for this purpose and implementing Traveller Accommodation Plans (See Maps in Vol 2). Furthermore accommodation for Travellers may be provided on other lands zoned for residential use d) Continuing to work with the Homeless Forum (and in partnership with other stakeholders) in implementing the Cork Homeless Action Plan e) Continuing to work with the HSE and the voluntary sector in the provision of housing for refugees f) To work with self-advocates the HSE and the voluntary sector in the provision of housing for people with intellectual disability and or autism consistent with the National Disability Act and the policy on congregated settings. Housing Demand & Supply 6.16 As outlined in Chapter 2 Core Strategy the Plan provides for sufficient residentially zoned lands to meet the needs of the population target up to and including 2022.10 This is line with the Southwest Regional Planning Authority projections. Cork City registered 47 163 households in the 2011 Census up 7% from 2006 (and up 10% on 2002) although the overall population of the city administrative area itself fell slightly. The number of households is increasing as per the table below 6.17 Table 6.1 No. of Households per Census in Cork City Year Population 6.18 2002 42 742 2006 43 939 2011 47 163 The average number of persons in Cork City households is 2.45 persons. This is down from 2.61 in the 2006 Census. The demand is for more units accommodating fewer people. The provision of a range of housing types and sizes in the city will increase in importance as trends continue to show a decline in family housing and an increase in elderly and single person households. The predominant household size in Cork City is 2-person households which accounts for 32% of all household types followed by 1-person households (29%) (Census 2011). Home ownership is encouraged as this provides not only a more stable residential environment but also promotes a sense of community and shared responsibility for the residential area. The private rented sector also has an important role in helping to meet accommodation needs which seem likely to increase in line with modern trends such as greater labour mobility reducing household size and changing lifestyle preferences. 6.19 10 Chapter 2 Core Strategy outlines population projections and the corresponding demand for residentially zoned land. 74 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 6 Residential Strategy x Objective 6.7 Private Sector The City Council will support the further expansion of the private owner occupier and private rented sectors to ensure the continuation of a range of housing choices in the city. 6.20 Providing a good mix of house types can create neighbourhoods and communities for people of different ages and lifestyles and by default allows people the choice and opportunity to remain in a given area throughout the different stages of their life. To meet the changing needs and sizes of households Cork City Council will ensure the development of a greater mix of house types and sizes reflecting local circumstances in suitable densities in accordance with objectives set out in Chapter 16 Development Management. New types of affordable accommodation based largely around different land tenure models. Objective 6.8 Housing Mix To encourage the establishment of sustainable residential communities by ensuring a mix of housing and apartment types sizes and tenures is provided. Planning applications for multiple housing units shall submit a Statement of Housing Mix detailing the proposed mix and why it is considered appropriate. The needs of special groups such as the elderly and disabled shall also be considered as part of this process. 6.21 Housing density plays an important part in ensuring that the best use is made of land intended for development. While it is necessary to have sufficient densities to make public transport viable there is also a need to ensure that residential density standards in suburban locations are attractive for development. The aim is to ensure that a range and diversity of housing products and services is on offer (in terms of size nature and design) and to improve the choice of cost-effective solutions across the housing continuum. 6 6.22 Objective 6.9 Housing Density To promote suitable densities to meet the needs outlined in the Core Strategy as set out in Chapter 16 Development Management. Sustainable Residential Development 6.23 New housing developments shall reflect national guidance and policy and create high quality spaces and neighbourhoods. To this end proposals for residential developments shall be considered under Objective 16.9 Sustainable Residential Development as detailed in the Development Management Chapter and Sustainable Neighbourhoods as detailed in Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods . Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 75 Volume One Written Statement 6 76 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods Contents Introduction Sustainable Neighbourhoods The Egan Wheel Social Inclusion Community Facilities Children & Childcare Education Schools Third Level Colleges Health Older Persons People with Disabilities Libraries Recreation and Amenity Cultural Diversity Disadvantaged Areas RAPID Safe City 79 79 80 81 81 82 83 83 83 83 83 84 84 85 85 85 86 7 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 77 x Volume One Written Statement 7 planning for healthy safe liveable and distinctive neighbourhoods 78 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods x CHAPTER 7 INCLUSIVE NEIGHBOURHOODS Introduction 7.1 Good neighbourhoods serve as focal points for the surrounding community with a range of services and facilities typically in a vibrant and attractive physical environment. The relationships between good health and a sense of community social interaction and community empowerment are well studied and accepted. A sense of community and belonging with the places where people live work and travel is an influential determinant of mental and physical health as is a built environment that facilitates social interaction. Inclusive neighbourhoods have a high level of participation a strong sense of identity and are socially inclusive. These qualities can be facilitated by planning for healthy safe liveable and distinctive neighbourhoods where people can access the facilities and services that they need in their daily lives without having to travel e.g. shops health services community facilities good quality schools and childcare provision. The availability of suitable community facilities can bring together residents from different backgrounds with different needs and have a positive impact on local issues and services. 7 Objective 7.1 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. Inclusive Neighbourhoods Strategic Objectives To support provision of appropriate community facilities and services for all young the ageing population able-bodied disabled etc. To support the provision by voluntary and state agencies of a wide range of community facilities. To facilitate and support existing and proposed educational facilities. To support dual use of community facilities. To encourage the provision of suitably sized health care facilities located close to communities serving a sufficient catchment and accessible by public transport. To ensure that social inclusion objectives are fully integrated into planning policy. To support the particular needs of an area in terms of provision of childcare whether it is to be a cr che facility pre-school after-school etc. To consider the child as a citizen of Cork City. To work to ensure Cork City is a family friendly city. To consider cultural diversity and ethnic minorities in planning for the needs of communities. Continue to encourage active public participation in the Planning process. To encourage socially inclusive and safe communities. To consider the needs of groups with specific design planning needs in the formation of policy documents. To make Cork a sustained healthy city in which to live work and visit. Sustainable Neighbourhoods 7.2 Sustainable inclusive neighbourhoods serve as focal points for the surrounding community with a range of services and facilities typically in a vibrant and attractive physical environment. They are places where people want to live and work now and in the future. Creating sustainable neighbourhoods requires sustainable densities that make the necessary facilities and services viable and good public Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 79 x Volume One Written Statement The Egan Wheel 11 transport connections. Good neighbourhoods must incorporate quality living spaces amenity areas and green infrastructure as well as fostering a distinctive sense of place and a safe environment. Well Run ive lus Inc fe ive a Act & S al & oci ral S ll We Governance & ort y nsp ivit Tra nnect Co ted nec Con To support the creation of sustainable neighbourhoods which allow access to services and facilities for all users and to foster a sense of community and a sense of place. Well Designed & Built Objective 7.2 Sustainable Neighbourhoods Cul tu Housing & Built Environment Place Making En nm viro ent y Well Served Services Eco 7 7.3 Sustainable Settlements A Guide for Planners Designers & Developers (1995) 12 outlines the recommended services that a city should provide within a certain distance of people s homes thereby creating an urban village whereby people should be able to satisfy the ordinary needs of life living working and shopping. This is represented in the following diagram. nom Equity Fair for Everyone ally ent e m ron itiv nvi Sens E Thr ivin g 11 Source ASC (2006) Making Places creating sustainable communities. A teachers guide to sustainable communities Leeds Academy for Sustainable Communities 12 Sustainable Settlements A Guide for Planners Designers & Developers. Barton Hugh. University of West of England Bristol. April 1995. 80 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods x 7.4 Using both the Egan Wheel model and the recommended services which a city should provide within a certain distance of people s homes as outlined in Sustainable Settlements A Guide for Planners Designers and Developers (1995) the City Council aims to develop a City Neighbourhoods Strategy. Objective 7.3 City Neighbourhoods Strategy To pursue the development of a City Neighbourhoods Strategy. Social Inclusion 7.5 Social inclusion is important in creating sustainable neighbourhoods. It seeks the creation of an inclusive and fair society combating inequality social exclusion and poverty. The Social Inclusion Unit of Cork City Council was set up to further integrate social inclusion into the policies programmes activities and services of Cork City Council. The aim is to ensure that everyone regardless of their background experiences and circumstances can gain access to the services and facilities they need to achieve their own potential in life. The promotion of inclusive neighbourhoods that cater for all age groups that accord with the principles of universal design and that offer quality of opportunity and good services to all will be a priority. 7.6 7 Objective 7.4 a. b. c. Social Inclusion To support the activities of the Social Inclusion Unit To actively engage with all sectors of the community to encourage public participation To support urban regeneration in areas across the city in order to enhance social cohesion. Community Facilities 7.7 The quality of life in a community depends not only on the provision of housing employment and infrastructure support but also on access to social community and cultural facilities which are fundamental to social cohesion and personal enhancement. Community Facilities such as halls and resource centres provide an essential function for people to socialise and meet as well as providing for general recreational and other needs. While the provision of particular buildings for community groups such as community centres is considered an essential part of strengthening communities consideration should also be given to the provision of meeting rooms in existing facilities. New facilities should be designed so that they are adaptable over time to meet the changing needs of the population and provide for dual use at evenings weekends and school holidays so that their usage can be maximised e.g. cr che facilities could be adapted for the needs of older people (providing meeting facilities etc.) or used in the evening times when they would not otherwise be in use. To ensure there is a proper network of community facilities services should be provided with other facilities such as shops cr ches schools medical centres etc. and these should be accessible to all. The loss of a social facility can have a major impact on a community especially in localities where no other dedicated facilities exist. In order to prevent the loss of community facilities the Cork City Council will discourage their change to non-community uses. 7.8 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 81 x Volume One Written Statement Objective 7.5 Community Facilities To support the development and provision of a range of community facilities throughout the City. Facilities should be designed to be flexible in terms of their usage and adaptable over time. Adequate community facilities should be provided so that they are accessible to everyone and where possible provided close to existing centres so that a range of services are provided. Community facilities will be required to be provided in tandem with the development of large new residential areas such as Docklands. Children & Childcare 7.9 The physical social and economic dimensions of urban environments impacts on a child s life by shaping their ability to form social relationships and by influencing their physical mental and emotional health. The interests of children when managing the structure and form of cities must be taken into consideration. Within planning and policy development generally community consultation shall include engagement with children and youth. Cork City is committed to encouraging built environments that respond to the particular needs and concerns of children e.g. safe crossing zones on the way to school multi-purpose and safe play spaces that includes opportunities for public and private spaces for children to play and socialize toilets that are child friendly etc. to help to make cities more child friendly. 7 Objective 7.6 Cork City as a Child-Friendly City To promote Cork as a child-friendly city by considering the needs of children in terms of appropriate design when changes are proposed to the built environment. 7.10 The provision of childcare is a key component of the economy of the city and in addressing poverty and social exclusion. Access to childcare benefits children s educational and social development and also facilitates participation in the workforce. There continues to be demand for childcare services and provision of good quality services. It is essential that the proper childcare facilities are provided for each area to cater for the demands of that specific locale. Childcare is not limited to cr che facilities but is defined as full day-care and sessional facilities and services for pre-school and school-going children out of school hours (Childcare Facilities Guidelines for Planning Authorities 2001). As such there is a need to identify the exact facilities that are required in a given area whether it is pre-school or after-school etc. Suitable locations for childcare facilities are considered to be places of employment educational and community establishments city district neighbourhood and local centres as well as areas convenient to public transport nodes and residential areas. In large scale retail leisure or tourism developments the provision of a drop-in childcare facility for shoppers will be encouraged. Developments that generate major employment opportunities shall be encouraged to provide childcare facilities. In the Development Management Chapter proposals for childcare facilities shall be required to consider design documents such as We Like This Place - Guidelines for Best Practice in the Design of Childcare Facilities (DoE 2005). 13 7.11 Objective 7.7 Childcare Facilities Cork City Council will support the provision of high quality childcare facilities throughout the city suited to the needs of the given area and will i) Require purpose built childcare facilities as part of proposals for new residential developments of more than 75 dwelling units. However where it can be clearly established that existing facilities are sufficient alternative arrangements will be considered ii) Consult with the Cork City Childcare Company and the HSE on planning applications where childcare facilities are proposed iii) Require employers with more than 500 members of staff to provide childcare facilities as part of planning applications for significant new and extended development. 13 See Chapter 16 Development Management. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 82 Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods x Education Schools 7.12 The provision of suitable and adequate primary and secondary education is an essential element of any community. The Department of Education & Skills and the Department of Environment Heritage & Local Government published in July 2008 The Provision of Schools & the Planning System a Code of Practice for Planning Authorities . The document highlights the need for close liaison between Planning Authorities and the Department of Education & Skills to ensure that the provision of schools and new residential development are coordinated in this regard. No substantial residential development should proceed without an assessment of existing schools capacity or the provision of new school facilities in tandem with the development. Third Level Colleges 7.13 Cork City has excellent provision of 3rd Level Education with University College Cork Cork Institute of Technology Cork City VEC Crawford College of Art & Design Cork School of Music and the Tyndall National Institute (to name a few) providing a diverse range of educational options. The City Council supports the continued development and expansion of 3rd Level institutions in a suitable manner with improved access for all. Objective 7.8 a. b. Educational Facilities 7 To ensure that school and college sites are made available in accordance with the requirements of the relevant education authorities To support the ongoing development and provision of second and third level education and lifelong learning in the city. Objective 7.9 Shared Community Facilities To consider the provision of shared community and childcare facilities on sites made available to the Department of Education and Skills for schools. Health 7.14 In terms of the overall provision of healthcare services the continuing trend is towards communitybased care with the development of multidisciplinary Primary Care Teams (PCT). PCT is a multidisciplinary group of health and social care professionals who work together to deliver local accessible health and social services to a defined population of between 7 000-10 000 people at primary or first point of contact with the health service. In Cork City a need for a minimum of 4 primary care centres has been identified by the HSE. They may be directly publicly provided or they may be developed by the private sector. One has already been developed in Mahon. National Policy retains CUH as the main acute hospital for the southern part of the country. Other supporting key acute City Centre hospitals include The Mercy University Hospital and the South Infirmary. In addition to these St. Finbarr s Hospital will serve a range of community medical needs. Objective 7.10 Healthcare Facilities To support the sustainable provision of hospitals and other healthcare facilities within the city including appropriate community based care facilities at suitable locations subject to the proper planning considerations. Older Persons 7.15 With an ageing population there is a need to ensure a supply of adequate services to meet their needs. Many people are remaining in the workforce for longer and staying healthy and active until later in life which is impacting on the types of aged services demanded by the community. To this end the Cork City Council has joined with the Cork County Council to prepare a strategy for Older Persons. The strategy is being guided by the National Positive Ageing Strategy (2013) and will inform future Council policy. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 83 x Volume One Written Statement 7.16 The family home has may need to adapt so that multiple generations can live together in both harmony and privacy. Proposals for residential units will be assessed for their adaptability to different life stages under Development Management policies as outlined in Chapter 17. Section 6.5 Specialised Housing Needs (Chapter 6 Residential Strategy) identifies the need to provide suitable accommodation for the elderly. This is further supported in the Draft Joint City & County Housing Strategy. The aim is to allow more people to age in their present location by Encourage the provision of facilities in areas where housing already exists Encouraging the provision of more housing units closer to facilities Addressing accessibility issues - for physically disabled or pedestrian access i.e. footpaths etc. Having adaptable housing stock Consider the provision of ancillary family accommodation i.e. Granny Flats where appropriate. 7.17 Objective 7.11 Strategy for Older Persons To support the implementation of the Services and Infrastructure for Older Persons Strategy when completed as a step towards planning for ageing. 7 Objective 7.12 a. b. Facilities for the Elderly To support provision of appropriate community facilities for all the young the ageing population the able-bodied people with disabilities etc. To support the improvement expansion and establishment of health services for the elderly including extended respite care day care and nursing care. People with Disabilities 7.18 Cork City Council is developing a 5-year strategic plan for housing people with disability (Physical Intellectual Mental Health Sensory) who have an identified social housing need in conjunction with the Housing and Disability Steering Group established in 2014. The strategy will be guided by the National Disability Strategy (2013) and will inform future Council policy. The City Council will work with self-advocacy groups the HSE and the voluntary sector to inform and develop this strategy. Objective 7.13 Strategy for people with disabilities To support the development of a strategy for housing people with a disability (Physical Intellectual Mental Health Sensory) to include the identification of social housing need from those in congregated settings and those living in the community. Libraries 7.19 Library services continue to be of vital importance to the city providing information education places for social interaction and bridging the digital divide. The use of the city library has increased by more than 25% since 2009. The City Council will continue to support the delivery of library services across the city. Proposals are being prepared for the new replacement of the City Library at the Grand Parade. Provision of a library in Mahon is also proposed. Objective 7.14 Library Services To support the continued development improvement and upgrading of library facilities and services. 84 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods x Recreation and Amenity 7.20 Neighbourhood green spaces are vital to our everyday quality of life. They need to be well designed made relevant to the needs of local people and be havens for wildlife. Well designed and appropriately located open spaces assist social interactions between inhabitants consequently building the neighbourhood s sense of community. Neighbourhood access to public open space can increase physical activity by providing easier and more direct access to opportunities for exercise and can also be used for food growing whether for pleasure education or economic purposes but all leading to a healthier lifestyle. Green spaces also support frequent casual contact among neighbours. This leads to the formation of neighbourhood social ties the building blocks of strong secure neighbourhoods where people tend to support care about and protect one another. Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure addresses and details the provision of adequate multi-functional open spaces and recreational areas. This includes provisions of easily accessible and useable spaces for safe play areas spaces for social interactions and spaces to exercise. Chapter 16 Development Management details the requirements for open space provision for new developments. Other recreational amenities which promote social interactions include allotments and the concept of Men s Sheds etc. The Cork City Council will support the provision of both indoor and outdoor recreational facilities at suitable locations to cater for all age-groups. Objective 7.15 a) b) Neighbourhood Recreation & Amenity 7 To support and facilitate the development of outdoor and indoor recreational facilities to cater for all age-groups on suitable sites To encourage development of food-growing spaces such as allotments and community gardens. Cultural Diversity 7.21 Cork City Council recognises the community and cultural needs of ethnic or culturally diverse populations in the city and aims to facilitate the appropriate and sustainable development of diverse cultural religious and social facilities reflecting these varying needs. This proposes an interculturalism which emphasises interaction and the exchange of ideas between different cultural groups. This suggests mutual learning and growth and gaining skills to allow interaction between different people regardless of their origins. Objective 7.16 Cultural Diversity To recognise the community and cultural needs of communities in the city and facilitate the development of diverse cultural religious and social facilities at suitable locations subject to proper planning considerations. Disadvantaged Areas RAPID 7.22 The importance of developing and improving services in disadvantaged areas is recognised as essential in ensuring balanced development occurs around the city. Social disadvantage is still spatially concentrated in certain parts of the city. The RAPID (Revitalising Areas through Planning Investment and Development) programmes continue to play a very important role in tackling disadvantaged areas. There are four RAPID areas in the city three are located on the Northside (Knocknaheeny Hollyhill Churchfield Blackpool The Glen Mayfield Fairhill Gurranabraher Farranree) and the fourth is on the Southside (Togher Mahon). 14 The Neighbourhood takes Charge Factsheet May 2011 Rotterdam City Council. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 85 x Volume One Written Statement Objective 7.17 Programmes for Disadvantaged Areas To support and promote the development of RAPID programmes aimed at disadvantaged areas including the implementation of projects and commitments outlined under these programmes. Safe City 7.23 People want to live in a safe city. The key to creating a safe city is to create a strong and bonded community that feels as if the city is home and not just a place to visit for business and shopping. Designing out crime planning principles include using the general principles of good urban design of places spaces and buildings to reduce crime through improvements to lighting landscaping orientating buildings to overlook the street using see through rather than tinted windows and avoiding blank walls facing onto streets or large distances between footpaths and building entrances. Chapter 16 Development Management outlines the guidelines for designing a safe city. The Netherlands has undertaken a unique project with regard to reducing incidences of crime. Rotterdam police department introduced an experimental project called The Neighbourhood takes Charge .14 Nearly all of the most popular suggestions involved improving the street environment and making streets more walk-friendly. Focus on making streets cleaner removing graffiti speed gunning motorists increasing police visibility and improving the public realm. By implementing a combination of extra policing with improved urban realm dramatic reductions in all sorts of crime over a two year period was seen. Cork City Council will continue to upgrade the public realm as resources permit and it will endeavour to ensure that the public realm is maintained at all times and kept free of graffiti and litter. 7.24 7 Objective 7.18 a. b. Safe City To ensure a well-integrated urban form that provides a safe environment for all users by maximising visibility and surveillance increasing pedestrian activity and maximising connections between areas To encourage the ongoing maintenance and upkeep of the public realm keeping spaces free of graffiti and litter etc. 86 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism Contents Introduction Cultural Heritage Arts and Culture Tourism Developing Cork s Cultural Heritage and Identity Maritime Harbour River City City Island Medieval Spine River Lee Waterfront Made In Cork Imagined In Cork Cultural Heritage Infrastructure Museums Cork City and County Archive Library Service Ancillary Supporting Infrastructure Visitor Accommodation Motor home and Camping Park Infrastructure for Artists Public Art Marketing and Branding 89 89 89 90 91 92 93 95 96 97 98 99 99 99 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 8 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 87 x Volume One Written Statement heritage Our Culturalwhere we links us to come from gives our everyday lives a clearer focus and shapes an understanding of our city as a unique and special place 8 88 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism x CHAPTER 8 ARTS CULTURAL HERITAGE AND TOURISM Introduction Cultural Heritage 8.1 The character of Cork City or its sense of place is made up of much more than the natural or built elements associated with its image including many of its non-physical or less tangible elements such as social history culture and the personality of its people. While the image of Cork City can be appreciated via its topography (ridges and river) and architecture (i.e. key landmark buildings such as Shandon and St. Fin Barre s Cathedral) its inherent cultural identity and character may be less tangible to the outsider. Cultural heritage includes such obvious manifestations such as museums libraries and archives however it can also include aspects of our heritage such as language music genealogy folklore sport traditional food and local history. Cultural heritage can also be found in the subtle less tangible aspects of our heritage such as accents turns of phrase local customs and collective memories. Put simply our cultural heritage links us to where we come from gives our everyday lives a clearer focus and shapes an understanding of our city as a unique and special place. It is this cultural heritage which makes Cork City an attractive vibrant place for both local people and tourists to live work study and visit. The Cork City Council has a role to play in ensuring that the city s cultural heritage in its widest meaning - is valued by citizen and visitor alike and that the way in which this is presented is authentic and meaningful. Cork City Council acknowledges the importance of cultural heritage through the actions of the Cork City Heritage Plan and also provides a focal point for cultural activities through the work of its Arts Heritage Sports and Conservation and Archaeological Officers along with the services provided by the City Archives City Museum and the City Libraries. Cork City Council acknowledges the importance of the city s artistic life and cultural heritage and aims to protect and encourage its development. Failte Ireland believes that the destination of Cork City and Harbour is well placed to benefit from the growing interest that visitors have in the culture and heritage of places. However in order to strengthen the city s sense of place we must start with an understanding of what are those elements (aside from physical artefacts) that make us who we are as a people and defines our culture. These issues and the means by which Cork City Council can contribute to developing the city s cultural identity its sense of place and ultimately the quality of live it offers is explored in this chapter. 8.2 8 8.3 8.4 Arts and Culture 8.5 Arts and culture in addition to enhancing the urban form helps to underpin a city s sense of place and enhances its quality of life and attractiveness as a place in which to live and to visit.15 The Cork City Council prepared an Arts and Culture Strategy covering the period 2011-2015 which affirms the Cork City Council s belief in the importance of the arts to individuals and communities and as an important aspect of local government service to the community. In addition the forthcoming Cork City Heritage Plan 2015-2020 also highlights the importance Cork City Council places on Heritage and Culture. 15 Failte Ireland Interpretive Framework Cork City and Harbour (2013) P. 3. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 89 x Volume One Written Statement 8.6 Cork City Council has a good track record in investing in and supporting the arts and heritage and is committed to supporting the development of this sector as a key component of our city s identity and ongoing development. The city already possesses and supports a range of heritage buildings arts and cultural institutions including museums art galleries libraries theatres and public buildings. These include to name but a few St. Anne s Church Shandon Blackcock Castle St Finbarre s Cathedral Cork Butter Market the English Market Cork School of Music and the Crawford Municipal Art Gallery and the Glucksman Gallery UCC. The recently completed and refurbished facility -Triskel Christchurch further reinforces the city s support of the arts and the recently acquired Elizabeth Fort demonstrates its commitment to Heritage. Cork City Council plays a direct role in the development of heritage arts and cultural facilities including the refurbishment of Triskel Christchurch as a theatre cinema music venue along with record shop and cafe Blackrock Castle as an Observatory and Visitor Centre and also the repair and reuse of the Lee Road Waterworks as the Lifetime Lab Environmental Training and Education Centre. The Cork City Council has also managed the redevelopment of a number of buildings for use as centres for arts activities. These include among others the National Sculpture Factory the Munster Literature Centre and Cork Vision Centre. The Cork City Council is also directly involved in the development of a number of key cultural buildings which include the former St. Luke s Church and the North Monastery School which is also being considered for redevelopment as a centre for cultural activity. Since 2011 the Cork City Council s arts service now falls within the remit of the Tourism Events Arts and Marketing Unit (T.E.A.M.). This unit aims to create synergies across Cork City Council so that investment into the cultural sector is sustained and maximised for social cultural and economic benefit. 8.7 8 8.8 8.9 Tourism Cork City and Harbour boasts a high quality natural heritage as well as a significant man-made heritage which are attractive to visitors. Developing the potential that exists offers a significant opportunity for increased expenditure economic development and job creation in Cork City. Cultural tourism is a key component of urban tourism based upon the arts and heritage characteristics of towns and cities. Cork City has developed its own tourism and visitor economy capitalising on its qualities as a cultural destination and an area of local distinctiveness with the city acting as a gateway and a base for regional tourism. It is one of the oldest cities in Ireland and has a rich archaeological record and a strong medieval history. It addition it s pre-eminence as a trading centre and maritime merchant port in the eighteenth and nineteenth century created tangible industrial archaeology and historic remains. According to Failte Ireland culture and heritage is cited by 74% of overseas visitors as being the reason they choose to visit Ireland in the first place however research indicated that international awareness of Cork as a place to visit is very low.16 The Cork City Centre Strategy (2014) notes that evidence worldwide shows that while historic city centres are under constant threat from modern development on their outskirts they retain a continuing allure. Cities that blend heritage with the contemporary in an attractive environment that offers a good quality of life to residents appeals to tourists and attracts and retains investment are increasingly favoured. The strategy acknowledges that while Cork does this to some extent there is room for improvement. It states that for both business and leisure visitors but particularly leisure visitors there is a need for both product development and a stronger City Centre experience. In addition the Strategy found that little of the city s rich heritage is expressly packaged or accessible in a manner which can be easily interpreted by visitors to the city. The City Council recognises the importance of tourism in the economic life of the city and the potential that exists for the industry to expand further. TEAM prepared the Cork City Tourism Strategy 2012- 8.10 8.11 16 Failte Ireland Interpretive Framework Cork City and Harbour (2013) P. 3. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 90 Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism x 2015 and it aims to address tourism product development (capital and non-capital) and marketing and promotion as well as improve connectivity and communication. Cultural tourism is a key focus but other areas such as food tourism horticultural tourism and adventure tourism are also being explored. The priority tourism actions for the city as well as arts and cultural actions are set out in the following sections. Objective 8.1 Strategic Objectives - Enhancing Cork s Cultural Identity It is a strategic objective of Cork City Council a. To promote Cork City as a centre of excellence for arts culture and leisure facilities as well as the creative industries b. To celebrate Cork as a city of arts and to support the further development of Cork as a centre for culture and creativity c. To support the continued advancement participation and collaboration of arts and cultural services in the city as outlined in the Cork City Arts Strategy (2011 2015) d. To support awareness and appreciation of the cultural heritage of Cork City and implement the Cork City Heritage Plan 2015-2020 e. To ensure that the nurturing of the arts and associated services is part of the planned development of Cork and its surrounding region f. To implement the Cork City Tourism Strategy 2012-2015 and its successors g. To facilitate and encourage sustainable tourism development which is based on and reflects the city s distinctive history culture and environment and which will promote diversification and innovation in the tourism sector h. To protect and enhance the tourism and cultural amenities of the city including the conservation protection and enhancement of Cork City s natural built and cultural heritage through land use zoning policies and objectives i. To develop the city s distinctive qualities and its function as a cultural destination and to expand the role of the city as an important gateway and base for regional tourism. 8 Developing Cork s Cultural Heritage and Identity 8.12 In 2013 Failte Ireland commissioned the preparation of an Interpretive Framework for the city and county. - Cork City and Harbour - as a means of revealing the significance of Cork s cultural heritage and contemporary character. The Framework ultimately aims to develop a clear coordinated message about Cork as a destination - one which has been informed and validated by the true depth of experience that Cork can provide. Developing an understanding and appreciation of the concepts of place identity and image as they relate to Cork City will help to underpin future tourism strategies in a meaningful way. The Interpretive Framework developed by Failte Ireland provides broad directions for collectively presenting the Cork Region through a number of key themes that define and describe its unique sense and spirit of place.17 It will inform and support a programme of work to include both capital and non capital activities all of which are required in order to deliver a more coherent and compelling visitor experience.18 Objective 8.2 Enhancing Cork s Cultural Identity Cork City Council will work with Failte Ireland in the development and implementation of cultural heritage tourism projects arising from its Interpretive Framework Cork City and Harbour. 17 18 Failte Ireland Interpretive Framework Cork City and Harbour (2013) P.3 Ibid P. 3 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 91 x Volume One Written Statement 8.13 Failte Ireland s Interpretive Framework is a useful tool to help us gain an insight into how we as a Council can improve our city as a place not only to visit but also in which to live and work. During the consultation process a multitude of potential broad stories ideas which represented the essence of Cork were gathered and distilled down into four anchor themes under which the City and Harbour can be understood and promoted 1. 2. 3. 4. Maritime Harbour River City Imagined in Cork Made in Cork. 8.14 Significant overlap and interrelation exist between these themes. The City Council can contribute to strengthening the cultural identity of Cork City and developing a stronger sense of place by aligning its tourism and cultural development strategies and objectives towards these themes. The following paragraphs identify specific projects which the City Council will work to develop and implement over the course of the lifetime of the Plan as a means of strengthening Cork s cultural identity and allowing for a greater appreciation and understanding of the city by citizens and visitors alike 8.15 Maritime Harbour 8.16 8 Maritime heritage is extremely important to Cork City being reflected in the city s coat of arms Statio Bene Fida Carinis A Safe Harbour for Ships . Cork Harbour has a rich maritime heritage which continues to this day in Cork City s Docklands with the ongoing commercial trading and related industrial activities the architectural archaeological sporting and cultural heritage of the area and the intermittent visits of naval training and private vessels to the area. With the intended implementation of the Port of Cork s Strategic Development Plan and the City Council s South Docks Local Area Plan (2008) the maritime activity and character of the area will change dramatically. As a result it will be necessary to explore the potential futures uses of both river and land based activities. To this end it is the intention of the City Council to commission a River Use and Management Plan to examine the commercial and recreational potential of the Upper Harbour as well as the management of future river uses and users and ongoing maintenance of the navigable waterway in this location. The City Council will continue to support the development of a commuter leisure ferry link with the Lower Harbour and work to promote the city as a tourist destination for the liner traffic calling at Cobh. In relation to land-based maritime heritage consideration must also be given to the potential future uses of key landmark buildings and sites so as to maintain their maritime connection and identity such sites as the Customs House and the Bonded Warehouses as well as the former Odlum s Mills on Kennedy Quay and the former Harbour Master s House and patent slip on the North Docks. All are Protected Structures. However the Customs House Quay Complex is particularly emblematic of Cork s maritime heritage. It along with Haulbowline Island is one of the two most important Georgian dock complexes outside Dublin and one of three surviving Georgian docks complexes in Ireland. It is considered that a Conservation Plan (as required by the South Docks Local Area Plan Objective SD35) along with a Feasibility Study to determine viable and appropriate uses to feed into a Masterplan for the future of the Complex should be developed prior to the Port of Cork s relocation. The former Odlum s Mills has strong connections with the maritime and food heritage of the city and it is an objective of the South Docks Local Area Plan to develop it as a flagship cultural facility (SDLAP Objective SD 35). Further potential exists to strengthen Cork s maritime identity by developing and promoting Cork s architecture of defence . There are opportunities to link the military landscape of the Lower Harbour 8.17 8.18 8.19 13 See Chapter 16 Development Management. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 92 Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism x with the city s military base of Collin s Barracks and Elizabeth Fort. Collin s Barracks currently hosts a military museum while the City Council intends to develop Elizabeth Fort as a visitor attraction and city vantage point. 8.20 Aside from opening up the physical military sites to the public there is also potential to strengthen the actual interpretative routes connecting the city and the Lower Harbour area including walking cycling and boat and rail links. The City Council will work to secure the remaining waterfront links from Albert Quay to the Marina and from Blackrock Village to Blackrock Castle for use as a riverside amenity area taking in the planned Marina Park (Chapter 11). This will only be possible as sites become available and the Port of Cork activity relocates downstream. Improving access to the water will be a key component of the City Council s strategy to enhance the city s identity as a Maritime Harbour. Central to this will be the enhancement of physical access to the water from the existing quaysides for amenity purposes such as boating kayaking as well as improving visual access to the water for pedestrians and cyclists. 8.21 Objective 8.3 Maritime Harbour It is the objective of Cork City Council to a. Commission a River Use and Management Plan to examine the commercial and recreational potential of the Upper Harbour for all users including the general public visitors and tourists as well as the management of future river uses and users and ongoing maintenance of the navigable waterway in this location b. Work with the relevant agencies to develop the expression of the maritime and industrial archaeological heritage of the city by Ensuring the preparation of a Conservation Strategy for the Georgian Docklands (i.e. Custom s House Quays complex) to feed into a Masterplan for the site and working with Failte Ireland and other relevant agencies and potential investors to identify landmark tourism arts and cultural uses for this site and the former Odlums Mills (other commercial uses compatible with the character of the buildings will also be acceptable) c. Work with the relevant agencies to develop the expression of the military heritage of the city and enable public access to such sites as Elizabeth Fort and Collin s Barracks Military Museum d. Seek to ensure that the Quayside Amenity Areas as identified on Map 1 Volume 2 become accessible to the general public visitors and tourists e. Improve physical and visual access to the water and promote water-based activities. 8 River City City Island 8.22 The River Lee has played a significant role in shaping the physical economic and cultural development of the city. The name of the city is derived from the Irish - Corcach Mor Mumhan which means the great marsh of Munster and refers to the fact that the centre of the city is built on a series of islands surrounded by the River Lee. Over time land was reclaimed and most of the water channels undergrounded and Cork City Centre is now made up of a single island bounded by the north and south channels. The water channels and bridges are a dominant feature however the river setting is not used to its full advantage at present. Human beings like to be by water but Cork provides little opportunity for them to spend leisure time by its waterfronts. There are major development opportunities overlooking the river and the strategy will be to convert the quaysides to public space where possible which can be used in turn to increase financial attractiveness of waterfront development opportunities. The Failte Ireland Interpretive Framework identified four Anchor points or landmarks that convey the essence of Cork City the Eastern tip of the island at the Custom House Bonded Warehouse UCC and the Mardyke at the Western end of the island linked by the waterfronts of the North and South Channels and the Northgate and Southgate into the medieval city linked by the medieval spine and leading into Shandon and the South Parish respectively (Figure 8.1). Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 8.23 93 x Volume One Written Statement 8 Figure 8.1 Cork City Centre Island (Source Failte Ireland Interpretive Framework Cork City and Harbour 2013) 8.24 Figure 8.1 also shows orientation points which can help the visitor navigate around the city as part of a way finding system and vantage points which because of topography provide views over the City Centre and beyond. The City Council is committed to a programme of ongoing public realm improvements particularly to those areas which support the interpretative journeys which tourists may wish to make through the city. Improving these routes will help to enhance the ease with which people orientate themselves as they wander through the city and enhance the sense of place experienced at various nodes along these routes. To that end Cork City Council has already developed a series of Cork Walks which consists of 4 free city-wide self guided colour-coded walking trails aimed primarily at tourists but also local people. Cork Walks highlights the main cultural and heritage assets of the City such as Shandon South Parish Medieval City Centre and the University and River Lee area whilst also promoting healthy walking as the perfect way to discover and explore the City. The development of a Wayfinding system the Legible City project is also planned. This will help visitors to the city navigate their way around the City Centre and beyond and will take account of the orientation points identified in the Failte Ireland Interpretive Framework. 8.25 8.26 8.27 94 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism x 8.28 It is intended to work with Failte Ireland to support and further develop specific tourism projects which will strengthen the sense of place and cultural identity to be experienced in its two main character areas (1) the medieval spine and the outlying character areas of Shandon and the South Parish and (2) the City Centre Island and bounded by the waterfront areas of the River Lee. Objective 8.4 River City City Island To work with Failte Ireland and other stakeholders to promote the development of a network of cultural and tourist attractions in an around the City Centre island supported by public realm improvements walking trails and navigation aids. Objective 8.5 Navigating the City To develop a Wayfinding system which will help orientate visitors to the city and guide them to the main attractions. Medieval Spine 8.29 The medieval core of the City Centre represents the historic centre of Cork City and as such is of significant importance in terms of the heritage of the city (Chapter 9). Added to this the area exhibits a strong retail and commercial character which when allied to the area s intrinsic character gives the area substantial tourism potential. The area has been subject to a number of plans and assessments most notably the 1994 Historic Area Action Plan wherein actions and objectives sought to protect the areas unique and rich character while stimulating vibrancy in terms of its commercial function. The City Council acknowledges the potential of the medieval spine in conjunction with the cultural quarters of Shandon on the northside and the South Parish area on the south side to be expressly marketed and developed for interpretation by the visitor The South Parish contains St Finbarres Cathedral a significant landmark and heritage attraction Elizabeth Fort which the City Council plans to develop as an interpretive centre performance venue and vantage point and the South Presentation Convent where the Nano Nagle Heritage Centre will be developed The Medieval Spine made up of North and South Main Streets has the recently developed Triskel Christchurch performance venue and the Vision Centre which has potential to play a more active role. There is also the opportunity to mark the Northgate and South Gate as entrances to the medieval city and the possibility of creating new image for the historic spine by working with artists on a street art project as proposed in the City Centre Strategy 2014. There is a major opportunity for redevelopment at the Beamish and Crawford site (Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands) with opportunities for creative reuse of the historic central block which could add a further element to the attractiveness of the historic spine. Proposals are being developed for a new city library on Grand Parade which will have a range of functions attractive to both residents and visitors In Shandon proposals to create a craft centre in the Butter Exchange containing artist s workshops and associated retail outlets are being investigated Public realm upgrades improved pedestrian routes and signage will also be needed to link the various sites as part of an overall experience. Shandon and the South Parish areas are identified as Cultural Quarters (Map 2 Development Objectives) linked by the medieval spin. The primary objective of the Cultural Quarters is to capitalize on the existing clusters of tourist attractions in both areas to boost their attractiveness to tourists and 8 8.30 8.31 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 95 x Volume One Written Statement visitors and to encourage a mix of uses that will draw people into these areas creating areas of vibrancy and dynamism with significant spin-off for the local economy. Overall then there is a major opportunity to create an integrated approach to the development of this area as a major attraction in the city using the existing heritage assets and character of the medieval spine and adjoining cultural quarters. This will be achieved by the implementation of a number of initiatives outlined in Objective 8.6 below. Objective 8.6 Medieval Spine and Cultural Quarters 8 It is an objective to promote the development of attractiveness the medieval spine and adjoining cultural quarters by a. Supporting and encouraging the development of heritage cultural or tourist venues and the promotion of cultural events within these areas in key sites such as Elizabeth Fort the Vision Centre Triskel Christchurch the South Presentation Convent Nano Nagle Centre Beamish and Crawford and the Butter Exchange Shandon b. Promoting North and South Main Street as Cork s Colour Corridor through working with the Arts Office to develop a high quality building and street art project which will improve the legibility of the street as the medieval heart of the Cork and its role as a cultural connector c. Improving permeability through the medieval spine by developing public realm improvements at key points along the medieval spine (i.e. the medieval gateways of North and South Gate Bridges) and at key city vantage points to the north and south of the medieval spine (Shandon and St. Patrick s Hill Bell s Field to the north and Elizabeth Fort to the south) d. Investigating the feasibility of marking the Northgate and Southgate as the gateways to the medieval city e. Expanding upon the range and nature of uses open to consideration within the Cultural Quarters (Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands). River Lee Waterfront 8.32 The quality of the urban environment both in terms of its architecture and the public spaces and streets between the buildings (i.e. the city s public streets and spaces often termed the public realm) is an important factor in attracting tourists to Cork City. Improvements to the public realm can also be extremely beneficial to the attraction and retention of a highly skilled and creative workforce within the city. Much work has been undertaken by the City Council in recent years to the design of the public realm notably St. Patrick s Street Oliver Plunkett Street Emmett Place etc. However relatively little improvements have been wrought to the waterfront quayside areas. The Failte Ireland Interpretive Framework states The river channels form the city island providing a containing function this allowing the visitor to wander and get a little pleasantly lost within the island. They also link the four main anchor points and provide an orientation function when moving between the areas of interest to the visitor (see Figure 8.1). Transforming space alongside the quays into areas where people can pause and orient themselves in relation to key landmarks and places will benefit all and contribute to a greater sense of Cork as a River City . Many of the quaysides upstream of the Custom House Quays have potential to act as amenity areas as opposed to mere traffic conduits and the economic benefit of this is emphasised within the City Centre Strategy 2014 as it increases the attractiveness of waterfront development opportunities. The quaysides offer the opportunity to link the City Centre with its two main amenity areas Fitzgerald s Park including the new Mardyke Gardens project to the west and the Marina to the east and its other main character area the medieval city. The City Council will identify specific landscape design projects which can be implemented over the life of the Development Plan to secure improvements to the legibility of the waterfront areas of the city in conjunction with the overall City Centre Public Realm Strategy referred to in Chapter 13. Public spaces within the city can also function as performance space as already occurs in a number of locations around the City Centre. This function will be borne in mind in developing public realm designs. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 8.33 8.34 96 Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism x Objective 8.7 Public Realm BIdentify and implement public realm improvement projects for the city s waterfront areas as part of the network to link the major cultural tourism attractions and amenity areas. Initial focus will be on developing proposals for the south facing quays on the South Channel. Made In Cork 8.35 Food brewing distilling crafts the even the new high tech sectors in the city and harbour are all aspects of the Made in Cork theme. Cork City has a strong food provenance story to tell lying at the heart of a quality artisan food producing region and given its strong history of military provisioning. It is the intention of Cork City Council to prepare a Food Strategy for the city as an initial step in the city fulfilling its ambition of becoming Food Capital of Ireland . Part of this strategy will involve the examination of the potential for the development of food events and festivals in order that Cork becomes synonymous with good quality food and drink. While the city already has a landmark food space in the English Market the City Council is also investigating the potential of developing a National Food Innovation Centre possibly incorporating a visitor attraction based on traditional food culture along with a cookery school test recipe product development space artisan food court. The City Council will also work with the Cork Food Policy Council in developing food policy for the city and county. 8.36 8.37 The City Centre Strategy (2014) suggests that certain streets be branded to create a restaurant quarter in the City Centre to further strengthen the City Centre as a place offering a diverse range of restaurants. Furthermore the brewing tradition is still strong in Cork despite rationalisation and consolidation of the major breweries. Craft brewing is making a resurgence and there are a number of proposals for expanding this sector in Cork which will add to the diversity of the offer in the city. There is a strong tradition of craft makers and designers in Cork including ceramicists jewellers furniture makers glass makers and textile makers. Cork Craft month is a month long festival of craft where craftmakers present there crafts through exhibitions workshops craft fairs and seminars. Cork City Council will aim to support this event and is also investigating a permanent space for craftmakers in Shandon as referred to earlier. 8 8.38 Objectives 8.8 Made in Cork It is an objective of Cork City Council to carry out the following actions for the benefit of both the local and tourism markets a. Produce an inclusive Food Strategy for the city in conjunction with other stakeholders which aims to create a healthy sustainable and resilient food system for the city to examine the development of space to support a strong food culture in the city and to develop the associations between Cork City and quality food produce b. Conclude a Feasibility Study into the development of a Food Centre at a City Centre location and implement any recommendations arising c. Investigate the development of a craft centre in the City Centre possibly in the Butter Exchange in Shandon and other ways of supporting the development of the craft sector d. Support the development of food and micro brewing businesses in the City Centre including working with local stakeholders to identify and market a restaurant quarter e. Seek to optimise the potential of Made in Cork for the benefit of the local economy tourism development and place-making in the City. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 97 x Volume One Written Statement Imagined In Cork 8.39 The aim of projects proposed under the theme of Imagined in Cork is to ensure that Cork City continues to develop as a place which plays host to active cultural engagement encounters and exchange. It includes cultural infrastructure such as performance venues like the Opera House and Everyman arts space such as studios and galleries and the wide range of festivals that operate in Cork. Cork has a good range of performance venues and cultural facilities some of which have been developed by Cork City Council such as Triskel Chirstchurch and many other venues and organisations which receive financial and other support from the City Council. The City Council will aim to further expand and improve on the provision of such facilities as opportunities arise in the future including its plans for the upgrading and expansion of the Shandon Butter Museum and the arts and cultural facilities proposed under the South Docks Local Area Plan which include provision of a flagship cultural facility in the former Odlum s Mill. Events centres have a proven track record of delivery of more visitors and crucially more overnight stays into a City Centre. There is operator demand for an events centre arena in Cork as is evidenced by three proposals with planning permission. The Government has indicated it will part fund such a centre and the City Council is working to ensure the early delivery of an Events Centre at present. In addition to providing and developing physical space for the arts in Cork there is potential to protect enhance and market the city s natural assets built heritage as well as the spaces between the buildings for artistic facilities and festivals events to the benefit of both citizen and tourist alike. Cork already plays host upwards of 24 festivals each year with many of these managed by TEAM itself and others receiving financial and other support from the City Council. The contribution of such festivals and events greatly adds to the vibrancy and attractiveness of the city both for the permanent residents and visitors alike. The City Council facilitates the use of the public realm including streets and parks for these festivals. The City Centre Strategy (2014) identified the need for further spend generating events to attract local people as well as visitors into the City Centre including activities and promotions put on by the shops and restaurants. Cork City Council will work with stakeholders including shops to organise such events aimed at attracting larger numbers of people into the City Centre for the purpose of shopping and or eating. Cork City Council notes the important contribution that artistic and cultural life makes to the vibrancy of its City Centre and recognises the potential this sector can play in counteracting dereliction and vacancy. In order to secure the objective of making Cork an attractive place in which to live visit and invest a number of key objectives are outlined below to ensure that where the redevelopment of sites buildings which include an existing cultural facility is proposed that this facility is replicated re-housed in the new development In particular the retention and facilitation of artistic design based educational institutions in the city is an important policy objective of the City Council and to support use of vacant premises in the City Centre for short term temporary artistic uses. 8.40 8.41 8.42 8 8.43 8.44 98 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism x Objective 8.9 Imagined in Cork To develop additional spaces buildings for arts and cultural uses a. To support the development of an Events Centre in Cork b. To support existing festivals and develop and encourage the establishment of new festivals which will be supported as a celebration of the creative spirit and identity of each community c. Identify and develop spend generating events such as an enhanced Christmas Festival and a Spring Festival to help bring locals as well as visitors into the City Centre to shop and eat d. To ensure that cultural facilities are not lost from existing buildings in redevelopment proposals e. To encourage the use of vacant units within the City Centre by arts and cultural uses occupiers f. To develop a higher profile for Cork as a traditional music venue including examining the feasibility of mounting the Ceol exhibition in a suitable venue and promoting events such as Pulses of Tradition g. Commission an arts and culture plan for Marina Park. Cultural Heritage Infrastructure 8.45 Cork City Council recognises the importance of cultural heritage in fostering the cultural identity of the city and supports a number of important elements of the city s cultural infrastructure. It is also pursuing the development of a National Disapora Centre in a suitable City Centre location which could act as a major attractor of visitors to the city. Museums 8.46 Cork Public Museum in Fitzgerald Park is an important resource for both the people of Cork City and its many tourists and visitors. Its collections include important archaeological finds dating from Bronze Age to Medieval times artefacts from the War of Independence collections of Cork silver and archives of 18th and 19th century documents. There may also be scope in the future to develop a City Centre location to tell the story of the development of Cork City including Viking and Medieval Cork the development of the modern city and events such as the burning of Cork which have an impact on the current built form and architecture of the city. This might be developed in partnership with the private sector for example as part of the Beamish and Crawford or Grand Parade redevelopment outlined in Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands. 8 8.47 Cork City and County Archive 8.48 The Cork City and County Archives is located at the Seamus Murphy Building at Great William O Brien Street Blackpool. Since 1994 it has been a function of Local Government to make arrangements for the proper management custody care and conservation of local records and local archives and for the inspection by the public of local archives. The day to day operation of the Archives is carried out by Cork City Council. Archives are records and documents which are preserved because of their enduring value to society and to the people and organisations that produce them. They may be the personal papers of an individual or the records of a public body such as Local Government or the records of another institution such as a business society club union or religious organisation. Archives may take many forms including correspondence diaries files minutes of meetings reports legal documents photographs maps plans and drawings account books audio visual and electronic records. Archives are fragile and unique and must be kept and used under strict conditions if they are to survive for the use of future generations. 8.49 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 99 x Volume One Written Statement Library Service 8.50 The Library service plays an active part in the cultural social and educational life of the city and the Central Library is one of the city s most important and best used cultural spaces with up to 700 000 visits per year. As well as having a large collection of books periodicals CDs and other material the City Library in particular the Central Library has an extensive reference section including material on local history and provides a place for learning and cultural enrichment. The feasibility of developing a new Central Library is currently being investigated. Objective 8.10 a. b. c. d. Cultural Infrastructure To pursue the development of a National Diaspora Centre in Cork To continue to support and expand museum facilities in the city To further develop and promote the Cork City and County Archive collection To expand the facilities of the library Service in particular extend the range of facilities available in the redeveloped Central Library. Ancillary Supporting Infrastructure Visitor Accommodation 8.51 Visitor accommodation is an essential asset in promoting visits to the city either by the business traveller or the tourist. The City Centre Strategy 2014 identified almost 1000 hotel beds in the City Centre and a further 700 in or close to the city. The quality and uniqueness of the hotels was on the one hand seen as an asset however it was noted that Cork lacks well-known international brands which tend to benefit from strong marketing systems. It argued that there is scope for additional brands and a greater variety of offer. 8 8.52 Motor home and Camping Park A need for a Motorhome Park in the city to cater for touring visitors has been identified and a possible site identified in the Tramore Valley Park. This project will be pursued over the period of the Plan. Objective 8.11 Visitor Accommodation a. b. To encourage a broader range of visitor accommodation in the City and the expansion of the city s hotel base The City Council will seek to develop a Motorhome Park and additional supporting services in suitable locations in the city. Infrastructure for Artists 8.53 Cork City Council recognises the contribution made by artists including visual and performing artists to the city s cultural life. The Sculpture Factory in the city supports artists by providing studio space. It is acknowledged that living space can also be problematic for artists. Cork City Council will endeavour to examine the feasibility of providing infrastructure to meet their needs. This can mean providing for studio and exhibition space in addition to rehearsal and performance space. The Cork City Council will also investigate the feasibility of establishing live-work units and work spaces. Objective 8.12 Infrastructure for Artists To support the provision of spaces for artists in suitable buildings to live work and exhibit. 100 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism x Public Art 8.54 Public pieces of art greatly contribute to the overall appearance of a city and improve the quality of life through the visual enhancement of the area. Public art can be of any form and can work within or across many art forms such as visual art dance film literature music opera theatre and architecture including all aspects of contemporary arts practice such as performance live art multimedia video art sound art etc. The Per Cent for Arts Scheme is a scheme that allows for the inclusion in the budgets for all capital construction projects of up to 1% as funding for an art project subject to conditions. Works under the scheme can be of any duration temporary or permanent. It provides a challenge and an opportunity to a wide range of artists to create work for public engagement and response. Further to this residential projects also provide opportunities for community-focused art projects. Please refer to Chapter 16 Development Management for project assessment information. Objective 8.13 Provision of public art To promote and encourage the provision of public art in large scale developments in public parks and other public spaces and also by ensuring that all construction projects undertaken by the Cork City Council which are supported by Government funding are considered for the Per cent for Art Scheme. Marketing and Branding 8.55 Marketing strategies are an essential means of building on the city s existing strengths and sustaining awareness of Cork as a desirable tourist destination. The City Centre Strategy recommended that a fresh brand and marketing strategy be delivered for the City Centre and character areas which would target both visitors and shoppers and would take cognisance of the wider Cork Region branding and marketing strategy and this will be pursued over the period of the Plan. Failte Ireland are building on the work done in the Interpretive Framework to develop a destination branding proposition for Cork and the City Council will work with other stakeholders to implement this. 8 Objective 8.14 Marketing and Branding The City Council will continue to support and develop the City Centre s tourist economy and work closely with tourism and business stakeholders agencies and with Failte Ireland to develop a brand and marketing strategy that builds on the city s tourist appeal and complements the wider Cork Region branding and marketing strategy. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 101 Volume One Written Statement 8 102 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology Contents Introduction Heritage Historical Development of Cork Significance of Cork s Historic Core Archaeology Introduction Preservation of archaeological remains Protection of Cork s medieval street pattern Survey of remains of medieval buildings incorporated in later structures Cork s Medieval City Wall Archaeological Survey Monitoring and Excavation Burial Grounds Industrial archaeology Protection of Underwater Archaeology Conservation of the Built Heritage Introduction Conservation Principles Record of Protected Structures Historic Landscapes Enabling Development National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (NIAH) Architectural Conservation Areas (ACAs) Funding Assistance for Protected Structures and buildings in Architectural Conservation Areas Areas of Special Planning Control (ASPC) Historic Street Character Areas Individual buildings of character Other Elements of Built Heritage Separate access to the upper floors of buildings 105 105 106 107 108 108 110 110 111 111 111 113 113 114 114 114 114 115 116 116 117 117 119 119 120 120 120 121 9 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 103 x Volume One Written Statement 9 contribute to creating the sense of place 104 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology x CHAPTER 9 BUILT HERITAGE AND ARCHAEOLOGY Introduction 9.1 Cork s built heritage contributes significantly to the city s identity and the richness and diversity of its urban fabric. The street pattern local architectural buildings the form of buildings and spaces civic buildings the Georgian urban extension and areas of Victorian architecture that were a product of industry and provisioning activity all contribute to creating the sense of place appreciated by the city and its proud culture. This chapter includes an introductory section on the overall heritage of the city and the Heritage Plan and then proceeds to focus on policies for archaeology and the conservation of the built environment. Objective 9.1 a. b. c. d. e. Strategic Objectives Built Heritage and Archaeology To promote the protection of the heritage of the city and the implementation of the Heritage Plan Ensure that elements of archaeological architectural and other cultural significance are identified retained and interpreted wherever possible and the knowledge placed in the public domain Promote the retention reuse and enhancement of buildings and other elements of architectural or other significance Ensure that development reflects and is sensitive to the historical importance and character of the city in particular the street layout and pattern plot sizes building heights and scales Improve and encourage access to and understanding of the architectural heritage of the city. 9 Heritage 9.2 Heritage is defined under the Heritage Act 1995 as items such as monuments archaeological objects heritage objects architectural heritage flora fauna wildlife habitats landscapes seascapes wrecks geology heritage gardens and parks and inland waterways. Built heritage including archaeology industrial archaeology and architecture are therefore intrinsic to heritage plan-led initiatives. In 2007 Cork City Council developed its first Local Heritage Plan 2007-2012. The Plan provided a framework to set out heritage objectives priorities and actions within the context of a structured programme and was ambitious in its scope themes and objectives. It had 4 principal objectives and actions covering all aspects of heritage protection and focusing on built heritage archaeology cultural heritage and natural heritage. A wide range o factions were implemented including Publications e.g. a Guide to the Record of Protected Structures and A Guide to Nature in the City Surveys and Studies e.g. the Bridges of Cork City Development of Heritage Trails in Cork City Training e.g. Seminar on Ironwork in Cork City Museum Basics Events e.g. Cork Heritage Open Day and Heritage Week and Annual Projects such as the Cork City heritage grants scheme and the Cork schools heritage project. The new Heritage Plan (2014-2018) will set out a series of realistic and practical actions to protect conserve and manage our Heritage over the next five years. The Plan aims to enable the whole community to take part in the work of caring for and managing our local heritage. It will facilitate 9.3 9.4 9.5 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 105 x Volume One Written Statement relevant stakeholders and others to work together to achieve results. The Plan has been framed with a view to balancing the interests of all parties and stakeholders within our local communities. The Plan will also contribute to Cork City s economy by supporting the tourism and recreation sectors which are underpinned by our natural and cultural heritage. Objective 9.2 Heritage Plan To implement the Natural Built and Cultural Heritage Actions from the Cork City Heritage Plan Objective 9.3 Conservation of Heritage in City To ensure that consideration and conservation of heritage is an integral part of Cork City Council s plans and programmes for the physical economic and social planning and development and that the appropriate training and education is provided to enable the City Council to achieve Heritage Objectives. Historical Development of Cork 9.6 Cork City s unique character derives from the combination of its plan topography built fabric and its location at a point where the River Lee divides to form a number of waterways. Medieval Cork developed on islands in the River Lee and its original layout survives in the historic core of the city. Medieval Cork was a walled city and the shadow of the wall remains today influencing the streetscape and street pattern. The medieval street layout is largely retained in the modern street plan of the central core. The walled enclosure of medieval Cork extending from South Gate Bridge to North Gate Bridge was bisected by the long spine of the main street - today s South and North Main Streets. Many laneways and alleys led off the street at right angles. A large number of laneways still exist. Others are incorporated into the layout of later buildings e.g. giving access to backyards usually at either side of a pair of houses. The size of property units is generally retained as in medieval times. This area is of Tourism significance (Chapter 8) and commercial interest to the City Centre (Chapter 13) as well as being of built heritage and archaeology significance. From the later 17th century the city gradually reclaimed the river marshes to the west and east. The newly reclaimed areas were separated by river channels which were used by the expanding shipping trade. As trade grew and as ships grew larger the port activities moved downriver to the east. The roads from the south and north were developed contemporaneously with the walled town (indeed the area around St. Fin Barre s Cathedral predates it). Cork s Georgian City is largely comprised of merchant or residential urban extensions on reclaimed land (now the City Centre Island) and areas of reclaimed land with river frontage (e.g. Grenville Place). Many of the river channels were covered over in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries becoming the wider streets that are the focal places for this area of the city like St. Patrick s Street Grand Parade South Mall Cornmarket Street and Emmet Place. This area is of great significance to the city as in the main it is what we today call the commercial core (or City Centre) with high status buildings and the city s landmark streets. Lower status development extended along the historic spine including Shandon and the South Parish areas. The area includes buildings with Cork features such as slate-hanging bay fronts bow-fronts as well as steps to the fronts of former merchant houses to provide access to former waterways. In the early 19th century Washington Street was created cutting through the densely built up former medieval city to connect the newly developed City Centre with the western suburbs. At the same time the villas and country houses on the hills to the north and south were giving way to the blocks of terraced Georgian-style houses many associated with the military barracks and navy. 9.7 9 9.8 9.9 9.10 106 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology x 9.11 The mills warehouses distilleries breweries and other industrial buildings which survive in many parts of Cork bear witness to the great economic expansion of the 18th and 19th centuries. Many of these buildings as well as being of industrial archaeological importance are also of significant architectural and social interest and contribute greatly to the city s character. The lanes of small single and twostorey houses provided homes for the industrial workers and formal groups of artisan housing extended outwards from the centre from the 1890s onwards. The twentieth century saw Cork expand significantly beyond the ridges and escarpments that defined the walkable nineteenth century city particularly after the arrival of the car. The Ford Factory complex (1919) and Turner s Cross Christ The King church (1931) are two twentieth century buildings considered to be of international architectural significance. 9.12 Significance of Cork s Historic Core 9.13 Cork s Historic Core includes two key character areas the area of the Medieval City (1700) and the Georgian City (see Figure 9.1). 9 Figure 9.1 Cork s Historic Core Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 107 x Volume One Written Statement Archaeology Introduction 9.14 Archaeology is the study of past societies through the material remains left by those societies and the evidence of their environment. All remains and objects and any other traces of humankind from past times are considered elements of our archaeological heritage. Only through an understanding of the past obtained from the study of archaeology history and cartography can the factors (topography location at a point where the River Lee formed a number of waterways built fabric etc) which have influenced the shape of the city be appreciated. Archaeology in its various forms ranging from fragmentary buried remains to the fabric and contents of industrial buildings is a vital component of the culture conservation and redevelopment of the city. Objective 9.4 Archaeological Heritage Cork City Council will aim to protect record and promote the rich archaeological heritage of the city. Record of Monuments and Places (RMP) Archaeological sites are legally protected by the provisions of the National Monuments Acts the National Cultural Institutions Act 1997 and the Planning Acts. The Record of Monument and Places (RMP) is a statutory list of all known archaeological monuments and it is maintained and updated by the Archaeological Survey of Ireland. New sites discovered since the publication of the RMP are available on the website www.archaeology.ie The RMP is accompanied by a set of maps on which the monuments are numbered and marked by a circle (Zone of Archaeological Potential). In assessing proposals for development Cork City Council will have regard to the recommendations of the Department of Arts Heritage and the Gaelteacht. The Zone of Archaeological Potential (CO074-034--001) for the City Centre includes the medieval historic core.There are 54 RMP sites located within this Zone and these include the site of the original monastery of Saint Finbarre and the medieval walled defences. In the medieval historic core archaeological remains lie within a metre of the modern surface particularly in the North and South Main Street area and these strata can be present to a depth of 3 to 4m in places. The city wall also survives beneath the modern street surface and in some places is present less than 30cm below the present ground surface to a depth of 2.5m. Outside the historic core the Zone of Archaeological Potential covers the un-walled medieval suburbs known sites of medieval religious houses (Red Abbey) and parts of the city which were developed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries when marshes were reclaimed and new streets laid out. There are 59 RMP sites located outside the Zone of Archaeological Potential for the City. 9.15 9 9.16 9.17 Objective 9.5 Sites of Established Archaeological Interest Cork City Council will protect and enhance the archaeological value of the sites (and their settings) listed in the Record of Monuments and Places (RMP). 108 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology x 0 50 100 150 300 Medieval Historic Core Archaelogical Zone 9 Figure 9.2 Zone of Archaeological Potential for the City Centre Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 109 x Volume One Written Statement Objective 9.6 Newly Discovered Sites Cork City Council will protect and preserve archaeological sites discovered since the publication of the Record of Monuments and Places (RMP). Preservation of archaeological remains 9.18 Archaeological remains are a non-renewable resource and so it is essential that they are properly safeguarded and managed. Most of these remains are fragile and vulnerable in the face of current construction methods and development proposals (such as bulk excavation for basement excavations). Preservation in-situ and preservation by record are the two approaches applied in the protection of the archaeological heritage. Preservation in-situ refers to the actual physical preservation of archaeological sites and monuments (which include archaeological deposits features and structures). Preservation by record refers to the archaeological excavation and recording of archaeological remains likely to be damaged as a result of a development. Archaeological excavation is a highly skilled undertaking requiring much expertise in the recovery of archaeological evidence and in its interpretation and publication. In the absence of standing buildings from the earlier periods of Cork s history the buried archaeological remains take on increased significance. A presumption in favour of the retention of the existing built environment is the best way of protecting the buried archaeological strata. This is most effectively achieved by the refurbishment of existing buildings in situations where it is possible to retain the greater part of existing structures without the need for new foundations. 9.19 9.20 9.21 Objective 9.7 Preservation of archaeological remains in-situ 9 In accordance with national policy (and in the interests of sustainability) impacts on the buried archaeological environment should be avoided where possible. Objective 9.8 Development within the historic core Where large-scale opportunity sites within the medieval historic core are available for development a policy of minimising the impact on the archaeological resource will be promoted. Any proposed development will be assessed on the level and amount of undisturbed archaeology present on the site. Objective 9.9 The Value of Archaeological Knowledge The acquisition and dissemination of knowledge is a core principle for the protection of the archaeological heritage of the city. All appropriate archaeological excavation should be undertaken to the highest possible standards and the information made publicly available. Protection of Cork s medieval street pattern 9.22 The medieval street pattern of Cork is an intrinsic part of the city defining in large measure its unique layout and form. The laneways are of special significance to the character of the medieval core. In addition to their historic interest the laneways are of immense value in terms of aiding permeability in the City Centre by providing routes through larger City Centre blocks. These lanes also provide a sense of discovery and interest to the visitor and help give a human scale to the City Centre. The retention and enhancement of existing laneways within new developments will be encouraged. The preservation of the post-medieval streetscape (including traditional laneways) will also be promoted. The physical integrity of the medieval core should be respected through the retention of plot sizes which can be achieved by the refurbishment of existing buildings. 110 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology x Objective 9.10 Protection of Cork s Medieval Street Pattern Cork City Council will seek to protect Cork s medieval street pattern and in particular seek to conserve and enhance the laneways within the setting of the streetscape. Objective 9.11 Protection of Medieval Plot Widths Cork City Council will seek to retain and protect historic building lines and traditional plot widths when they derive from medieval origins. Survey of remains of medieval buildings incorporated in later structures 9.23 Above ground there are only a few surviving medieval and early post medieval structures such as Red Abbey Tower (15th Century) Elizabeth Fort (early 17th Century). Far more numerous are components of medieval buildings incorporated into the walls of later buildings. The potential for the occurrence of elements of ancient structures within more modern buildings necessitates pre-development architectural survey and vigilance in demolition works. Objective 9.12 Survey of Medieval Remains Detailed archaeological survey of buildings proposed for demolition will be required where in the opinion of Cork City Council medieval fabric may be present. Cork s Medieval City Wall 9.24 Sources from the late sixteenth century show the medieval walled city of Cork as an impressive elliptical area characterized by towers and battlements. As evidenced by various archaeological excavations the below ground level preservation of the city wall is unique and this stems from Cork s location in an estuarine marsh. Cork City Council became a member of the Irish Walled Towns Network (IWTN) in 2006. This Network was established by the Heritage Council to unite and co-ordinate the strategic efforts of local authorities involved in the management conservation and enhancement of historic walled towns. A Management Plan for Cork s City Walls was completed in 2008. 9.25 9 Objective 9.13 Protection of Cork s Medieval City Walls Cork City Council will secure preservation in-situ of the medieval city defences and will have regard to the preservation and enhancement of the line of the city wall when considering development proposals in its vicinity. Disturbance removal and alteration of the line of the city wall will not be permitted. An appropriate buffer zone between the city wall and the development will also be required. Objective 9.14 Promotion of Cork s Medieval City Walls Cork City Council will seek to improve public awareness and increase knowledge and appreciation of the medieval city walls. This will be achieved through the implementation of the recommendations of the Management Plan for the City Walls. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 111 x Volume One Written Statement h Nort Gate Brid ge Riv er Lee Corn No rth Ma Mark Gra ttan Stre et Sheares St reet in Str SAINT PETER S tree et S gto Washin eet t Sain t Pa tric k s Stre et Gran a rad d P n Stree t e 9 CHRIST CHURCH Site of Hopwell Castle Sout ain h M Sou Stre et Sout h Ma ll ate th G Brid ge Sullivan s Quay Crosses Green y Prob u s Q ay Elizabeth Fort ST. FINBARRE S CATHEDRAL CORK CITY - Outline of City Wall 0 25 50 100 150 Metres 200 Figure 9.3 Outline of City Wall 112 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology x Archaeological Survey Monitoring and Excavation Objective 9.15 Surveys Test Trenching and Monitoring Archaeological surveys test excavation and or monitoring will be required for development proposals in areas of archaeological importance if the application is likely to impact upon in-situ archaeological structures or deposits. Objective 9.16 Large-scale Development (outside the boundaries of a RMP) Outside the Zone of Archaeological Potential of a RMP where in the opinion of the City Council a development involves major ground disturbance archaeological conditions may be applied particularly in the vicinity of known monuments. Burial Grounds 9.26 Outside of the historic core numerous sites especially church sites and burial grounds are also of important archaeological significance. In particular many old burial grounds covered areas greater than their contemporary enclosures consequently human burials occur beneath some of the streets and houses of the city. In these areas new buildings may not be appropriate or may require extensive archaeological excavations in order to obtain maximum archaeological information from the site. A Survey of the Burial Places within Cork City was published in 2010. Objective 9.17 Development on burial grounds Cork City Council will seek to preserve and enhance historic burial grounds and their settings. Where former burial grounds are in use as amenity spaces then their retention for passive recreational use will be required. Development in and adjacent to these areas will be limited and may also be subject to archaeological conditions. Industrial archaeology 9.27 Cork s development as a significant industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries has created an important record of historic archaeological remains still surviving in the contemporary city. Today many of the buildings that housed the industries and the associated warehouses grain-stores malt-houses etc. still survive. Associated features such as millraces are particularly vulnerable as they may extend for considerable distances from the core building. Intact machinery and fittings rarely survive but structural elements designed to accommodate machinery can be extremely informative. Cork City Council aims to undertake a review of the industrial archaeology and architecture of the city. This will provide an inventory of assets and an assessment of their significance an assessment of their condition and an action plan to widen appreciation and improve their condition. 9 9.28 Objective 9.18 Industrial Archaeology All development proposals for industrial buildings and sites of industrial archaeological importance must be accompanied by an archaeological assessment of the building(s) and their surrounding environment. Retention and or incorporation of industrial buildings will be encouraged. Where in exceptional circumstances demolition is permitted a detailed building report will be required. Objective 9.19 Industrial Heritage Record To review the Industrial Heritage Record of the city. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 113 x Volume One Written Statement Protection of Underwater Archaeology 9.29 Cork was built on estuarine islands in the marshy valley of the River Lee at a point where it formed a number of waterways. It is possible that archaeological riverine-related features may survive in these areas and they may take the form of walk-ways fish-traps timber jetties or simple mooring posts. Under the National Monuments (Amendment) Act 1930-2004 all shipwrecks over one hundred years underwater archaeological structures features and objects are protected. Objective 9.20 Underwater Archaeology All development proposals which will impact on riverine intertidal and sub-tidal environments should be accompanied by an archaeological assessment. Conservation of the Built Heritage Introduction 9.30 The City Council has a legal duty to protect and promote good custodianship of built heritage assets including those on the Record of Protected Structures and in Architectural Conservation Areas with the resources that it has available to it. The City Council does this through the development management process projects it leads or partners financial incentive schemes and utilising the tools given to it by the Planning and Development Act 2000-2014 and other relevant legislation. The state of Cork s built heritage is intrinsically linked to the wider structural issues facing the city and how attractive it is to live do business and visit. This is particularly the case in relation to the City Centre which is the location for most of Cork s historic buildings. In addition the state of Cork s built heritage is linked to the economic justification for continual investment in buildings. The re-use rather than demolition of older buildings also has wider sustainability benefits. These wider issues have been clearly recognised by preparation of the City Centre Strategy the proposed City Living Initiative and the completion of the Keeping Cork s Traditional Buildings in Use Study (2013) by Cork City Council. Ensuring that Cork s built heritage assets have an economic purpose are occupied and benefit from good custodianship is a key issue that needs to be addressed in the period of this development plan. This will involve concerted effort to address wider structural issues but also strategies to address buildings at risk of underinvestment vacancy endangerment and demolition. This will include the preparation of a Cork Buildings At Risk Strategy and a Historic Centre Action Plan that sets out priorities for intervention. 9.31 9 Objective 9.21 State of Cork s Built Heritage To pursue actions that ensure Cork s built heritage will benefit from good custodianship and building occupation and to prepare a Cork Buildings At Risk Strategy and a Historic Centre Action Plan. Conservation Principles 9.32 Sympathetic maintenance adaptation and re-use can allow the architectural heritage to yield aesthetic environmental and economic benefits even when the original use may no longer be viable. Conservation can be recognised as a good environmental choice as the reuse of buildings rather than their demolition contributes to sustainability through retaining the embodied energy of buildings and reducing demolition waste. In some cases it is also more cost effective to renovate than demolish and rebuild. Conservation also supports employment and skills and provides for good quality jobs for artisans. Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines for Planning Authorities was published in 2004 by the Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government and whilst primarily aimed at planning authorities they are also of assistance to owners and occupiers of protected structures proposed protected structures and other buildings within Architectural Conservation Areas. 114 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology x Objective 9.22 Reuse and Refurbishment of Historic Buildings and Protection of Archaeological Resource. The City Council will positively encourage and facilitate the careful refurbishment of the historic built environment for sustainable and economically viable uses. In addition it is recognised that the protection and retention of historic buildings within the medieval city has the dual advantage of protecting the rich archaeological resource and the Recorded Monument of the City Wall. Record of Protected Structures 9.33 Our architectural heritage is a unique resource and reflects the history of our commercial and social development and our lifestyles over time and also demonstrates the different building techniques and materials and designs. Such heritage gives each local area its own character and history. The Planning and Development Acts 2000 - 2006 introduced legislation and methods for protecting the Architectural Heritage and introduced the Record of Protected Structures to ensure that each Local Authority must include policy objectives in its Development Plan for Protected Structures or parts of structures of special interest. A Protected Structure is a structure which is considered to be of special interest from an architectural historical archaeological artistic cultural scientific social or technical point of view. The Record of Protected Structures (RPS) is a list of the buildings held by a Local Authority which contains buildings considered to be of special interest in its operational area. Further information on Protected Structures is available in the recent publication A Guide to Protected Structures in Cork City while the Record of Protected Structures is contained in Volume 3 of this Plan. 9.34 Designation 9.35 The effect of the designation of Protected Structure status is to ensure that any changes or alterations to the character of the building are carried out in such a way that the existing special character is retained and enhanced. Therefore works which would in the opinion of the City Council have a material effect on the character of the structure require planning permission. 9 Objective 9.23 Record of Protected Structures (RPS) Cork City Council will maintain a Record of Protected Structures within the Cork City Development Plan which shall include structures or parts of structures which are of special architectural historical archaeological artistic cultural scientific social or technical interest and which it is an objective to protect. Section 57 Declarations 9.36 Owners of Protected Structures can seek a declaration from the Planning Authority (under section 57b of the Planning and Development Acts 2000 - 2006) to set out the type of work the authority considers would or would not materially affect the character of the Protected Structure. This declaration can be referred to An Bord Plean la by the owner for review if so wished. Demolition 9.37 Demolition of a Protected Structure will not be permitted except in exceptional circumstances. Most structures can generally and practically be repaired once an economical and viable use can be found. Objective 9.24 Demolition of Protected Structures Proposals for demolition of a Protected Structure shall not be permitted except in exceptional circumstances and where it can be showed that a greater public interest will be served which outweighs the loss to the architectural heritage. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 115 x Volume One Written Statement Recording 9.38 Where it is proposed to alter or demolish a Protected Structure either partially or totally a full record of the structure and its significant elements shall be prepared to best conservation practice. Objective 9.25 Recording of Protected Structures Any alteration or demolition of a Protected Structure shall require a full record to Best Conservation Practice. Alterations and Extensions 9.39 Any proposals for alterations or extensions to a Protected Structure should ensure that there is no damage to the special character of the Protected Structure. Any extensions should be appropriate in terms of architectural design treatment character scale and form to the existing protected building structure. Curtilage and Attendant Grounds - Setting of Protected Structures 9.38 Curtilage is normally taken to be the parcel of grounds associated with the protected structure. Attendant grounds are those areas that may not be immediate to the protected structure but are associated with them. Both the curtilage and attendant grounds of a Protected Structure are included for their protection within the definition of a Protected Structure as they are defining elements of the building structure. Historic Landscapes 9.40 Historic landscapes and gardens associated with Protected Structures are also an important amenity and contribute to the setting and character of Protected Structures. It will be the policy of the City Council to protect these unique historic gardens (including walled gardens) landscapes and settings from inappropriate development. There are also remnant historic landscapes that do not relate to protected structures that are built heritage assets of significance that the City Council will seek to protect. These in general relate to the former grounds of historic houses some of which have been lost others are not included on the Record of Protected Structures. 9 Objective 9.26 Historic Landscapes Cork City Council will ensure the historic landscapes and gardens throughout the city are protected from inappropriate development. Enabling Development 9.41 Development which would not conflict with the general planning objectives for the area in which a Protected Structure is located will be considered on its merits and on the impact such development would have on the character of the Protected Structure. Objective 9.27 Enabling Development Cork City Council will consider permitting the following notwithstanding the zoning objectives of the area The restoration of a Protected Structure or other buildings of architectural or other merit currently in poor condition to conservation best practice standard for any purpose compatible with the character of the building The conservation of a Protected Structure or other building of architectural merit or other merit independent of its current condition to a tourist related use in cases where in the City Councils opinion the converted building is capable of functioning as an important additional tourist attraction or facility and the use is compatible with the character of the building. 116 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology x National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (NIAH) 9.42 The Minister for Arts Heritage and the Gaeltacht has recommended under the powers given to them by Section 53 of the Planning and Development Acts 2000-2012 that 2 779 structures from a survey of Central Cork completed in 2003 be added to the RPS and 752 structures from a survey of Suburban Cork completed in 2011 should be added to the RPS. The City Council has a responsibility under the legislation to consider the recommendations of the Minister. As of 2012 the City Council has protected approximately 1 600 of the structures from the first survey by adding them to the RPS or including them within Architectural Conservation Areas. The structures that aren t formally protected benefit from a form of protection through s53 (2) of the legislation which allows the planning authority to have regard to the Minister s recommendations where a building is subject to a planning application. Given the scale of the task of protecting these structures by statutory designation by inclusion on the RPS or by ACA designation it is proposed to formalize a policy for protecting these heritage assets recognizing the limited resources to the City Council and that are available to assess their conservation value and administrate their protection. 9.43 9.44 Objective 9.28 Protection of NIAH and other structures of built heritage interest The City Council as planning authority aims to protect structures of built heritage interest. The Ministerial Recommendations made under Section 53 of the Planning Acts asking the City Council to protect structures will be taken into account when the City Council as planning authority is considering proposals for development that would affect the historic interest of these structures of significance. The City Council will protect structures by making additions to the Record of Protected Structures designating Architectural Conservation Areas or other appropriate means. Structures (including those recommended by the Minister) will be prioritized for protection where Key stakeholders groups building owners or members of the public ask that Cork City Council provide protection to specific buildings or Area-wide assessment through architectural conservation area assessment or the development of forward planning frameworks lead to the need to protect key character areas and or buildings. 9 Cork City Council Owned Structures Built Heritage Significance 9.45 Cork City Council has a number of buildings in its ownership which it is considered appropriate to include in the Record of Protected Structures. These are listed in Volume 3 of the Development Plan. This record includes City Hall and a number of bridges in the City Centre. Architectural Conservation Areas (ACAs) Purpose 9.46 Cork s historic areas can be protected by means of Architectural Conservation Areas (ACAs) under Section 81 of the Planning and Development Acts 2000 - 2006. The aim of designating areas is to protect their special characteristics and distinctive features from inappropriate actions. External works that would affect the character as described by the Planning Authority will require planning permission whereas repair or refurbishment which does not materially affect the external character will not require planning permission. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 117 x Volume One Written Statement Criteria and Selection 9.47 The City Council is committed to the designation of additional Architectural Conservation Areas in the city but is mindful that the extent of such designations will occur as resources allow. In assessing whether an area should be designated as an Architectural Conservations Area the following criteria will be employed Does the National Inventory (Buildings of Ireland) Survey identify buildings as worthy of protection whether there is a distinctive character of architectural historical archaeological artistic cultural scientific social or technical special interest or must contribute significantly to the setting of an important protected structure there must be evidence of usefulness of designation for the proper planning and sustainable development of the area they should meet with the requirements of the Planning and Development Acts 2000-2012 and the criteria set out in Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines For Planning Authorities sufficient resources must be available to successfully survey the areas selected and formulate the appropriate development policies. Designated Architectural Conservation Areas 9.48 The City Council as planning authority has a legal duty to seek the conservation and enhancement of Architectural Conservation Areas designated in the city by the Development Plan. The current and proposed Architectural Conservation Areas are set out in Volume 3 of this plan including their Statements of Character. Thirty-two Architectural Conservation Areas were protected in the Cork City Development Plan 2009-2015. This plan includes an additional seven areas at Sunday s Well The Mardyke University College Cork North Mall Blackrock Road Albert Quay and the Ford Factory. Further areas may be designated during the lifetime of the development plan as resources allow. 9 Objective 9.29 Architectural Conservation Areas To seek to preserve and enhance the designated Architectural Conservation Areas in the City. Demolition in Architectural Conservation Areas 9.49 The reuse of existing buildings is preferable to replacement. Applications for demolition of buildings or parts of buildings that contribute to the character of an ACA will only be granted in exceptional circumstances. The onus will be upon the applicant to justify the demolition of the building. The Cork City Council will always start from the premise that the structure should be retained. Where buildings are considered to have a negative impact on the character of an ACA demolition of existing and replacement with buildings of more appropriate design may be desirable. The replacement buildings should always respect their setting. Where in exceptional circumstances a structure or a part of a structure which is considered to contribute to the special character is to be demolished it should first be recorded prior to demolition and where appropriate should be monitored during demolition. Objective 9.30 Demolition in Architectural Conservation Areas Demolition of structures and parts of structures will in principle only be permitted in an Architectural Conservation Area where the structure or parts of a structure are considered not to contribute to the special or distinctive character or where the replacement structure would significantly enhance the special character more than the retention of the original structure. Objective 9.31 Recording of Structures in Architectural Conservation Areas Where in exceptional circumstances a structure or a part of a structure which is considered to contribute to the special character of the area is permitted to be demolished it should first be recorded prior to demolition and where appropriate should be monitored during demolition. 118 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology x Objective 9.32 Development in Architectural Conservation Areas Development in ACAs should take account of the following Works that impact negatively upon features within the public realm such as paving railings street furniture kerbing etc. shall not be generally permitted Acceptable design scale materials and finishes for new developments Original materials and methods of construction should be retained. For example timber barge boards windows and doors should not be replaced with PVC original roofing material types should be retained along with original forms and locations of openings etc. Features of historic or architectural value should not be removed. 9.50 The City Council will produce an information leaflet detailing permitted development in Architectural Conservation Areas including good practice guidelines regarding external material alterations to buildings. Funding Assistance for Protected Structures and buildings in Architectural Conservation Areas 9.51 There are a number of sources of funding for the repair of Protected Structures that may be available from year to year according to central government Heritage Council and City Council budgets (see websites for details in any one year). Support may be available through the Civic Structures Conservation Grants Scheme Heritage Council Buildings at Risk scheme Irish Georgian Society Grants Scheme Section 482 of the Consolidated Taxes Act 1997 and exemption of development contributions. Cork City Council also administers a number of national grant schemes including the Built Heritage Job Leverage Scheme. The City Living Initiative is a tax incentive scheme proposed for introduction in 2014 by the Department of Finance. The City Council has also made its own scarce resources available to fund its own Architectural Conservation Area Grant Scheme. This was launched in 2011 to provide financial incentives for people to invest in the older areas of the city benefiting from ACA status and in good conservation practice. The objectives of conservation grant schemes vary but in the main aim to assist the owner or occupier of the protected structure to undertake the works necessary to secure the conservation of the structure or part of the structure. Applications are assessed on a range of factors including the significance of the building the appropriateness of the works in terms of materials methods and standards of workmanship and the urgency of the works and according to an agreed Scheme of Priorities. 9.52 9 9.53 Areas of Special Planning Control (ASPC) 9.54 Under the Planning and Sustainable Development Act 2000 where a planning authority considers that all or part of an Architectural Conservation Area (ACA) is of special importance to or respects the civic life or the architectural historical cultural or social character of a city or town in which it is situated it may prepare a scheme setting out development objectives for the preservation and enhancement of that area or part of that area. The Act provides powers to planning authorities not only to conserve the character of certain areas but also in urban areas of special importance to enhance that character that is to restore it and to require owners and occupiers to conform to a planning scheme. A scheme may include objectives for promotion of a high standard of civic amenity and civic design preservation and protection of the environment including the architectural archaeological and natural heritage renewal preservation conservation restoration development or redevelopment of the streetscape layout and building pattern including the co-ordination and upgrading of shop 9.55 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 119 x Volume One Written Statement frontages control of layout of areas density building lines and height of structures and the treatment of spaces around and between structures control of the design colour and materials of structures in particular the type or quality of building materials used in structures promotion of the maintenance repair or cleaning of structures or other land control of any new or existing uses of structures or other land the promotion of the development or redevelopment of derelict sites or vacant sites the regulation or restriction or control of the erection of advertisement structures and exhibition of advertisements. 9.56 Cork City Council may use the Areas of Special Planning Control provisions to devise policies for the protection and improvement of selected ACAs. Historic Street Character Areas 9.57 Historic Street Character Areas include a number of older residential areas outside of the City Centre. The areas have street frontages and groups of buildings of architectural and social interest in terms of their group value building volume roof pattern and elevational treatment. The areas are generally urban vernacular of the following types historic village nuclei historic city approaches or groups of historic housing. It will be an objective of the City Council to protect the character of these groups of buildings and streets. Historic Street Character Areas are a specific objective (an overlay) illustrated in Volume 2 Mapped Objectives of the Plan. Objective 9.33 - Historic Street Character Areas 9 - To protect the physical and architectural character of these areas avoiding insensitive alterations which would detract from their character To seek the provision of higher quality public realm treatments in these areas reflecting their social value to the city. Individual buildings of character 9.58 There are some examples of vernacular or historic structures such as former farmhouses cottages stone walls which all predate suburban development and contribute to the character of the area. There will be a presumption against demolition of individual structures of vernacular or historic social interest that contribute to the character of an area. There are also individual buildings structures of character in suburban areas villages. They may not be worthy of individual protection but they do contribute to the character of an area and demolition or loss would have a negative impact. 9.59 Objective 9.34 Individual buildings of character in suburban areas villages There will be a presumption against the demolition of buildings of Historic or Vernacular character in suburban areas villages. Other Elements of Built Heritage 9.60 Many non structural elements such as curtilage features historic gardens stone walls historic ironwork historic plaques and street furniture (post boxes horse troughs etc.) contribute to our built heritage. These items are often an integral part of the urban landscape or provide significant historic references which contribute to the character of an area. These elements can be vulnerable to needless partial or total destruction and theft as well as poor reconstruction due to carelessness and a lack of awareness. 120 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology x 9.61 Of immense importance are the 19th century elements associated with the north and south channel. Important features include quay walls railings bollards kerbing etc. Objective 9.35 Elements of the Built Heritage To ensure the protection of important elements of the built heritage and their settings as appropriate. Separate access to the upper floors of buildings 9.62 In order to ensure that historic buildings in their entirety are retained in productive use it is essential to maintain upper floor access. The existence of separate building frontage (or side) access multiplies the re-use options available for buildings. The reinstatement of upper floor access will be sought where this is feasible based upon an assessment of the quality of ground floor (e.g. commercial) unit configuration and frontage. The City Council may also consider joint access arrangements favourably where single unit reinstatement is not feasible and reasonable. The productive use of a building is critical to ensuring its longevity as the repair investment and good custodianship of buildings follows productive economic building use. Upper floor vacancy due to the loss of upper floor access (and other reasons) is primarily an issue in the City Centre and historic village nuclei where there have been many instances of building neglect and collapse as a consequence of poor custodianship and underinvestment. Following on from Keeping Cork s Characteristic Buildings in Use Study (January 2013) the City Council has undertaken to pro-actively explore options to tackle vacancy disrepair and buildings at risk of endangerment and dereliction. 9.63 Objective 9.36 Separate access to the Upper Floors of Buildings There will be a presumption against the loss of upper floor access to buildings from street frontages and the City Council will seek the reinstatement of upper floor access points wherever possible from the street. 9 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 121 Volume One Written Statement 9 122 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage Contents Introduction 125 Landscape 125 Introduction 125 Cork City Landscape Study 2008 126 Landscape Character Areas 126 Key Landscape Assets 126 Enhancing Cork s Landscape 130 Landscape Protection 130 Areas of High Landscape Value 131 Landscape Preservation Zones 131 Views and Prospects 137 Types of Views 138 Natural Heritage and Biodiversity 139 Introduction 139 Designated Areas and Protected Species 139 Non-Designated Areas of Natural Heritage Importance 142 Rivers and Waterways 143 Trees and Urban Woodlands 144 Geology 147 Alien Species 147 Biodiversity Plan 147 10 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 123 x Volume One Written Statement 10 vital to quality of life 124 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage x CHAPTER 10 LANDSCAPE AND NATURAL HERITAGE Introduction 10.1 With the intensification of the City its landscape and natural heritage assets are of huge importance to those living working and visiting Cork. They are vital to quality of life are non-renewable assets and help enhance the attractiveness and image of the city. Cork City has an attractive physical setting formed by the Lee Valley and Estuary and the ridges rising to the north and south. These features are supplemented by a range of public open spaces parks walkways public and private spaces trees and tree groups and together form the green infrastructure of the city which play a significant role in supporting biodiversity such as mammals birds invertebrates trees and plants. The distribution of landscape natural heritage and recreational assets (Chapter 11) is vitally important to creating an accessible city. The City Council will strive to create a network of natural heritage areas and recreational open spaces amenity areas by promoting linkages and accessibility between these areas and by using walkways cycleways to connect them where appropriate and to encourage alternative transportation modes. 10.2 10.3 Landscape Introduction 10.4 Cork s landscape forms a key aspect of the city s character as outlined above. Landscape is defined as an area as perceived by people whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and or human factors (European Landscape Convention). Landscape shapes our image of a place give us a sense of place an identity and can be a source of pride and inspiration and so influence our well-being and quality of life. All aspects of our natural built and cultural heritage come together in the landscapes we experience. Landscape is a finite resource but is constantly changing through natural processes and through human activity. It is in our interest to ensure that the city s landscape assets are protected. Cork City as a focus for economic development and population growth is under constant pressure of development. The challenge for Cork City Council is to manage the city s landscape in a manner that facilitates economic growth and development while protecting and enhancing the city s key landscape assets and resources. 10 10.5 10.6 Objective 10.1 Landscape Strategic Objectives To preserve and enhance Cork s landscape character and key landscape assets To preserve and enhance Cork s views and prospects of special amenity value Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 125 x Volume One Written Statement Cork City Landscape Study 2008 10.7 The Cork City Landscape Study 2008 was commissioned by Cork City Council to establish principles and provide the framework for protecting and enhancing the natural environment and positively managing its change as well as providing the context within which the design of developments can take place in an appropriate manner. The methodology of the Study consisted of a Landscape Character Assessment an Analysis of the Key Landscape Elements and the identification of Key Landscape Assets and Formulation of Policy Recommendations. Landscape Character Areas 10.8 The Landscape Character Assessment defined 8 no. Landscape Character Areas within the city as follows Estuarine Riverine Natural harbour Historic urban core Fine-grained inner-city residential Suburban residential Urban sylvan character Urban industrial commercial Rural agricultural. Key Landscape Assets 10.9 The study identified the key landscape assets that combine to create Cork s unique and distinctive cityscape. These landscape assets are identified in Table 10.1. (Table 10.1 should be cross referenced with Table 10.2 in relation to Landscape Preservation Zone policy). Cork City is characterised by dramatic topographical changes and prominent ridges forming a bowl within which the city lies and providing a series of striking viewpoints from which the city can be viewed. The ridge landscapes are extremely important particularly where they remain as undeveloped green landscapes occupied by trees tree groups and woodlands and where they occupy the highest points on the landscape. Areas such as Wellington Road Tivoli and Sunday s Well successfully combine built form with the landscape. Where buildings occupy the ridge trees contribute to their character by softening their impact. The Key Landscape Assets are illustrated in Figure 10.2 Conceptual Landscape Structure Plan. 10.10 10 10.11 10.12 126 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage x Figure 10.1 Landscape Character Areas (Landscape Study 2008) 10 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 127 x Volume One Written Statement Table 10.1 Landscape Assets Categories Ref A B Assets Category Topography - ridges escarpments slopes Water River Corridors - rivers estuary harbour The Lough Atlantic Pond Docklands Port of Cork C Tree Canopy - Areas with existing woodlands or significant tree groups or areas with potential for new woodlands. D E Ecology - areas which provide a habitat for wild flora and fauna. Visually Important Land (including Views and Prospects of Special Amenity Value Potential Vantage Points and Locally Important Views) F G Historic Core Townscapes Streetscapes Landmarks Natural Features Cultural Landscape land forming the setting to existing landmark buildings and or protected structures buildings of significance H I Public and Private Open Space footprint including land with potential for Public Open Space Institutional Open Space Historic Landscapes (including monuments historic routes) Rural Character Green Belt - proximity of rural and agricultural land uses to the city Built Form Public Realm Gateways to the City Bridges Pedestrian Cycle Routes in the City Access Vehicular Access The Railway in the City 10 J K L M O P Q R S 128 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage x Figure 10.2 Conceptual Landscape Structure Plan 10 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 129 x Volume One Written Statement Enhancing Cork s Landscape 10.13 Following the recommendations of the Cork City Landscape Study 2008 the Cork City Council will seek to enhance Cork s landscape through the development management process and through the development of a framework as follows Primary Green Links To develop and enhance the River Lee Corridor (north and south channels) extending from the Lee Fields to Douglas Estuary as a series of public parks and accessible spaces linked by a continual linear park and walkways subject to Ecological Assessment by a suitably qualified Ecologist and AA Screening. Secondary Green Links To extend public access along the secondary river tributaries and providing focus for new parks and upgraded landscapes subject to Ecological Assessment by a suitably qualified Ecologist and AA Screening. Key Landscape Areas The development and improvement of key landscape areas in accordance with Landscape and Urban Design Frameworks such as Knocknaheeny Reservoir The Glen Valley Tivoli Custom House Point Tramore Valley Park Elizabeth Fort and Saint Anne s Hospital. New Urban Woodlands Tree planting schemes for the areas identified as having very little tree cover and would benefit from such schemes in terms of improved landscape quality and attractiveness. The areas include Cork City Centre Docklands Gurranabraher Knocknaheeny Fair Hill Blackpool Ballyvolane Tivoli Docks and Industrial Estate Ballinure Mahon South Ring West Business Park and the Municipal Landfill Site. 10 Objective 10.2 Cork City Landscape To preserve Cork s unique and distinctive landscape character through the appropriate management and enhancement of Key Landscape Assets (as set out in Table 10.1). Objective 10.3 Cork City Landscape Structure Plan To preserve and enhance Cork s landscape and where appropriate to increase access to and utilise the landscape for recreational purposes through the implementation of the Landscape Structure Plan. Landscape Protection 10.14 The Cork City Council will seek to preserve and enhance the landscape character of the city by protecting the significant landscape elements that are intrinsically important to or contribute to the general amenity of Cork City. The Cork City Council seeks to achieve this through the designation of Areas of High Landscape Value (AHLV) and Land Preservation Zones (LPZ). Planning applications within areas sites benefiting from such landscape protection must demonstrate that there is no resulting adverse impact on the landscape assets and character of the area by means of a design statement that includes a landscape assessment and visual impact assessment the impact. The City Council will seek discretionary Environmental Impact Assessments on all development proposals that it considers would be likely to have a negative impact on the landscape. 10.15 130 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage x Areas of High Landscape Value 10.16 Areas of High Landscape Value comprise one or more landscape asset identified in the Cork Landscape Study 2008 and typically combine one of the primary landscape assets (Topography River Corridor Tree Cover) with other landscape assets. AHLVs are illustrated in Suburban Maps 4-10 Volume 2. Areas of High Landscape Value display an intrinsic landscape character and a special amenity value. Development will be appropriate only where it results in a neutral positive impact on the landscape. Although many AHLVs consist of a built form and a strong landscape character typically the built form is secondary to the landscape character. New development in AHLVs must respect the character and the primacy and dominance of the landscape. In particular development on topographical assets such as steep sided slopes escarpments and ridges is considered to be inappropriate due to the detrimental impact of site and excavation works on the landscape. There will be a presumption against development where it causes significant harm or injury to the intrinsic character of the Area of High Landscape Value. The AHLV is an additional objective overlaying the land-use zoning objective. Development proposals must comply with the underlying land-use zoning objective. The key areas include the Montenotte Tivoli Ridge Shanakiel Ridge Sunday s Well Ridge Blackpool Valley Lough Mahon Douglas Estuary River Lee Curragheen River. 10.17 10.18 10.19 Objective 10.4 Areas of High Landscape Value To conserve and enhance the character and visual amenity of Areas of High Landscape Value (AHLV) through the appropriate management of development in order to retain the existing characteristics of the landscape and its primary landscape assets. Development will be considered only where it safeguards to the value and sensitivity of the particular landscape. There will be a presumption against development where it causes significant harm or injury to the intrinsic character of the Area of High Landscape Value and its primary landscape assets the visual amenity of the landscape protected views breaks the existing ridge silhouette the character and setting of buildings structures and landmarks and the ecological and habitat value of the landscape. 10 Landscape Preservation Zones 10.20 Landscape Preservation Zones (LPZs) are areas in need of special protection as their character and amenity value is considered to be to highly sensitive to development and as such have limited or no development potential. Typically the landscape character of LPZs combines distinctive landscape assets such as topography slope tree cover setting to historic structures other types of open spaces and other landscape assets. The objective of LPZs is to preserve and enhance the landscape character and assets of the sites. There will be a presumption against development within LPZs. Development in LPZs is limited in scope and character to the respective site specific objectives outlined in Table 2. In exceptional circumstances there may be limited scope for development to enable existing occupiers to adapt existing buildings to their evolving requirements providing that the form or nature of development is compatible with the landscape character of the area. This might include a change of use and or minor extensions. 10.21 Objective 10.5 Landscape Preservation Zones To preserve and enhance the character and visual amenity of Landscape Preservation Zones through the control of development. Development will be considered only where it safeguards to the value and sensitivity of the particular landscape and achieves the respective site specific objectives as set out in Table 10.2. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 131 x Volume One Written Statement Table 10.2 Schedule of Objectives applying to Landscape Preservation Zones Ref Landscape Preservation Zone (general name) Landscape Assets Site Specific Objectives to be protected (table 10.1) North-West NW1 Shanakiel Ridge (1) G A E To provide public open space as part of new neighbourhood park To allow a small amount of residential development to overlook this public open space (fronting westwards behind the existing houses) minimising the impact on the setting of Our Lady s Hospital To retain limestone field boundary wall as landscape element and repair reinstate where necessary To ensure landscape structure maximises the potential of the stream and other assets. NW2 Shanakiel Ridge (2) Our Lady s Hospital Saint Anne s Hospital Shanakiel Ridge (3) Hyde Park Shanakiel House Sunday s Well (1) Old Jail Sunday s Well (2) Lee Riverside Sunday s Well (3) North Mall Distillery G A C E NW3 NW4 NW5 NW6 C E A G A B C E F B C D E G I Q To create a publicly accessible riverside open space with significant ecological value as part of campus development To provide an additional public pedestrian bridge to access the development site at the eastern end of the distillery site from the Lee Maltings site To provide an additional public route along through the centre of the site along the Mill Stream. 10 NW7 NW8 Gurranabraher Ridge (1) Mount Saint Joseph s Gurranabraher Ridge (1) Saint Mary s Orthopaedic Hospital E G C A C A E I To increase tree coverage on the lower slopes of the hospital site and to protect and enhance the existing tree coverage at the boundary of the site To explore potential for publicly accessible vantage point. NW9 Knocknaheeny Water Tower G 132 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage x Ref Landscape Preservation Zone (general name) Landscape Assets Site Specific Objectives to be protected (table 10.1) North-West (cont.) NW10 Farranferris College Ridge B D E C A J G To restore and enhance the Historic Landscape To seek re-use of college building and to allow development within its immediate environs consistent with the Protected Structure and landscape significance of the site To reinforce landscape structure on site including new tree planting and retention of watercourse as landscape ecology feature To allow development to replace existing structures to the north of the Seminary Building (see Area B of local area plan) with new buildings being in Institutional uses with limited ancillary local services To allow very limited development to the south of the seminary building for Institutional use (see amplification in Area D of the local area plan) To provide a passive amenity space which benefits from an enhanced landscape structure and significant tree planting To protect and enhance the watercourse and its setting. To seek the development of a passive public open space to provide for the surrounding residential areas. NW11 Farranferris Ridge (Upper) A B C D E NW12 Farranferris Ridge G H 10 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 133 x Volume One Written Statement Ref Landscape Preservation Zone (general name) Landscape Assets Site Specific Objectives to be protected (table 10.1) North-West (cont.) NW13 Commons Road Lover s Walk Ridge NW14 Blackpool Valley (west) Ridge Commons Road C G F K A C E O To connect between Commons Road and Seminary Walk Lover s Walk To develop a woodland park on the southern valley slope to provide an attractive landscape feature at the gateway and to connect the rural landscape with the city To provide pedestrian linkages between residential areas at the top of the slope and Fitz s Boreen and Sunbeam development area. To develop a woodland park on the southern valley slope to provide an attractive landscape feature at the gateway and to connect the rural landscape with the city To conserve and enhance the lower portion of the ridge including the existing hedgerow by additional tree planting To conserve and enhance the landscape value of the upper portion of the ridge as an urban woodland To provide limited development in the middle portion of the ridge to provide long-term management of the whole ridge. Development should be in small-scale pavilion style inset in a strong landscape structure. To provide landscape structure and open space in any redevelopment. NW15 New Mallow Road Blackpool K A C E O Ridge (West) NW16 Lower Killeen s Road A B C E K O 10 NW17 (Former) Good Shepherd Convent North-East NE1 Bride Valley (1) C G H A B C D E (from train) A B C D E (from train) A B C D E (from train) To re-establish the River as a key element of the valley floor by providing a linear park with publicly accessible riverside treed walk. To re-establish the River as a key element of the valley floor by providing as linear park with publicly accessible riverside treed walk. To re-establish the River as a key element of the valley floor by providing a linear park with publicly accessible riverside walk with new tree coverage and linked spaces. To provide tree coverage to improve the appearance of this visually prominent land. NE2 Bride Valley (2) NE3 Bride Valley (3) NE4 NE5 NE6 NE7 Blackpool Valley East Saint Patrick s Hill Grattan Hill Middle Glanmire Road (1) (Vosterburg) A E H A C E G C G C G 134 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage x Ref Landscape Preservation Zone (general name) Landscape Assets Site Specific Objectives to be protected (table 10.1) North-East (cont.) NE8 NE9 NE10 Middle Glanmire Road (2) (Convalescent Home) Middle Glanmire Road (3) (Hyde Park House) Former Quarry Lower Glanmire Road C G C G A C D E H To provide a pocket park to serve needs of Lower Glanmire Road area providing development of brownfield site can be achieved to provide supervision of space. NE11 NE12 NE13 Tivoli Ridge COPE School Ennismore A B C D E O A E G I A B C E G J To reinstate the historic landscape setting of Ennismore House To seek development of new Neighbourhood Park (with public vantage point) to serve the needs of the North-East of the city To allow for a small amount of development at the northern edge of the proposed Neighbourhood Park in the event that the City Council considers this an essential part of any landscape masterplan to provide natural supervision. NE14 NE15 Lota Ridge The Glen Ridge A B C E G J A C D E South-West SW1 Inchigaggin Lane (setting of C G Inchigaggin House and Carrigrohane House) B C D E H K O Q To preserve and enhance the setting of Historic Structures To retain lands as landscape assets and as part of the flood plain of the Curragheen and Lee Rivers. Existing uses may continue as nonconforming uses medium to long-term objective of creating a public amenity area as part of the overall Curraheen Lee Fields amenity area. To provide riverside walkway cycleway. 10 SW1A Curragheen River Carrigrohane Road Lee River Valley SW2 SW3 SW4 SW5 SW6 Glasheen River (3) site Sacred Heart South Channel (1) Bon Secours South Channel (2) Bon Secours Hospital car park South Channel (3) Perrott s Inch B C E A B C E G A B C E G B C A B C E G Q To provide riverside walkway cycleway. To provide riverside walkway cycleway. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 135 x Volume One Written Statement Ref Landscape Preservation Zone (general name) Landscape Assets Site Specific Objectives to be protected (table 10.1) South-West (cont.) SW7 SW8 SW9 South Channel (4) UCC Bishop s Palace Mardyke A B C E G A B C E G J B E H J M P Q C C F SW10 Model Farm Road Wilton AFC SW11 High Street Convalescent Home (former Reparation Convent) Villa South-East SE1 SE2 SE3 SE4 South Douglas Road Farmhouse Douglas Estuary Ravenscourt House Bessboro House C B D E H A C E G J G C B I To protect the tree group by means of a TPO Consider inclusion of farmhouse on RPS. To reinstate Historic Landscape To seek use of grounds as a Neighbourhood Park in context of local area plan (H) To allow development within the immediate environs to the north of Bessboro House consistent with the landscape and protected structure significance of the site. To provide tree planting on this visually prominent area of land to screen the Retail Park. To provide significant tree planting on its northern boundary to screen Retail Park. To introduce walkway cycleway above waterline whilst protecting trees along escarpment. SE5 Pond Douglas Estuary RTE Mast Ballinure Road Douglas Estuary Castle Road Bank escarpment Tir-na-nOg Church Avenue (former family home of Frank Murphy architect) Dundanion House and Castle Convent Lawn (north) and small area east of Barrington s Avenue Convent Lawn (south) Blackrock Road escarpment (1) Franciscan Ministry of Saint Joseph s Convent B D S B D E A B C D G 10 SE6 SE7 SE8 A B C G SE9 SE10 A B C G A B C E G To explore potential of integration of this space into Marina Park Atlantic Park as part of overall project. SE11 SE12 G A C E 136 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage x Ref Landscape Preservation Zone (general name) Landscape Assets Site Specific Objectives to be protected (table 10.1) City Centre CC1 Blackpool Valley Ridge A CE J (Old Youghal Road historic city approach) To provide a pocket park (as part of Bell s Field Lady s Well Park) on these lands benefiting from development at the edge of the space to provide supervision whilst maintaining east-west views across the site (between Bell s Field and Shandon western side of valley). Upgrade Old Youghal Road and Lady s Well steps Fever Hospital Steps area CC2 CC3 Blackpool Valley Ridge (East) Richmond Hill Westboro House A C E F A C Development of up to two houses between protected trees on Middle Glanmire Road is considered appropriate. CC4 St Patrick s Hospital grounds C D H Views and Prospects 10.22 Cork City benefits from the prominent ridges which provide a series of striking viewing points of the city. This important resource helps to define the character and identity of the city. Given the development pressures associated with the planned growth of the City the Cork City Council is faced with the challenge of managing development and protecting the city s valued landscape and views of same. In general the city is appreciated by most people along viewpoints such as the River Lee and panoramic views from elevated sites. Amenity views and prospects are defined as those views which significantly contribute to the character and amenity of the city namely the visual envelope of the city defined by the ridges to the north and south the city skyline the built and natural heritage of the city. Cork City Council has identified a number of existing views and prospects of special amenity value to the city. These special views are of strategic significance to Cork City and the City Council will seek to protect and enhance them where appropriate. In order to fully appreciate and legislate for the unique size scale and distinctive topography of Cork City five different view types (below) were identified. There will be a presumption against any development that threatens to obstruct strategic views or compromise the quality or setting of these views. In addition to the strategic views and prospects of special amenity value local views of significance are also very important to the character and legibility of neighbourhoods. Local views will be identified and assessed on a case-by-case basis through the planning process. There will be a presumption against any proposal that would cause unacceptable harm to local views of significance and their settings. Protected views are mapped in Volume 2 listed in Volume 3. The said list of protected views is under constant review and as such is not exhaustive. Additional views may be identified through the development management process through the preparation of local area plans or other policy documents. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 10.23 10 10.24 10.25 10.26 137 x Volume One Written Statement Types of Views Linear Views of Landmark Buildings 10.27 These occur where a particular landmark building is the main point of focus. Views tend to be framed within relatively narrow viewing corridors such as laneways and streets. The views of landmark buildings are considered to be of particular importance and special amenity value. The majority of these views are from City Centre or inner city viewing locations. Panoramic Views 10.28 Panoramas are wide views of the city and suburbs (often from elevated sites) featuring a varying number of city s landmarks. These panoramic views from specified locations or Panoramic Assessment Points are considered to be of particular importance and are important reference points from which large development proposals can be assessed in terms of visual impact. River Prospects 10.29 River prospects are views of landmark buildings from bridges but also riverbanks and quaysides. Townscape and Landscape Features 10.30 These are views of areas that have distinctive outstanding townscape or landscape features within the city including views of the city ridges. Approach Road Views 10.31 The approach roads into Cork City offer visitors the vital first impression of the city and glimpse of the unique topography and character of Cork. Historical routes into the city tend to be from high vantage points whereas the national primary roads offer wider viewing corridors. Objective 10.6 Views and Prospects 10 To protect and enhance views and prospects of special amenity value or special interest and contribute to the character of the City s landscape from inappropriate development in particular those listed in the development plan. There will be a presumption against development that would harm obstruct or compromise the quality or setting of linear views of landmark buildings panoramic views rivers prospects townscape and landscape views and approach road views. To identify and protect views of local significance through the preparation of local area plans site development briefs and the assessment of development proposals on a case-by-case basis. 138 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage x Natural Heritage and Biodiversity Introduction 10.32 Cork City s natural heritage includes flora fauna geology and landscape. This variety of life is often referred to as biological diversity or biodiversity. Wildlife habitats occur throughout the city with many mammals birds invertebrates trees and plants having adapted to live alongside humans in the urban environment. The River Lee and its associated waterways support an immense variety of wildlife while also providing a corridor for the movement of species between the surrounding countryside and urban areas. The built environment provides habitats for a variety of species of flowering plants mosses and lichens and various species of invertebrates birds and bats. Other important wildlife areas in the urban environment include trees parks recreational and other green spaces gardens and graveyards all of which play a significant role in supporting the local biodiversity. 10.33 10.34 Overall Aim 10.35 To protect promote and conserve Cork City s natural heritage and biodiversity Overall Natural Heritage and Biodiversity Objective To protect enhance and conserve designated areas of natural heritage biodiversity and protected species. To ensure that sites and species of natural heritage and biodiversity importance in non designated areas are identified conserved and managed appropriately. To protect and maintain the integrity and maximise the potential of the River Lee and its associated watercourses To protect and enhance the city s trees and urban woodlands To promote best practice guidelines for management control and eradication of invasive alien species To acknowledge and adhere to all relevant biodiversity and natural heritage legislation Designated Areas and Protected Species 10.36 There are a number of habitats flora and fauna within Cork City s boundary which are protected under national and EU legislation. These include designations such as Natural Heritage Areas (NHAs) Special Protection Areas (SPA) designated under the Birds Directive and Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) designated under the Habitats Directive. Together these designated sites provide for the establishment of a coherent ecological network of protected areas known as Natura 2000 (Table 10.3). These sites also known as European Sites are considered to be of exceptional importance in terms of rare endangered or vulnerable habitats and species within the European Community (Chapter 16 Development Management paragraphs 16.126 16.128). Under the current legislation any plan project and any associated works individually or in combination with other plans or projects are subject to Appropriate Assessment Screening to ensure there are no likely significant effects on the integrity (defined by the structure and function) of any Natural 2000 site (s) and that the requirements of Article 6 (3) and 6(4) of the EU Habitats Directive are fully satisfied. When a plan project is likely to have a significant effect on a Natura 2000 site or there is uncertainty with regard to effects it shall be subject to Appropriate Assessment. The plan project will proceed only after it has been ascertained that it will not adversely affect the integrity of the site or where in the absence of alternative solutions the plan project is deemed imperative for reasons of overriding public interest all in accordance with the provisions of Article 6(3) and 6(4) of the EU Habitats Directive (Chapter 16 Development Management paragraph 16.127). 10 10.37 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 139 x Volume One Written Statement Special Protection Areas (SPA) 10.38 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) are areas of European importance designated under the Birds Directive EU Directive 79 409 EEC by reason of the bird species and populations that they support. Under the Bird Directive each EU member state is required to designate SPAs for natural areas that support populations of particular bird species that are rare or threatened in Europe and that require measures including the designation of protected areas to conserve them. Cork City is bounded by the Cork Harbour SPA in the locations outlined below. Western part of Lough Mahon and Douglas Estuary 10.39 The Douglas Estuary and the western part of Loughmahon are designated as a Special Protection Area (SPA). The importance of these areas is based on the presence of significant salt marshes reed beds intertidal mudflats and nationally important numbers of wading birds. This designated area provides a wintering ground for many species of internationally important waterbirds many of which having migrated long distances from Arctic breeding grounds and with numbers exceeding 25 000 each winter. These birds include Golden Plover Bar-tailed Godwit as well as Shelduck Black-tailed Godwit and Lapwing. 10.40 10 Figure 10.4 Designated Natural Heritage Areas with statutory protection 140 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage x Natural Heritage Areas 10.41 Under the Wildlife (Amendment) Act 2000 provision was made for the designation of Natural Heritage Areas (NHAs). These areas include nationally important semi natural and natural habitats landforms and geomorphological features plant and animal species or a diversity of these natural heritage attributes. The Department of Arts Heritage and the Gaeltacht has the responsibility of designating protected nature conservation sites. These NHAs overlap with other nature conservation designations to form a national framework for protected areas in Ireland. In Cork City a number of areas have been designated as Proposed Natural Heritage Areas (pNHA). These include 10.42 Western part of Lough Mahon and Douglas Estuary 10.43 Douglas Estuary is a proposed Natural Heritage Area (pNHA 1046). This is a large area that includes the Douglas River Estuary together with the western intertidal area of Lough Mahon as far as Blackrock Castle. In addition to intertidal mudflats the designated area contains several habitats that are rare and important on a local and national level. These include reed and large sedge swamp and saltmarsh. These habitats all support a diversity of birds mammals and invertebrates. For example the protected and rare moth Twin-spotted Wainscot is found in a reedbed in the Douglas Estuary. Cork Lough 10.44 This is a shallow freshwater lake of around 6 hectares surrounded by amenity grassland and trees. The southern section of the Lough is dominated by an island covered by willow trees. The Lough provides an important habitat to a variety of species of birds bats and fish. Table 10.3 Other Protected Areas in Vicinity of Cork City Name Great Island Channel cSAC and pNHA Glanmire Wood pNHA Dunkettle Shore pNHA Rockfarm Quarry Little Island pNHA Lee Valley pNHA Site Code Key Features 001058 001054 001082 001074 000094 Approx Distance from City Centre 6.5 km 2.5 km 2.5 km 5.5 km 6 km 10 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 141 x Volume One Written Statement Wildfowl Sanctuary 10.45 In addition to Cork Lough s designation as a pNHA it has an existing status under the Wildlife Act 1976 as a Wildfowl Sanctuary. In total 82 species of birds have been recorded from the Lough with numbers of regular and resident birds enhanced by occasional records of rare and unusual species. Salmonoid River 10.46 Under the EU Freshwater Fish Directive the River Lee is designated as a Salmonoid river from its source to Cork City Waterworks. This imposes an obligation to maintain specific water quality standards and to control pollution. Species of fish found along its length include Brook Sea Lamprey and Salmon. In addition the River Lee and its banks provide habitats feeding and resting grounds for a variety of protected species of birds bats and other mammals such as the otter.(Chapter 16 Development Management paragraphs 16.128 16.129). Protected Species 10.47 Certain plant animal and bird species are protected by law. This includes plant species listed in the Flora Protection Order 1999 and animals and birds listed in the Wildlife Act the Habitats Directive and the Birds Directive. The planning process seeks to protect and enhance species protected by law and their habitats. This can often be achieved through planning conditions such as carrying out works at certain times of the year planting native species or providing alternative habitats. Examples of protected species that occur in Cork City include bats otters peregrine falcons and the plant little robin (Chapter 16 Development Management paragraphs 16.126 16.131). Objective 10.7 a. b. c. Designated areas and protected species 10 To protect enhance and conserve designated areas of natural heritage and biodiversity and the habitats flora and fauna for which it is designated To protect enhance and conserve designated species and the habitats on which they depend To ensure that any plan project and any associated works individually or in combination with other plans or projects are subject to Appropriate Assessment Screening to ensure there are no likely significant effects on the integrity (defined by the structure and function) of any Natural 2000 site (s) and that the requirements of Article 6 (3) and 6(4) of the EU Habitats Directive are fully satisfied. When a plan project is likely to have a significant effect on a Natural 2000 site or there is uncertainty with regard to effects it shall be subject to Appropriate Assessment. The plan project will proceed only after it has been ascertained that it will not adversely affect the integrity of the site or where in the absence of alternative solutions the plan project is deemed imperative for reasons of overriding public interest all in accordance with the provisions of Article 6(3) and 6(4) of the EU Habitats Directive. Non-Designated Areas of Natural Heritage Importance 10.48 It is important to realise that the natural heritage and biodiversity of Cork City is not just contained within designated areas alone but is found throughout the city. Many areas which do not have formal protection under legislation have a local natural heritage value in terms of the urban environment in which they are located the plant and animal life that they support and the biodiversity that lies within them. There is a need to conserve these non designated areas which support wildlife species and habitats. Non-designated areas of natural heritage include woodlands hedgerows tree lines wetlands rivers streams semi-natural grasslands private gardens parks sports grounds and urban green spaces. Other areas which serve as areas of biodiversity importance in the city include graveyards cemeteries and the green spaces of institutional lands e.g. convents monasteries hospitals schools and universities. Non-designated areas of natural heritage importance in the city include areas such as Beaumont Quarry parts of areas in and adjacent to the Glen and the Curraheen River the Lee Fields Murphy s Farm and the Marina. 142 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage x 10.49 Protecting areas in isolation from each other is neither appropriate nor effective. It is important that significant wildlife habitat areas and corridors should be preserved to protect and conserve the flora and fauna of the city. It is through the conservation of ecological infrastructure such as hedgerows and riparian corridors that we can develop a network of sites. These areas include features which are linear and continuous in nature e.g. rivers and their banks or ecological stepping stones e.g. ponds or small woodlands. These areas are very important for migration of flora and fauna between conservation areas and are essential for the dispersal and genetic exchange of wild species (Chapter 16 Development Management paragraph 16.128). Objective 10.8 a. Non Designated Areas of Biodiversity Importance b. c. To work with local communities groups landowners National Parks and Wildlife Service and other relevant parties to identify protect manage and where appropriate enhance and promote sites of local biodiversity value To map the City s ecological networks corridors of local biodiversity value outside of designated areas To encourage the management of features which are important for wild flora and fauna. Such features are those which by virtue of their linear or continuous nature e.g. rivers tree groups or hedgerows are essential for the migration dispersal and genetic exchange of wild species. Rivers and Waterways 10.50 Rivers and waterways are very important assets of Cork and the urban environment. Waterway corridors defined as those areas that are physically or visually linked to the waterway are multifunctional in nature. They Provide for the preservation and enhancement of wildlife habitats and natural corridors Provide important visual amenity for the city as a whole Allow for the provision and enhancement of open space public amenities recreational leisure maritime and cultural heritage and tourist activities and development Provide for drainage and flood water storage. Rivers and waterways add greatly to the biodiversity value of the city from the River Lee to the smaller Curragheen Bride Twopot Glasheen Glenamought and Tramore rivers. Some of these watercourses have been modified over the years yet still provide the freshwater environment that is essential for many species to live or feed. In addition they provide a unique corridor for the movement and migration of species on which the survival of some depends. Important species include the Dipper Grey Wagtail Grey Heron salmon lamprey otters and bats. Freshwater marsh habitats occur in waterlogged places and is found close to the Curragheen river and within the Lee fields and the Glen. They often support water loving plants and species which feed on them. Alien or introduced species can also gain a foothold in these environments and if successful can out-compete local and native species. In this way species such as Japanese Knotweed Himalyan Balsam and others have become part of the city flora and are very difficult to control. Rivers and waterways play an important role in the layout and structure of the city and are an integral element of the city s landscape character. The River Lee runs west to east through the city splitting into the North and the South Channels as it does so. These channels enclose the Mardyke area and the City Centre itself giving it a distinct island character. The landscape character of the southside is defined through a network of waterways that enclose the area on all sides i.e. River Lee Lough Mahon Douglas River Douglas Estuary Tramore River and Curragheen Twopot River. The northside of the city is characterised by ridges and valleys traversed by the River Bride and the Glenamought River. River corridors in the City Centre and areas function as both Waterfront and Quayside Amenity Areas. These areas function as public spaces whose primary purpose is for amenity and enjoyment of the riverside location but also have a biodiversity value. The city s waterways are also significant from a Maritime and Cultural heritage perspective. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 10.51 10 10.52 10.53 143 x Volume One Written Statement 10.54 Within the Suburban Areas of the city waterway corridors are generally natural or naturalistic and their conservation as landscape natural heritage and recreational assets is a key priority for Cork particularly as the rivers provide opportunity for the creation of real Linear Parks extending along the River Lee and all of its tributaries. It is a policy of the Cork City Council that proposals for development in waterside locations dedicate a minimum of 10 metres from the top of the riverbank apart from in exceptional circumstances to preserve its natural heritage and biodiversity value provide ecological corridors for the movement of species provide recreational amenities and public walkways and access In new major development locations the preference will be to retain and protect existing riparian habitats while providing parks in waterside locations to maximise the potential linkages between landscape natural heritage and recreational opportunity. A number of waterways in the city region traverse the city and county administrative boundaries. The city and county councils will work together in order to ensure the ecological value of these waterways are protected and enhanced in a co-ordinated manner (Chapter 16 Development Management paragraphs 16.128 16.129). 10.55 10.56 10.57 Objective 10.9 River and Waterway Corridors To protect and maintain the integrity and maximise the potential of the natural heritage and biodiversity value of the River Lee and its associated watercourses. To promote an integrated approach to the future development of the River Lee so that it includes all aspects of use e.g. recreation maritime history and economic factors Development proposals in river corridors shall a. Dedicate a minimum of 10m from the waters edge in channelized rivers for amenity biodiversity and walkway purposes b. Dedicate a minimum of 15m from the top of the bank in non- channelized rivers for amenity biodiversity and walkway purposes c. Preserve the biodiversity value of the site subject to Ecological Assessment by a suitably qualified Ecologist d. Shall not involve landfilling diverting culverting or realignment of river and stream corridors e. Sall not have a negative effect on the distinctive character and appearance of the waterway corridor and the specific characteristics and landscape elements of the individual site and its context. 10 Trees and Urban Woodlands 10.58 Trees make a valuable contribution to the biodiversity local visual amenity and landscape value of Cork City. They also have an educational and scientific value. Trees can help to absorb pollutants filter dust reduce noise produce oxygen and reduce carbon dioxide as well as enhancing the aesthetics of the built environment and public realm thus benefiting Cork City s environmental and economic wellbeing. The term Urban Woodland embraces trees grown in and close to urban areas including trees in streets parks gardens on undeveloped land and those in urban woodlands. It is important to protect and maintain existing trees or groups of trees in the city. In addition it is also important that new planting is promoted to ensure continued regeneration of tree cover and to replace trees in key tree groupings that are becoming increasingly old over sized and unhealthy or are lost due to development. 10.59 144 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage x 10.60 Cork City Council carries out an tree planting programme annually. The impact of the trees planted over the last 20 years is now being felt. In addition during the lifetime of the last plan a number of tree surveys have been carried out as an action of the Heritage Plan 2007-2012 throughout the city in the Mardyke and Curragheen area and the Lee Fields. Key trees and tree groups were identified and mapped. Many of these key trees and groups are located in areas such as the Bishops Palace Curragheen House Rockrahane House Cork Business Technology Park The Lough The Presbytery Hayfield Manor and the Mardyke walk. These trees are of local and regional importance for biodiversity especially the native trees which are of notable occurrence particularly along the Mardyke and riverside walkways. The Planning and Development Acts sets out the legal framework and procedures to make a Tree Preservation Order. The City Council has made a number of Tree Preservation Orders which are listed in Table 10.4 and mapped on the City Council s website. The City Council will extend this list as resources allow. 10.61 Table 10.4 Schedule of Tree Preservation Orders Irish Distilleries North Mall Westboro Middle Glanmire Road Lakeview Castle Road Belgrave Square Wellington Road Ringmahon Road Roseville Old Youghal Road Springmount Rockmahon Castle Road Brookfield House(Village) College Road Deerpark Greenmount Ardnalee Middle Glanmire Road Table 10.5 Key Priorities for Tree Protection Areas of Significant Tree Coverage Key Groups (North side) All Landscape Preservation Zones and Areas of High Landscape Value Sunday s Well Mayfield Road Lower Montenotte Tivoli Lota and Lotabeg Key Groups (South side) All Landscape Preservation Zones and Areas of High Landscape Value Castle Road Blackrock The Marina University College Cork Mardyke 10 10.62 The Landscape Strategy 2008 (Table 10.5) identifies important trees and tree groups within the city which are worthy of protection under local and or national legislation. Their value is generally based on their contribution to the broader landscape but may also be due to their ecological and cultural significance. Some areas of significant tree coverage include the trees in the Tivoli and Montenotte Ridges which are linked visually to those at Glanmire Wood Lota and Lotabeg and all lie adjacent to the Lee. As a whole they form a unique sylvan setting on entering the city. These areas also form a magnificent backdrop when viewed from the south side of the River Lee. The Landscape Strategy also identifies (Table 10.6) important individual mature trees small tree groups and those associated with large period houses and estates. Many of the trees have strong cultural and aesthetic value and although the trees are somewhat scattered and isolated they have a strong visual presence. 10.63 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 145 x Volume One Written Statement Table 10.6 Priorities for Tree Protection Individual Trees Key Groups (North side) Cathedral Walk Gerald Griffin Street Key Groups (South side) South Presentation Convent Nicholas Street Victoria Road Bord Gais Greenmount National School Lough Church Grounds Quaker Burial Ground Evergreen Road Telephone Exchange Group High Street Windmill Road Southern Road Deerpark Mews Belle Air Group Marble Hill Crab Lane O Donovan s Road Model Farm Road Ashton School Borreenmanna Road Convent Evergreen Road La Retraite Curragh Road 10.64 A number of large areas of the city suffer from low tree canopy densities including Knocknaheeny Blackpool Valley Gurranabraher City Centre North Docklands Tramore Road area and South Mahon. The areas outside the City Centre are either industrial or early municipal housing landscapes that now have the opportunity to benefit from new and enhanced landscape structures through development or City Council initiatives. There are many smaller areas of the city that have low tree canopy densities also and would benefit from carefully designed landscape structure in any new development Robust and appropriate levels of protection should be provided for trees and tree groups identified and surveyed with a view to protecting the biodiversity value of these trees as well as the landscape value of linking groups together to provide strong tree assemblages. In addition the general issue of health and safety management of trees as well as staggered replanting in an urbanised area should be addressed (Chapter 16 Development Management paragraph 16.131). 10 10.65 Objective 10.10 Trees and Urban Woodland a. b. c. d. e. To protect and enhance the city s tree and urban woodlands To protect survey and maintain existing important individual and groups of trees To make use of tree preservation orders to protect important trees or groups of trees which may be at risk To ensure that new development benefits from adequate landscape structure tree coverage particularly in areas of the city with inadequate tree coverage To develop an urban woodland strategy and to provide a resource to protect trees and tree groups of significance to manage existing areas with high tree coverage and to plant new urban woodlands in areas deficient in tree coverage To promote the planting of native deciduous trees and mixed forestry in order to benefit biodiversity. f. 146 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage x Geology 10.66 To date sites of geological interest have not been comprehensively covered by the existing nature conservation designations. However there are a few areas within the city which are considered to be areas of geological importance. Cork City Council recognises the need to maintain and preserve important features of geological interest in the city and will work with The Geological Survey of Ireland as appropriate to conserve the sites identified as being of geological interest. Objective 10.11 Non Designated Areas of Geological Importance To seek the conservation of important features of geological interest in the city. Alien Species 10.67 Invasive non-native plant and animal species (Alien Species) can represent a major threat to local regional and national biodiversity. They can negatively impact on native species can transform habitats and threaten whole ecosystems causing serious problems to the environment and the economy. Cork City Council is committed to where ever possible controlling invasive species and will resources allowing monitor public lands such as open spaces verges and river valleys for such species. However vigilance is required by all landowners as invasive species can spread quickly across boundaries. Preventative measures including ensuring that good site hygiene practices are employed for the movement of materials into out of and around the site and ensuring that imported soil is free of seeds and rhizomes of key invasive species (Chapter 16 Development Management paragraph 16.130). Objective 10.12 Alien Species To implement measures to control and prevent the introduction and establishment of ecologically damaging alien invasive species (e.g. Japanese Knotweed and Himalayan Balsam). Biodiversity Plan 10.68 The National Bio-diversity Plan (2011-2016) underlines the principle that environmental concerns should be integrated into all relevant sectors and that policies and decisions should take consideration of ecological principles which recognise the conservation enhancement and sustainable use of biological diversity in Ireland and contribute to conservation and sustainable use of bio-diversity globally. 10 10.69 Cork City Council prepared a Cork City Biodiversity Plan (2009-2014) the aim of which was to promote the appreciation and enjoyment of Cork City s biodiversity amongst the people of the city and to identify understand and conserve the biodiversity of the city for future generations. A number of actions from this plan were carried out and the remaining outstanding actions have been incorporated into the Heritage Plan 2014-2018. Objective 10.13 Biodiversity Plan Actions To adopt and implement the remaining actions from the Cork City Biodiversity Plan into the Heritage Plan 20142018. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 147 x Volume One Written Statement 10 148 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure Contents Introduction Achievements Challenges Strategic Context The Strategic Approach Open Space Strategy Tramore Valley Park City Parks Tramore Valley Park Marina Park North-West City Park (Knocknaheeny) North-East City Park River Glen Corridor Park Lower Level Parks (i.e. Neighbourhood Local and Pocket Parks) Public Open Space provision Sports Sports Facilities and Grounds Water Sports Amenity Routes Play Facilities Allotments Streets City Centre Recreational Infrastructure 151 151 152 152 152 153 155 155 155 156 156 156 156 157 158 158 159 160 161 162 162 162 11 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 149 x Volume One Written Statement 11 a strategy that supports the health of its citizens 150 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure x CHAPTER 11 RECREATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE Introduction 11.1 The protection and enhancement of recreational infrastructure for recreational landscape biodiversity and connectivity reasons has significant benefits for Cork and the quality of life that it can offer to its citizens and those that visit the city. Recreational infrastructure also has significant benefits for human health including providing the arena for social interaction and creating cohesive neighbourhoods the potential for physical activity accessibility to nature and also a mental health dividend. High quality public space has strong links with all of the Plan s strategic goals. Cork City has intensified over the past 20 years and will continue to intensify in the future as a response to strategically co-ordinated land use and transport. Given the geography and landscape of Cork it is essential that existing recreational assets are retained enhanced and added to in order to provide for the existing city population as well as the needs of new residents and employees that will populate major development areas. These assets are not only important to the city and its constituent neighbourhoods but the wider metropolitan area as well as the City s appeal for tourism and international capital. The assets are also of wider significance in relation to drainage flooding and climate change. Cork will progress the delivery of a recreational infrastructure strategy that supports the health of its citizens. A coherent plan for recreational infrastructure will ensure that the recreation and open space needs of citizens is met but will also help to ensure the protection of Cork s natural assets including landscape green spaces biodiverse areas and also provide significant urban design benefits for the city. There is also a very strong link to improving the overall connectivity of the city and to its wider metropolitan area (Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage). Recreational infrastructure is provided by a range of organisations including the City Council the private sector third sector organisations and through the delivery of development. It is the combination of all of these components that ensures that the city s recreational needs are met. Public spaces including open spaces and streets provide key focal points for neighbourhoods and include a mix of activities and uses appropriate to their location scale and context. 11.2 11.3 11.4 11 Achievements 11.5 Cork has made significant improvements to its recreational infrastructure over the last 10 years building on its fantastic landscape assets that together combine to make a strong and clear framework based upon the River Lee Corridor and pre-existing spaces and facilities. A number of new parks and open spaces have been developed over the last few years including the Military Cemetery (The Glen) and Bridevalley Park. Many other projects are close to delivery Active sports facilities have been provided including sports pitches at Mahon all-weather pitches at The Glen and changing pavilions at Pophams Park and Fair Field In making the city more child-friendly six public playgrounds have been completed and refurbishments to existing playgrounds are also part of the ongoing work of the City Council Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 151 x Volume One Written Statement Allotments community gardens have been provided at a number of locations on the northside of the city. Challenges 11.6 The next ten years will see the City Council protect existing assets and address a number of strategic challenges Deliver a strategic plan for a network of large City Parks to provide for the recreational infrastructure needs of the metropolitan area and deliver a number of these including Marina Park Tramore Valley Park North West (Killeens) City Park and North East City Park Re-evaluate neighbourhood level provision of infrastructure including recreational needs In the historic city including the City Centre create positive public space in the form of pocket parks plazas paved spaces adjacent to the north and south channels and enhanced streetscape to meet recreational need and Balance measures to support and enhance biodiversity against recreational needs and to improve ecological networks in areas of the city with lower levels of connectivity. Strategic Context 11.7 Section 10 of the Planning and Development Act 2000-2013 requires that the development plan should zone land for recreational (purposes) as open space or otherwise include objectives for the preservation improvement and extension of amenities and recreational amenities and the social community and cultural requirements of the area and its population . The Act also requires that recreational public rights of way are identified. There is no requirement to provide for allotments but the Land Acquisition (Allotments) Act 1926 enables the purchase of sites for this purpose. Relevant documents and policies in relation to recreational infrastructure include the following Cork - Towards a Healthier City A Health Profile of Cork City - 2012 Open Space Strategies Best Practice Guidance - 2009 Sustainable Residential Development in Urban Areas Guidelines for planning authorities 2008 Teenspace National Recreation Policy for Young People 2007 Ready Steady Play A National Play Policy 2004 Cork Recreational Facilities Needs Study 2003 Cork City Parks Strategy - 2000 A Parks Policy for Local Authorities 1987. 11.8 11 11.9 The Strategic Approach In helping to achieve a green connected and fit-for-purpose Cork with sustainable urban neighbourhoods in line with the core strategy in this plan the following approach will be followed Introducing an open space strategy Creating sustainable connectivity between green areas Provide for the recreational infrastructure needs of the city its neighbourhoods and catchment and related biodiversity needs of the city Provide the resources to deliver and manage the recreational infrastructure required by the city. 152 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure x Objective 11.1 Recreational Infrastructure Strategic Objectives It is the policy of Cork City Council a. To ensure that the City has an Open Space Strategy that is fit for purpose b. To ensure in partnership with Cork County Council where appropriate that Cork has a well-balanced provision of parks and larger open spaces to provide focal points for the city and its constituent neighbourhoods with each park accommodating a range of activities suited to its context and purpose c. To ensure that all areas of the city have an appropriate provision of local public amenity space and facilities to enable people of all ages to recreate meet enjoy and contribute to improved health d. To ensure that play provision meets the needs of all age groups to best practice standards in terms of quantity quality and accessibility e. To ensure that playing pitch and active sports infrastructure meets the needs of Cork s population f. To ensure that Cork has a supply of allotments to meet the needs of the community g. To ensure that the network of green infrastructure linkages are protected and enhanced to provide for movement and ecological networks and that open spaces are designed to maximise their biodiversity so that people have access to nature close to where they live h. To ensure that streets within the city fulfil their potential as public space as well as movement corridors i. To ensure that the city s open space and recreational assets are managed effectively efficiently and smartly so that the maximum benefit for all in the common good can be gained from them given finite space within the city and the finite monetary resources available. Open Space Strategy 11.10 When the open space strategy is completed it will supercede the Parks Strategy 2000. An open space strategy will seek to integrate high quality open spaces into the heart of the physical environment through partnership working and effective community involvement. It will seek to create an urban realm that places great importance on leisure landscape biodiversity connectivity and creativity. Open spaces are fundamental to creating a successful compact city providing the arena for community cohesion social inclusion health and well-being. Within Cork open spaces will also make a major contribution to managing flood risk. The strategy will be based on an analysis of quantity and quality of existing spaces and provide a strategic platform for policies objectives standards projects management and improvement of the city s open space assets. The strategy will define the charter of rights for the population of Cork and set out what people in the city can expect in terms of access to and quality of parks and open space active recreation facilities (incl. playing pitches) play facilities allotments and tree management. Please refer to Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods for a context to policies on neighbourhood facilities. The open space strategy will aim to deliver a proper hierarchy of parks throughout the city with amenity space being provided in all developments to standards contained in Chapter 16 Development Management and higher level parks and spaces being provided according to the model set out in Figure 11.1. The model will be applied through the open space strategy to identify the location sizes nature and standards for parks and open spaces. There are a number of areas of the city that suffer from an obvious lack of access to open space including the City Centre historic inner city (pre 1920 city) and the North-East of the city. All parts the city currently lack access to high level mixed-use City Parks (Section 11.4). A creative and flexible approach will be taken to ensure that an appropriate quantity and quality of recreational opportunities is provided including maximising the contribution of streets and temporary spaces. 11.11 11 11.12 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 153 x Volume One Written Statement 11.13 The open space strategy will be informed by an Active Recreational Needs Study that will be an update to the Recreational Needs Study 2003. This study will seek to determine the gaps in active recreational provision (including playing pitches and organised sport) taking into account current and future needs based on an assessment of population growth. The Open Space Strategy will incorporate the following assets Parks amenity spaces gardens institutional grounds sports grounds allotments and community gardens Green corridors (i.e. river corridors water bodies their banks and other linear corridors) and Natural and semi-natural green spaces Functional spaces relating to flooding and drainage and Connections to the north City Environs and the South City Environs that lie in the Cork County Council s administrative area. 11.14 Objective 11.2 Open Space Strategy To progress an Open Space Strategy for Cork City. Objective 11.3 Active Recreational Needs Study To progress a review of the Recreational Needs Study 2003 to inform the Open Space Strategy for Cork City and project development. 11 Figure 11.1 Hierarchy of Parks 154 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure x City Parks 11.15 The City Council recognises that there should be a network of large City Parks (or metropolitan parks) of an appropriate size scale and nature. Due to the limited opportunities for large open spaces within the city these parks will mainly be located within or at the edge of the existing city within the City Council or County Council s administrative areas. They will combine large areas of well-connected open space to provide for active and passive recreational needs to meet the needs of the metropolitan population including sectors of the city and areas of the north city environs and south city environs and beyond. Together the City Parks will form a ring of green around the City incorporating existing landscape assets in perpetuity for the benefit of future generations. The City Parks will be different in nature and size but the size guideline is that they should be between 30 and 100 hectares in size and serve a wide population catchment. They will offer combinations of recreational ecological landscape cultural and green infrastructure benefits. They will all be in locations that are highly accessible by public transport walking and cycling and are managed to meet best practice quality standards. Table 11.2 sets out the City Parks and their state of advancement. Specific park locations and their components will be identified through the Open Space Strategy process. City Parks outside the current city boundary will be identified in partnership with the County Council. 11.16 Table 11.2 City Park Proposals Area of the city metropolitan area South Centre Quadrant (and Grange Frankfield) Docklands and South-East Quadrant North-West Quadrant North-East Quadrant (and Glanmire) West Quadrant (and Ballincollig) City Park Status Tramore Valley Park Marina Park To be defined. To be defined. Lee Fields. Could be expanded to a regional park. Objective 11.4 City Parks To pursue the delivery of a network of City Parks for Cork City and the wider metropolitan area. Tramore Valley Park 11.17 The Tramore Valley Park Masterplan was adopted in 2013 for delivery over the next few years following the completion of essential capping works to the landfill site. The masterplan sets out the land uses and activities that are appropriate within the park and are open for consideration in the area that benefits from public open space land use zoning. Chapter 15 sets out the definition of the public open space zoning objective. The park masterplan has been developed in partnership with the County Council and includes proposals to integrate and upgrade the landscape to the south of the N40 and provide a landbridge to connect the two areas of the park in order to provide significant improvements to connectivity between Grange Frankfield and the city and provide an ecological connectivity across the N40 linking the two sections of the park. 11 11.18 Objective 11.5 Tramore Valley Park To pursue the delivery of the Tramore Valley Park and the proposed landbridge that will connect the areas of the park to the north and south of the N40 subject to Ecological Assessment and Appropriate Assessment Screening. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 155 x Volume One Written Statement Marina Park 11.19 The Marina Park Masterplan was prepared by OKRA Redscape for the City Council and sets out a vision for the park that was adopted as policy in 2013. The masterplan was based on objectives set out in the South Docks Local Area Plan 2008 and the Cork City Development Plan 2009-2015. The park is to be delivered on lands owned by Cork City Council but incorporates other landholdings uses within the overall area. The majority of the park benefits from a public open space land use zoning objective and Chapter 15 sets out the appropriate uses within this and other use objectives. Marina Park will extend east from the Showgrounds including the Atlantic Pond lands to the east of the pumping station at Atlantic Pond and the underutilised parklands north of the old rail line and south of the Marina. It is proposed to accommodate the upgrading of Pairc Ui Chaoimh to a modern stadium by working with the GAA and to facilitate the development of a Centre of Excellence. The former Showgrounds will be developed as an area of public open space and accommodate the upgrading of Pairc Ui Chaoimh and a centre of excellence. The layout of these facilities on the lands zoned and provided for Sports Grounds within the Showgrounds shall be designed to ensure that both physical and visual linkage is achieved between the eastern and western parts of the planned Marina Park to ensure maximum permeability and cohesion of the overall park. 11.20 Objective 11.6 Marina Park To pursue the delivery of the Marina Park subject to Ecological Assessment and Appropriate Assessment Screening. North-West City Park (Knocknaheeny) 11.21 A large park to serve the North-West of the city will be developed by the City Council in partnership with the County Council. It is important that the park be located close to existing residential areas to ensure maximum usage and benefit to the community. It will also benefit the overall regeneration of the area. The park should contain a variety of facilities e.g. sports pitches hard surfaces courts amenity walkways pitch and putt children s play grounds open parkland etc. North-East City Park River Glen Corridor Park 11.22 The City Council is currently exploring options for a large City Park to serve the North-East of the city including areas that currently form part of the Green Belt within the County Council s administrative area. The City Council aims to connect this into the North-East of the City along the River Glen Valley Corridor that the City Council aims to extend from Ballyhooley Road to Tinker s Cross and further eastwards on available green sites. This will include a continuous riverside Amenity Route and secure a significant landscape asset in the public benefit. 11 11.23 Lower Level Parks (i.e. Neighbourhood Local and Pocket Parks) Full details of lower level parks will be included in the Open Space Strategy and statutory and nonstatutory local area plans. Table 11.3 sets out the parks projects that are actively being pursued by the City Council for delivery in the Plan period. The private sector will also deliver parks as part of developments (e.g. Old Whitechurch Road North Blackpool). 156 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure x Table 11.3 Lower Level Park Projects City Area City Centre Projects Bishop Lucey Park upgrade Mahony s Avenue (Saint Luke s) Pocket Park Bell s Field and Lady s Well Park upgrade as outlined in the Coburg Street and St. Patrick s Hill Area Action Plan 2007 Monaghan s Road Linear Park Kennedy Park upgrade as outlined in the South Docks Local Area Plan 2008. Murphy s Farm Neighbourhood Park upgrade Curragheen River Park as outlined in the Bishopstown and Wilton Area Action Plan 2007. No new projects (the Tramore Valley Park will provide a significant addition to recreational infrastructure in the area). Blackrock (Ursuline Convent) Neighbourhood Park Bessboro Neighbourhood Park North-West (Knocknaheeny) Regeneration Parks and open spaces. An area at Saint Dominic s Retreat Centre Ennismore has been identified for possible future development of a Neighbourhood Park River Glen Linear Park (extending River Glen Amenity Park and River Glen Corridor in the area along the North Ring Road to Tinker s Cross public open space) Docklands South-West South-Centre South-East North-West North-East Public Open Space provision 11.24 Cork City Council aims is to ensure that public open space is available to meet the needs and demands of the City. This will involve a combination of protecting enhancing and providing new spaces. With an intensifying city it will also require a creative approach to meeting recreational and amenity needs particularly in the historic areas of the city with a tighter urban grain. The Sustainable Residential Development in Urban Areas Guidelines for Planning Authorities (DOEHLG 2008) provides guidance on the provision of open space for new developments. Quantitative standards in relation to public open space are outlined in Chapter 16 Development Management. Guidance in relation to the design and quality of public realm and public open space is also outlined in the Urban Design Manual A Best Practice Guide (DOEHLG 2008). The guidelines advocate that in new development areas local area plans should identify preferred locations for larger open spaces that would allow playing pitches and larger recreational facilities to be concentrated away from housing areas but still easily accessible to them. The guidelines emphasise that the quality of public open spaces should be emphasised in terms of design accessibility shared use biodiversity sustainable urban drainage systems and provision for allotments and community gardens. In this regard details of the proposed landscaping hard and soft should be submitted as part of planning applications. Public open spaces should be designed to be multi-functional in order to ensure that they are focal points for a broad spectrum of people and neighbourhoods as a whole as well as ensuring excellent city landscapes. Public open space plays a vital role for humans in providing exposure to nature opportunities for physical activity and social interaction for all age groups but particularly for children and young people. 11.25 11 11.26 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 157 x Volume One Written Statement Objective 11.7 a. Public Open Space b. c. d. e. f. To protect retain improve and provide for areas of public open space for recreation and amenity purposes. There will be a presumption against development of land zoned public open space for alternative purposes There will be presumption against development on all open space in residential estates in the city including any green area public amenity area that formed part of an executed planning permission for development and was identified for the purposes of recreation amenity open space and also including land which has been habitually used as public open space. Such lands shall be protected for recreation open space and amenity purposes To promote public open space standards generally in accordance with national guidance contained in Sustainable Residential Development in Urban Areas Guidelines for Planning Authorities (DEHLG 2009) and the accompanying Urban Design Manual A Best Practice Guide The development of open spaces should aim to enhance and protect natural features and views and be set in safe and secure environments with the emphasis on active open spaces accessible to and enjoyed by all sectors of the community To follow an approach of qualitative as well as quantitative standards for open spaces providing high quality open spaces with high levels of access to recreation for local communities Specific design outcomes should be framed in relation to the nature of spaces being created or enhanced (e.g. in relation to maintenance nature exposure and connectivity strategic landscape and social role). Sports Sports Facilities and Grounds 11.27 Sports facilities and grounds include a variety of both indoor and outdoor recreational facilities which predominantly provide for the active recreational needs of the community. It is vital that such facilities are maintained to a high standard and easily accessible. In order to ensure facilities are located close to the population existing facilities are zoned to protect their recreational value. Due to the lack of available land in the city new opportunities for sports grounds particularly in the provision of playing pitches are limited. It is therefore necessary to retain such facilities in their current locations and where they are of most value and accessible to the community being served particularly younger people. Sports facilities should be upgraded and maintained to the highest standards to ensure quality of provision. This gives recreational land the greatest value and potential for being used. Accessibility to existing and new facilities should be promoted through improved public transport links and walking cycling. Major new sporting developments should be located to be served by the City s improving public transport network. The City Council aims to ensure that all sports with a demonstrably high participation level are provided for through the provision of sports facilities. Needs will be identified through the Recreational Needs Study when this is updated. The City Council will seek to ensure that the potential of existing and new sports assets are maximised for public benefit including the sharing of facilities. The City Council will seek sports grounds to be provided as part of major developments in addition to the public open space standards set out in Table 16.2 of Chapter 16 Development Management. 11.28 11 11.29 11.30 Objective 11.8 Active Recreational Facilities To support the development of indoor and outdoor active recreational facilities which are easily accessible to all members of the community. 158 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure x Objective 11.9 Protection of Sports Grounds and Facilities To protect retain and enhance the range and quality of sports facilities and grounds in the city and to ensure that lands zoned sports ground is not developed for other purposes. There will be a general presumption against the loss of land zoned as sports grounds for development for other purposes. Limited ancillary development may be considered if the proposed development a. Is ancillary to the principal use of the site as sports grounds and does not affect the quantity or quality of the pitches and provision of adequate training areas and facilities or adversely impact upon their use and Only affects land incapable of forming part of the playing surfaces and does not result in the loss of any playing surface or pitch. b. Ancillary uses include other sport and leisure facilities such as a clubhouse changing rooms meeting rooms gym sports training halls catering facilities caretakers accommodation and appropriate car parking facilities. Cr ches and community uses are open for consideration provided that they are linked to the sports use. Objective 11.10 Sports Facilities and Grounds a. b. To promote the provision and management of high quality sporting facilities To facilitate access to sports facilities for all members of the community and ensure that the particular needs of different groups are incorporated into the planning design and management of new facilities. The City Council will continue to encourage joint provision and dual use of sports facilities in appropriate locations To promote in co-operation with the County Council the urban fringe and Green Belt as important resources for the provision of sports facilities e.g. golf courses pitches etc. To take account of the priorities set out in both national and local sports strategies when planning new facilities To consider the sports facilities recreation and amenity needs of an area for which planning permission is sought and effect their provision through the planning process e.g. provision of Multi-Use Games Areas (MUGAs) etc. c. d. e. Water Sports 11.31 Cork has a very strong tradition of water-based transport water sports recreational boat use and water heritage including rowing sailing canoeing and traditional boating (e.g. currachs). The City Council aims to commission a River Use and Management Plan to examine the recreational potential of the River Lee and the Upper Harbour. This will include consideration of river access points and services to meet the needs of river users including organisations. This study is outlined in more detail in Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism. A new public water slipway accessible to vehicles is needed to serve the city and should be capable of meeting the needs of individuals and organisations that use the water. 11 Objective 11.12 River Use and Management Plan a. To pursue the development of a River Use and Management Plan to define how the recreational use of the city s waterways can be optimised subject to Ecological Assessment and Appropriate Assessment Screening To explore the potential for a new public water slipway in Cork City in partnership with stakeholders. b. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 159 x Volume One Written Statement Amenity Routes 11.32 Amenity routes provide attractive and functional connectivity to areas of public open space and recreational amenity including the City s river corridors and links to public open spaces within and at the edge of the city as well as to panoramic viewing points. The City Council aims to ensure that a comprehensive network of amenity routes is provided to meet increasing demand for active and passive recreational activities as well as for walking and cycling for transport (commuting) purposes. The dual use of such routes as walkways and cycleways is encouraged wherever possible. They also provide public space along the city s river corridors and to connect riverside spaces for wider civic benefit. Existing Amenity Routes are provided within spaces that are either owned by the City Council or that benefit from access right agreement from landowners. Information on public rights of way is not available for inclusion in this plan. The Banks of The Lee Project has delivered a near-complete network of riverside access and walkways in the city. Within the last 6 years a link has been provided through the Sacred Heart Convent site at the western end of the Mardyke. The City Council aims to continue this work and to ensure full riverside access where this is possible and also aims to develop a number of additional walkway cycleways. Objective 10.10 provides the standard for the consideration of riverside and waterway corridors including amenity routes. This also refers to the potential and need to consider conflict between human activity and biodiversity protected habitat. Safety is considered a key issue and public lighting may ensure that these routes can be used more frequently including evening-time. New Amenity Routes will be provided to ensure the completion of the Banks of The Lee Project connectivity through the City Centre as well as connections to proposed City Parks and recreational infrastructure outside the city boundary. New routes on the northside will aim to improve amenities for this area of the city including routes along the River Bride River Glen and Glenamought River. New or upgraded amenity routes are listed in Table 11.3 and illustrated in Volume 2 Mapped Objectives. Routes are indicative and their routes may be subject to minor amendment at detailed design stage. Routes will be designed to be safe clearly signposted and incorporate appropriate street furniture and active leisure equipment. 11.33 11.34 11.35 11.36 11 Objective 11.13 Amenity Routes To pursue the development of a network of high quality amenity routes particularly along waterways and linking existing and proposed parks and public open spaces and to work with Cork County Council and other stakeholders to achieve and improve external linkages subject to Ecological Assessment and Appropriate Assessment Screening. 160 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure x Table 11.3 New upgraded Amenity Routes City Sector North West New upgraded Amenity Routes Mardyke Daly s Bridge Strawberry Hill Hollyhill Road Nash s Boreen Fairfield Road Bride Valley (Lower Killeens) west from confluence with Glenamought River to North-West City Park Nash s Boreen North East Silverspring Lane Lower Mayfield Road proposed North Ring Rd Ballyhooly New Rd Along Glenamought River from Kilnap Bridge Glenamought Bridge South East South East South Centre South West Along riverbank from Blackrock Village Blackrock Castle Mahon Industrial Estate through Bessboro South Link Walkway South Douglas Road along Tramore Trabeg River Proposed Amenity Park landfill site Kinsale Road rear of Tramore Road industrial units along Tramore River Pouladuff Road Victoria Cross proposed pedestrian bridge along North Channel of River Lee Perrott s Inch proposed pedestrian bridge UCC grounds Along north bank of Curragheen River from the existing Curragheen River walk - County Hall Along south bank of Curragheen River from the existing pedestrian bridge over the Curragheen River - Victoria Lodge Apartments Victoria Cross Road North Docks South Docks Horgan s Walk eastwards to Tivoli Docks Albert Quay to Marina via Kennedy quay and South Jetties along River Lee south bank Play Facilities 11.37 The importance of providing high quality play facilities for children young people and families to play together is universally recognised as being a vitally important component of recreational infrastructure and focal points for social activity. National policy is set out in The National Children s Office published Ready Steady Play A National Play Policy in 2004 The Guidelines on Sustainable Residential Development in Urban Areas and the Urban Design Manual A Best Practice Guide (2008). The City Council aims for there to be play facilities of an appropriate quantity and quality to serve the needs of the city. It is considered that a Play Strategy should be developed for the provision of play facilities in the city to feed into the proposed Open Space Strategy. This will address the play needs of all age groups and include consideration of places to play when the weather is bad. Developments will be required to provide play facilities to meet the needs of the development and its catchment. Play areas can generally be categorised as follows Local Areas for Play (LAP). These include small areas of open space specifically designated and laid out for young children to play close to where they live. They cater for children up to 6 years of age and can be overseen by parents carers and the local community Local Equipped Area for Play (LEAP). These include areas of open space designed and equipped for children of early school age and located within a 5 minute walk from home Neighbourhood Equipped Area for Play (NEAP). These cater for children of all ages and make significant provision for older children and are located within a walking time of 15 minutes from home. These will include larger play equipment Multi-Use Games Areas and informal sports facilities Specialist facilities such as skateboard parks BMX tracks bike trails etc. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 11 11.38 161 x Volume One Written Statement 11.39 The Play Strategy will consider the active play recreational needs of all age groups. As well as play facilities for younger age groups the City Council will pursue the development of Outdoor Gyms and fitness trails for adults in the city in accessible locations such as the city s Amenity Routes and Parks. Objective 11.14 Children s Play Strategy To pursue the development of a Children s Play Strategy to inform the Open Space Strategy and to pursue the delivery of accessible facilities to meet need and to endeavour to ensure that every neighbourhood in the city will include appropriate play spaces and facilities. Objective 11.15 Children s Play Facilities To seek the provision of children s play facilities in new developments and particularly in new larger residential developments of 75 units and over. Facilities for young children aged 0-5 should be provided within easy walking distance of homes or within the cartilage of apartment blocks. Older children should have access to larger equipped play areas within 5 minutes walk of home. Allotments and Community Gardens 11.40 Public allotments and community gardens are of widespread benefit to individuals and communities and particularly those areas with higher densities and or with limited garden space. Benefits include generating community cohesion contributing to food self-sufficiency improved health and economic value. The City Council s Allotments and Community Gardens Strategy will seek to identify appropriate locations and sites for the development of facilities to meet demonstrable need within the city and outside its administrative area where appropriate. Facilities can be permanent or temporary sites for such activities in major development areas major parks and other types of location. Temporary facilities could be located on derelict vacant or underutilised sites. Objective 11.16 Allotments and Community Gardens To pursue the preparation of an Allotments and Community Gardens Strategy. Streets 11.41 11 Streets play a very important role in the structure of the city and are the most common form of public space providing both link and place functions. In areas of the city where there are shortfalls of open space the City Council will consider the role that streets can play to meet local recreational infrastructure and amenity space needs. The Open Space Strategy will identify areas where streets should play an amenity role and this is most to be relevant to the pre-1920 city. The design of streets is now governed by the Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets (DECLG 2013). Objective 11.17 Amenity Streets To explore the role that amenity streets can play in meeting recreational infrastructure need. City Centre Recreational Infrastructure 11.42 The City Centre has seen the emergence of a network of a high quality public realm of streets and spaces that provide significant planning urban design and amenity benefits for those living working and visiting the city. Ranging from the multi-functional key streets of Saint Patrick Street Grand Parade and Cornmarket Street to calmer amenity spaces such as the Peace Park Shalom Park and the Shandon Graveyard Pocket Parks. Public space in the City Centre will provide for a variety of activities including festivals markets sports homecomings and public protest as well as essential link and amenity functions. The City Council recognises that one of the main features of the City Centre is its urbanity 162 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure x however it recognises that there is a shortage of green space open space play facilities for young people and street trees. 11.43 The bigger public realm concept for the City Centre is set out in the Cork Landscape Study 2008 whereby the River Lee corridor provides the main focus for open space and recreational activity through the City Centre connecting the larger green spaces to the west at the Mardyke Fitzgerald s Park and the east at Horgan s Quay and the Kennedy Park Monaghan s Road area. Many other spaces have been designed in Docklands and will be delivered as required. Tackling the dereliction of sites in the City Centre is a key objective of the City Council and the temporary use of these sites for recreational purposes (e.g. pop-up parks) could provide significant benefits for the City Centre. The City Council aims to complement this existing network through a number of initiatives including Identifying locations for new permanent and temporary civic public spaces some of which will be green spaces Maximising the potential of the river corridors as recreational and high quality public spaces that provide focal points The preparation of a public realm strategy for the City Centre extending the work done in relation to the Docklands Public Realm Strategy 2011 Ensuring that neighbourhoods have an adequate supply of public space to meet their needs and make them attractive places to live for all age groups Ensuring that the City Centre Island has facilities to meet the needs of young people families and children including play facilities. 11.44 Objective 11.18 City Centre Recreational Infrastructure To work towards the improvement of the City Centre s public realm so that it is both allocated and designed to meet the civic and neighbourhood priorities for the City Centre and to ensure that recreational infrastructure is provided to meet the needs of all age groups. 11 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 163 Volume One Written Statement 11 164 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 12 Environmental Infrastructure and Management Chapter 12 Environmental Infrastructure and Management Contents Introduction Strategic Objectives Water Supply Waste Water Surface Water Drainage Rivers Ground Water and Cork Harbour Waste Management and Recycling Electricity Provision and Generation Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Measures Renewable Energy Production Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Flood Risk Management Air Quality Light Pollution Noise Pollution Major Accident Hazards ( SEVESO ) Cork Airport Safety Zones 167 167 168 168 169 169 170 172 172 174 174 175 178 178 179 179 181 12 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 165 x Volume One Written Statement policies and objectives for providing public infrastructure and managing environmental issues 12 166 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 12 Environmental Infrastructure and Management x CHAPTER 12 ENVIRONMENTAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND MANGEMENT Introduction 12.1 Chapter 12 outlines Cork City Council s policies and objectives for providing public infrastructure and managing environmental issues. (Transportation and Recreational Infrastructure are addressed separately in Chapters 5 and 11 respectively.) It should also be noted that Cork City is not directly responsible for the provision of many aspects of environmental infrastructure but rather works in conjunction with Uisce ireann ESB Networks Eirgrid Cork County Council and various regional authorities. The plans of these infrastructure stakeholders are summarised in this chapter. Strategic Objectives 12.2 Strategic environmental infrastructure objectives are as follows Objective 12.1 a. Strategic Environmental Infrastructure Objectives b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. Promote sustainable settlement and transportation strategies in response to climate change including measures to reduce energy demand to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and to address the necessity for adaptation to climate change in particular having regard to location layout and design of new development 20 Ensure sufficient infrastructure to serve population targets set out in the Core Strategy (Chapter 2). Maximise efficiencies in respect of infrastructure provided Improve the environmental quality of the city s rivers and surface water bodies maintain the quality of ground water and generally protect existing and potential water resources in accordance with EU directives 21 To ensure an adequate sustainable and economic supply of good quality water for domestic commercial and industrial needs for the lifetime of the Plan (subject to compliance with Article 6 of the Habitats Directive) To provide adequate wastewater treatment facilities to serve the existing and future population of the city and to ensure that adequate and appropriate wastewater infrastructure is in place prior to the occupations of new development 21 To ensure that development would not have an unacceptable impact on water quality and quantity including surface water ground water designated source protection areas river corridors and associated wetlands estuarine waters coastal and transitional waters 22 Follow a waste hierarchy that starts with prevention preparing for re-use recycling other recovery (e.g. energy recovery) and finally disposal (including landfill) Restrict landuse or require appropriate design as necessary to reduce risk of hazard including those arising from flooding and controlled substances in industrial processes Improve air quality and maintain acceptable levels of light and noise pollution in the city in accordance with requirements set out in European Union National and Regional policy Ensure adequate ICT infrastructure to develop Cork City as a Smart City Improve the energy efficiency of new and existing buildings and promote renewable energy use in the city s building stock and infrastructure. 12 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 167 x Volume One Written Statement Water Supply 12.3 From 2014 drinking water for Cork City is provided by Uisce ireann. Water infrastructure in Cork City can be summarised as follows Cork City has two sources of drinking water. The Lee Road Drinking Water Treatment Plant which extracts water from the River Lee provides around 70% of the city s total water supply. It primarily serves the City Centre and northern suburbs. The Cork Harbour and City Water Supply Scheme which extracts water from the Inniscarra Reservoir serves the eastern western and southern suburbs. There are plans for two new interconnectors further connecting the two schemes to help ensure security of supply. The Lee Road Treatment Plant requires upgrading in order to address identified capacity issues some treatment deficiencies and susceptibility to flooding. Upgrades to the Treatment Plant are included in Irish Water s proposed Capital Investment Plan 2014 - 2016. With these upgrades water supply capacity will not be a limiting factor to development in Cork City. The two schemes will have adequate capacity to serve metropolitan Cork through 2021 with regard to population targets set out in Chapter 2 (Core Strategy) treatment capacity abstraction limits and a reduction in unaccounted for water (i.e. primarily leakage).23 The recent completion of the interconnector from Glashaboy Reservoir to the City Centre will also ensure an adequate supply to serve Docklands all other areas identified for strategic redevelopment (Chapter 2) also have adequate supply available. There are no material issues in respect to drinking water quality which is in accordance with EU drinking water regulations. 12.4 12.5 Waste Water 12.6 From 2014 waste water infrastructure and treatment facilities for Cork City is provided by Uisce ireann. Waste water infrastructure in Cork City can be summarised as follows Cork City is served by two main sewerage schemes. Cork Main Drainage (completed 2004) serves as the primary scheme while the older Tramore Valley scheme serves the south eastern portion of the city. The waste water treatment plant for Cork City is provided at Carrigrennan to the east of the City (see Figure 12.1). 12 Figure 12.1 Key Waste Water Infrastructure Serving Cork City In accordance with the National Climate Change Adaptation Framework (Dept. of Environment Community and Local Government 2012). The Water Framework Directive (2000 60 EC) and the European Communities (Water Policy) Regulations 2003 (as amended) European Communities Environmental Objectives (Surface Waters) Regulations 2009 (as amended) European Communities Environmental Objectives (Groundwater) Regulations 2010 (as amended) South Western River Basin Management Plan 2009-2015 or any updated version of this document Pollution Reduction Programmes for Designated Shellfish Areas Groundwater Protection Schemes Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive and Urban Waste Water Treatment Regulations 2001 (as amended). 22 This objective is a requirement of EU Directives which address including surface water ground water designated source protection areas river corridors and associated wetlands estuarine waters coastal and transitional waters). 23 Full details and calculations are set out in the report National Water Study - South County Cork (including Cork City) (1999 as revised). 21 20 168 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 12 Environmental Infrastructure and Management x 12.7 Based on current usage rates the plant has adequate capacity to serve the city region through 2020 with regard to population targets outlined in the Core Strategy (Chapter 2). A detailed capacity analysis is underway (2013) and the existing treatment plant will be expanded on a modular basis during the lifetime of the Development Plan if required. It is anticipated that some capacity may be regained through addressing infiltration (i.e. the leakage of groundwater into foul or combined sewers) and inflow (storm water connection to foul sewers). Measures to address nutrient removal (tertiary treatment) and compliance with the Shellfish Water Directive are also under assessment (2013). There are no plans for the construction of any major infrastructure within the City administrative area through 2021. Surface Water Drainage 12.8 The majority of development in Cork City currently uses traditional methods of handling rainwater runoff from impermeable surfaces (such as roofs roads and carparks) is collected and redirected to drainage systems. This approach can cause a number of problems. Drainage systems can become overloaded and contribute to flooding and or result in higher waste water treatment costs. Rivers can become polluted by contaminants (such as oil from carparks) contained in the runoff. Rivers ability to recharge naturally is also affected. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems ( SUDS ) is an alternative approach that helps alleviate these problems by mimicking natural drainage systems. During the lifetime of the Plan Cork City will prepare a storm water management plan including specific development standards for Cork City. In the interim developments should comply with criteria set out in Irish SuDS Guidance and Tools. 12.9 Objective 12.2 Storm Water Management Plan Cork City Council will prepare a Storm Water Management Plan for the City. Objective 12.3 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Planning applications shall include proposals for managing stormwater in accordance with details set out at www.irishsuds.com (unless superseded by policies and standards set out in the adopted Storm Water Management Plan per Objective 12.2) and shall minimise and limit the extent of hard surfacing and paving. Objective 12.4 Surface Water Discharges from Roads To ensure that all significant road projects upgrades with surface water discharges to the watercourses flowing through the City s administrative area and Cork Harbour have petrol oil interceptors installed to prevent hydrocarbon pollution of the receiving waters. Rivers Ground Water and Cork Harbour 12.10 The Water Framework Directive requires the implementation of measures to prevent deterioration of the status of all waters (i.e. rivers ground waters estuaries and coasts) and ensure that all waters remain unpolluted. It specifically sets an objective of restoring all waters to good status by 2021. In order to implement the Directive Ireland has been divided into eight districts. Cork City and Harbour fall within the South Western River Basin District a strategy for the area is set out in the South Western River Basin Management Plan (2009-2015). The status of the five rivers flowing through Cork s administrative area is set out in Table 12.1 below. Cork City also impacts on Cork Harbour as any pollutant streams emanating in the city reach the Harbour via the Lee. 12 12.11 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 169 x Volume One Written Statement Table 12.1 Status of Cork City s Rivers River Lee (Sunday s Well to Lough Mahon) Tramore Curragheen Bride Bride (west) Glasheen Current Status Poor Moderate Poor Moderate Moderate n a Lee (Western boundary to Sunday s Well) Moderate Specific measures to improve the status of Cork City s rivers will form part of study of surface water noted in objective 12.2. 12.12 Groundwater in and around Cork City s administrative area has been deemed to have good status per the terms of the Water Framework Directive. Maintaining this status will require guarding against overabstraction and preventing contamination. Planning applications abstraction proposals are currently assessed on a case-by-case basis. However policies in respect of abstraction and the prevention of contamination will be developed during the lifetime of the Plan. Objective 12.5 Groundwater Protection Strategy Cork City Council will prepare a groundwater protection strategy which will include policies related to abstraction and to the disposal of post-geothermal reject water. Waste Management and Recycling 12.13 Recent changes in national waste policy have created three waste management planning regions for the country. Cork City is part of the Southern region which is being led by Limerick and Tipperary local authorities. The period of application of the existing Cork City Waste Management Plan 2004 2009 has been extended and will remain in effect until the adoption of the new Southern Region Waste Management Plan (expected in late 2014). Additionally Cork City Council ceased operational involvement in waste collection in 2011 household and commercial waste collection services are now all provided by private collectors. Full details of waste management are available in the Cork City Waste Management Plan 2004 2009 the landuse implications of waste management are set out below. Dry Recyclables 12 12.14 Cork City Council s general approach is to reduce the amount of waste to be landfilled and to promote increased re-use and recycling of materials from all waste streams. Existing recycling facilities comprise the Kinsale Road Civic Amenity site 40 bring sites for domestic recycling located throughout the city and a bring facility at Monahan s Road for commercial recycling. There are currently 40 bring facilities around the city for glass and aluminium can recycling. However the demand for bring sites has significantly reduced due to improved kerbside collection. Furthermore the siting of permanent bring sites is frequently opposed by local residents and businesses due to concerns regarding anti-social behaviour. A monthly mobile collection service has been used as a solution in a few areas where permanent sites could not be identified. Given the reduced demand for bring sites opposition to their location and improved provision of kerbside collections there are no plans for new permanent bring sites at this time. New Regulations of the collection of household waste are expected in 2014. 12.15 12.16 170 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 12 Environmental Infrastructure and Management x Biowaste Food Waste 12.17 National Household Food Waste Regulations require the introduction of the separate collection of organics from households in population clusters greater than 25 000 people since July 2013. Current plans call for organic wastes to be processed at a facility outside the city s administrative area (i.e. there are no identified needs for new infrastructure associated with the collection or processing of food waste within Cork City s administrative area at this time). Soft measures promoting home composting will also continue. For example past measures have included composting workshops the installation of in-vessel community composters in social housing developments (Ardbhaile in Mayfield and Respond Housing Association Blackpool) Mahon Point and a home composting demonstration at the Lifetime Lab. 12.18 Residual Waste 12.19 There are no operational landfills with Cork City. The Kinsale Road Landfill is being decommissioned with the final capping phase due to be completed in 2014. The decommissioned landfill will be redeveloped as a regional park (Tramore Valley Park Objective 11.5). A new regional landfill has been developed at Bottlehill Co. Cork but has not yet opened due to operational economic and environmental considerations. Much of Cork City s residual waste is currently exported via the port. There are no identified needs for new residual waste infrastructure (e.g. transfer stations recovery facilities etc.) within the city administrative area. Litter Management 12.20 The impact of litter is recognised by the City Council as being detrimental to tourism commerce and overall quality of life in the city. Provisions for addressing litter are set out in the City Council s Litter Management Plan. As detailed in the Plan strategies include operational (street cleaning throughout the city) infrastructure provision (litter bin installation and replacement) soft measure anti-litter campaigns with an emphasis on cigarette butts dog fouling chewing gum and graffiti and enforcement via on-the-spot fines and prosecutions. The need for additional litter bins is currently addressed via streetscape improvement schemes. Some gaps in infrastructure exist in key areas in the City Centre. A review to ensure no gaps in infrastructure would support plans for City Centre revitalisation. 12.21 Objective 12.6 Bin Provision in City Centre To review bin provision in the City Centre and medieval spine and develop a strategy for eliminating any gaps in infrastructure. Objective 12.7 Litter Management Plan To implement the Litter Management Plan which includes provision for street cleaning enforcement of the litter laws and public awareness raising. 12 Design Standards 12.22 The incorporation of adequate waste storage facilities and management procedures in private developments is critical to ensure the effective separation of waste streams in a manner that maintains residential amenity the diversion of non-hazardous construction and demolition waste from the waste stream is also necessarily addressed as part of development proposals. Development standards to address both issues are set out in Chapter 16. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 171 x Volume One Written Statement Electricity Provision and Generation 12.23 ESB Networks are the key provider of electricity infrastructure via the the National Grid (i.e. the high voltage network for the transmission of bulk electricity supplies from power stations to transmission stations) and the the distribution system (i.e. the lower voltage electricity network which delivers electricity from the transmission stations to residences businesses streetlights etc.). ESB Networks work closely with Eirgrid who are responsible for the operation and the development of the transmission system. Key components of electricity infrastructure within Cork City include Table 12.2 Electricity Infrastructure in Cork City Facility Natural Gas and Distillate Power Plant (88 MW capacity) 4 no. Transmission Stations (110kV substations) 5 high voltage (38kV) stations 90 no. medium voltage (10kV or 20 kV) feeders Location The Marina Centre Park Road Trabeg Liberty Street Marina Kilbarry Mayfield Fairhill Dennehy s Cross Douglas Togher Various locations fed from the stations listed above 12.24 Adequate capacity or plans to provide additional capacity are in place in respect of all key development areas outlined in the Core Strategy (Chapter 2). It is forecasted that the City Centre will be adequately supplied by Liberty Street and Marina 110kV MV stations through the lifetime of the Development Plan future capacity is planned to be provided by the development of a 110kV MV station at Caroline Street (adjacent to an existing switching station). Recent upgrades to Marina 110kV station will allow for capacity doubling to feed the Docklands load in the future. An Eirgrid study has concluded that the optimum location for a new 110kV station to serve the Blackpool Kilbarry area and to remove load from the existing Kilbarry transmission station is adjacent to the existing station at Kilbarry. This study has also indicated connection options for potential future 110kV stations around Cork City but feasibility studies for these will only progress when load levels dictate that these stations are required. ESB Networks is preparing a Medium Voltage Network Area Plan for areas including Cork City (expected to be complete in 2015). The national High Voltage Network Investment Plan 2014 2024 is also under preparation. In respect of the national transmission grid Grid25 sets out EirGrid s strategy for the grid s development through 2025. As noted above no new grid infrastructure (e.g. transmission substations) is proposed within Cork City during the lifetime of the Plan. However ensuring adequate network capacity to carry power from new generation stations and ensuring a reliable supply to meet growing demand will require both the provision of new transmission infrastructure and the enhancement of existing transmission infrastructure in the South West Region. Regional and national policy promotes the protection and development of the Grid and development proposals in Cork City should not compromise plans for the grid this will be accounted for in planning applications. 12.25 12 12.26 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Measures Reducing greenhouse emissions to combat climate change relates to two key energy issues reducing energy demand and producing energy from sustainable resources. There is a national target to reduce energy usage by 20% across the whole economy by 2020.25 There is also a national target to aim to supply 16% of national energy demand from renewable sources by 2020. (No figures are available for Cork City specifically however only 5.5% of national energy demand was supplied from renewable resources in 2010.) 172 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 12 Environmental Infrastructure and Management x 12.27 The three key ways in ways in which we use energy are for transport for heat and for general electricity use for homes businesses streetlights etc. Landuse planning-related measures to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions are addressed below under these broad headings. Reducing transport emissions by a reduction in single-occupancy car trips is addressed in Chapter 5. There is a national target for 10% of all vehicles roads to be powered by electricity by 2020 parking standards to facilitate charge points have been updated in Chapter 16. Bus Eireann plans to incorporate buses fuelled by Compressed Natural Gas (with potential for eventual conversion to biofuel) into the fleet during the lifetime of the Plan. However this measure has no specific landuse requirements. Energy use for heating purposes relates to both minimising heat loss (through energy efficient new construction and the retrofitting of existing buildings) and to use of alternative heat sources. 12.28 12.29 Construction to Minimise Heat Loss 12.30 Given its relatively mild climate it is generally considered that Cork City has significant potential to minmise the need for heating through low-energy design. While several factors in low-energy construction lie outside the scope of traditional planning considerations (detailed construction standards are the remit of Building regulations (Technical Guidance Document L))26 there are ways in which the planning process can facilitate and encourage low-energy design such as building orientation to maximise solar gain and reduce the need for electric lighting. The planning process (particularly pre-application consultations) can also be used as a channel for information provision to both applicants and their agents regarding low-energy design. Such information could include technical and design guidelines details of pilot projects details of national incentive schemes and other resources related to low energy design. Objective 12.8 Information Provision on Low Energy Design The Planning Directorate will use the planning process to encourage low-energy design through measures including information provision (in conjunction with other Directorates) and through the development of Corkspecific standards guidelines in respect of spatial requirements within the remit of planning (e.g. solar orientation). Retrofitting to Minimise Heat Loss 12.31 Given that Cork City s administrative area is largely built out the retrofit of existing buildings to reduce heat loss is a significant issue. Works such as external insulation can raise planning issues in respect to visual impact and no national guidelines or regulations currently exist in this regard. Providing clear guidance for property owners can remove impediments to retrofitting to minimise heat loss. Objective 12.9 Retrofitting for Energy Savings Guidelines During the lifetime of the Development Plan Cork City Council will develop and guidelines and standards to assist property owners in respect of energy retrofitting and planning considerations. As a significant property owner (including 20% of the housing stock in the City) Cork City Council can also reduce heat loss through retrofitting of its own building stock. Significant works have been carried out to the Cork City Council s building stock in recent years and will continue as funding allows. 12 25 26 Delivering a Sustainable Energy Future for Ireland 2007-2020 Section 4.11 Guidelines for Planning Authorities on Sustainable Residential Development in Urban Areas (Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government) Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 173 x Volume One Written Statement Alternative Heat Sources 12.32 Two alternative heat sources with significant potential for medium- to large-scale developments in the city include deep geothermal energy and district heating. Current examples of geothermal heating include the Lifetime Lab Glucksman Art Gallery and City Hall. However the potential for thermal pollution arising from geothermal heating would need to be mitigated. There is an objective (Objective 12.4) to establish standards in this regard. In relation to district heating Cork City Council recently installed a small biomass district heating system (58 houses and a community centre) at the Glen and a feasibility study for district heating in the Docklands was produced in 2009. District heating is too costly to retrofit to existing development but holds potential for future mixed use developments that include uses with a constant heat demand (such as hospitals hotels etc.) Potential for district heating is currently limited by lack of a reliable national biomass fuel supply and by a lack of expertise in the area. Objective 12.10 Alternative Heat Sources Cork City Council will support the principle of district and geothermal heating and will further examine ways in which impediments to their use can be overcome. Renewable Energy Production 12.33 Given Cork City s urban setting the potential for large-scale renewable energy production is somewhat limited. A Renewable Energy Strategy has not been prepared for Cork City to date. Should such a strategy be carried out any landuse requirements identified in the Strategy will be translated into the Development Plan. In the interim the usage of microrenewables can be promoted via the planning process (Objective 12.7) and carried out as pilot projects in City Council schemes (e.g. micro turbine street lights). Objective 12.11 Renewable Energy Projects Cork City Council will support renewable energy pilot projects and incorporate renewable energy into its own schemes where feasible. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) 12.34 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a key component of Connectivity which in turn is one of the drivers of that frame Cork s Economic Strategy (Sections 3.16 - 3.17 and Objective 3.5 Connectivity). It is also fundamental to the social and economic development of cities. A recent study has shown that doubling the average speed of internet connection directly raises GDP by 0.3%. Cities that combine modern communication infrastructure with investment in human and social capital are referred to as Smart Cities . Becoming a Smart City is an integral part of Cork s transformation into a Smart Economy (Objective 3.1 Strategic Objectives). Cork s Metropolitan Area Network and other telecommunications service providers supply a local backbone which connects major employment centres in the city. To complement this local network it is necessary to ensure alternative direction connections to the international networks. At present this is only available through Dublin but it is desirable for both commercial and resilience reasons to provide these alternative direct connections ( backhaul ). Cork City Council will continue to work with local stakeholders and telecommunications providers to improve backhaul to the international networks. In order to be competitive landlords and developers must ensure that their buildings are configured to enable building users to switch telecommunications providers as their needs change. Research has shown that this facility will deliver a rental premium. Cork City Council has been developing Digital Buildings Telecom Access Guidelines and will bring these into operation in Cork City when they are finalised. Cork City Council will also facilitate access to WiFi in appropriate locations. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 12 12.35 12.36 174 Chapter 12 Environmental Infrastructure and Management x 12.37 Cork City is well positioned to accommodate the deployment of carbon neutral data centres. Data centres are critical infrastructure particularly with the continuing adoption of cloud computing. International research has shown that the building of data centres has had wider economic benefits for the local economy in terms of jobs municipal rates and the creation of support businesses. Cork City Council will also work with local stakeholders and international companies to attract data centres to the Cork Gateway. Objective 12.12 ICT Infrastructure Cork City Council with local stakeholders and international businesses will support the continued development of ICT infrastructure and data centres for Cork City through a. Improved backhaul to the international networks b. Increased development and usage of the Metropolitan Area Network c. Encouraging the development of carbon-neutral data centres d. Facilitating access to WiFi. Flood Risk Management 12.38 There is growing scientific consensus that global warming is occurring as a result of human activity namely greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change will result in rising sea levels and more frequent and more severe rainfall events and will significantly increase the risk of flooding and coastal erosion. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that warming in the climate system is unequivocal. Human influence on the climate system is clear. It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century. (2013 20 PR) Climate change will result in rising sea levels and more frequent and more severe rainfall events and will significantly increase the risk of flooding and coastal erosion. Cork City has experienced a number of flood events in recent years and is at particular risk of flooding from the River Lee its tributaries and Cork Harbour. As the risk to property is increasing the need to incorporate flood risk assessment and management into the land-use planning process is becoming more apparent. The Floods Directive 2007 60 EC requires Member States to undertake a national preliminary flood risk assessment by 2011 to identify areas where significant flood risk exists or might be considered likely to occur. The Directive requires the preparation of catchment-based Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs) by 2015 which will set out flood risk management objectives actions and measures. The OPW is responsible for the overall implementation of the Floods Directive. 12.39 12.40 Catchment Flood Risk Assessment and Management (CFRAM) 12.41 The National CFRAM Programme or CFRAM (commenced in 2011) is central to the medium to longterm strategy for the reduction and management of flood risk in Ireland. The CFRAM Programme was developed to prepare Flood Maps and Flood Risk Management Plans focusing on areas where the risk is understood to be most significant such as Cities and Environmental Protection Areas. These areas of focus (Areas of Further Assessment AFA) are identified through the Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment (PFRA). The CFRAM Studies scheduled to produce detailed Flood Maps for the AFAs in 2013 and Flood Risk Management Plans in 2015 will set out a long-term strategy and defined and prioritised measures to reduce and manage the flood risk. 12 12.42 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 175 x Volume One Written Statement 12.43 Implementation of the requirements EU Floods Directive is coordinated with the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive and the current River Basin Management Plans. In this instance The Lee Cork Harbour Catchment one of five units that make up the South Western River Basin District (RBD) which includes most of County Cork and parts of Limerick Kerry Tipperary and Waterford. Lee Catchment Flood Risk Assessment and Management Study (Lee CFRAMS) 12.44 Under the Floods Directive Cork City Council has a responsibility to assess and manage flood risks through the development of flood risk management plans. In response The Lee Catchment Flood Risk Assessment and Management Study (Lee CFRAMS) was undertaken by the Office of Public Works Cork City Council and Cork County Council. The Lee CFRAMS was the first pilot CFRAM Study for the new Flood Risk Assessment and Management Programme. The Lee CFRAMS is a subset of the SouthWest CFRAMS. The key objectives of the study are to Assess flood risk through the identification of flood hazard areas and the associated impacts of flooding Identify viable structural and non-structural measures and options for managing the flood risks for high-risk areas and the catchment as a whole Prepare a Strategic Catchment Flood Risk Management Plan (CFRMP) setting out measures and policies to achieve the most cost effective and sustainable management of flood risk within the Lee catchment. The Draft Lee Catchment Flood Risk Management Plan was completed in December 2011. However Cork City was subsequently designated as an Area for Further Assessment in March 2012 and as such Cork City is subject to further assessment through the CFRAM study setting out a long-term strategy and defined and prioritised measures to reduce and manage the flood risk. The target date for completion is September 2015. 12.45 12.46 Lower Lee Flood Relief Scheme 12.47 In 2013 the OPW engaged consultants to prepare the Draft Lower Lee Flood Relief Scheme. The scheme is an implementation project intended to address the flood risks to Cork City highlighted in the LeeCFRAMS. i.e. to develop a viable cost-effective and sustainable Flood Relief Scheme to alleviate flooding in the lower reaches of the River Lee and specifically the River Bride in Blackpool and Ballyvolane. It is due to come into effect in 2016. In the interim the content of the Draft Lee CFRAMS has been incorporated into the City Development Plan process informing the Flood Risk Assessment. The most significant proposal of the flood risk assessment is the rezoning of Greenfield lands at Carrigrohane Road in the western suburbs to water compatible uses namely Public open space and Landscape preservation zones. There are no resulting zoning changes to the historic core of the city as this area will be protected from flood risk by structural defences. Future development in the North and South Docks and Tivoli will be subject to detailed flood risk assessment and management measures. 12.48 12 Objective 12.13 Lee Catchment Management Plan Lower Lee Flood Relief Scheme Cork City Council shall have regard to the recommendations of the Draft Lee Catchment Flood Risk Assessment and Management Plan and shall incorporate the updated hydraulic modelling mapping data and recommendations of South West CFRMP Lee CRFMP (River Catchment Framework Management Plan) and the Lower Lee Flood Relief Scheme as each plan progresses. 176 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 12 Environmental Infrastructure and Management x Assessment of Development in Flood Risk areas 12.49 National policies in respect of flood risk are set out in The Planning System and Flood Risk Management Guidelines for Planning Authorities (2009). In considering development proposals the Guidelines advocate the Sequential approach namely to avoid development in areas at risk of flooding and if this is not possible to consider substituting the land-use to one less vulnerable to flooding and only where avoidance and substitution is not possible to consider mitigation measures and management of the flood risks. Secondly proposals for vulnerable types of development in areas of moderate and high flood risk should be examined against the criteria set out in the Justification Test in order to demonstrate an overriding strategic planning need and that flood risk can be adequately managed without causing adverse impacts elsewhere. 12.50 Objective 12.14 Flood Risk Management in Development Proposals Cork City Council will implement The Planning System and Flood Risk Management Guidelines for Planning Authorities 2009 in the preparation of land-use plans and determining planning applications. 12.51 In order to minimise flood risk the City Council will adopt a precautionary approach namely to avoid development in floodplains wetlands and coastal areas prone to flooding and so preserve these natural defences that hold excess water until it can be released slowly back into river systems the sea or seep into the ground and to invest in infrastructural works such as flood protection and stormwater attenuation (see Sections 12.8-12.9). Where development has to take place in identified flood risk areas the type or nature of the development needs to be carefully considered and the potential risks mitigated and managed through on-site location layout and design of the development to reduce flood risk to an acceptable level. Developments will be assessed in accordance with the provisions of The Planning System and Flood Risk Management Guidelines for Planning Authorities (2009). Where flood risk is considered to be a potential issue applicants will be required to carry out a flood risk assessment appropriate to the scale and nature of the development and the risks arising. Development proposals shall be required to be planned designed and constructed to reduce and manage flood risk and be adaptable to changes in climate and required to incorporate Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) into the design and formulation of development proposals (see Objective 12.3). Minor proposals in areas of flood risk such as house extensions or change of use of existing buildings are unlikely to raise significant flooding issues unless they introduce a significant additional number of people into flood risk areas or obstruct important flow paths. Applicants shall be required to include a brief assessment of the risk of flooding to demonstrate there is no resulting adverse impact or impediment of a watercourse floodplain or flood protection and management infrastructure. 12.52 12.53 12.54 12.55 12 12.56 Objective 12.15 Restrictions on Development in Flood Risk Areas To restrict development in identified flood risk areas in particular floodplains except where the applicant satisfies the Justification Test as outlined in The Planning System and Flood Risk Management Guidelines for Planning Authorities 2009. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 177 x Volume One Written Statement Objective 12.16 Floodplains To protect enhance and manage the City s floodplains wetlands and coastal habitat areas that are subject to flooding as vital green infrastructure which provides space for storage and conveyance of floodwater enabling flood risk to be more effectively managed and reduce the need to provide flood defence infrastructures. Objective 12.17 Flood Impact Assessment All significant developments impacting on flood risk areas will be required to provide a Flood Impact Assessment to accompany the planning application to identify potential loss of floodplain storage and proposals for the storage or attenuation (e.g. SUDS) of run-off discharges (including foul drains) to ensure development does not increase the flood risk in the relevant catchment. Air Quality 12.57 Good air quality is important in relation to the health and well being of the community and the environment. Air quality standards are set by the Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe (CAFE) Directive (2008 50 EC) transposed into Irish legislation by the Air Quality Standards Regulations 2011 (S.I. No. 180 of 2011). The City Council monitors air quality from two stations located at the Old Station Road City Centre and at Heatherton Park South Douglas Road. The Environmental Protection Agency s Air Quality Index for Health describes air quality in Cork City as good. The City Council s most recent report Air Pollution in Cork City 2011 states that there is general compliance with air quality standards. Pollutants are generated through fuel combustion for heating traffic electricity generation and industry. Intensification of urban development may create some localized air quality issues but has the potential to reduce car dependence and thus lower emissions. Therefore traffic management and transport policy is particularly important in meeting and maintaining air quality standards. The City Council through the planning system shall mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution associated with development in particular the construction phase of major projects by way of planning conditions where appropriate. 12.58 12.59 12.60 Objective 12.18 Air Quality To protect and improve air quality in Cork City in accordance with the Air Quality Standards Regulations 2011 and Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe (CAFE) Directive (2008 50 EC). Light Pollution 12 12.61 While adequate lighting is essential to a safe and secure environment light spillage from excessive or poorly designed lighting is a potential nuisance to surrounding properties and a threat to wildlife. Excessive lighting wastes energy and contributes to the unnecessary emission of greenhouse gases. Lighting columns and other fixtures can have a significant effect on the streetscape environment and where proposals for new lighting require planning consent the Cork City Council shall ensure that they are carefully and sensitively designed. Lighting fixtures should provide only the amount of light necessary for the task in hand and shield the light given out so as to avoid creating glare or light spillage above the horizontal plane. Development proposals shall ensure that the lighting scheme meets the minimum requirements of public safety and security and create no adverse impact on neighbouring properties or distraction to road users. All development proposals that require lighting of outdoor areas shall be required to include details of external lighting scheme and proposed mitigation measures i.e. screening etc. 12.62 12.63 178 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 12 Environmental Infrastructure and Management x Objective 12.19 External Lighting To require that the design of external lighting minimises the incidence of light spillage or pollution on the surrounding environment and results is no adverse impact on residential amenities or distraction to road users. Development proposals that require lighting of outdoor areas shall be required to include details of external lighting scheme and proposed mitigation measures. Noise Pollution 12.64 Environmental noise is defined in the Regulations as unwanted or harmful outdoor sound created by human activities including noise emitted by means of transport road traffic rail traffic air traffic and from sites of industrial activity. Noise is one of the most common factors impairing the enjoyment of one s environment. The Environmental Noise Regulations 2006 give effect in Ireland to the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) 2002 49 EC. In accordance with the Directive the National Roads Office on behalf of Cork City Council and Cork County Council has produced a Joint Noise Action Plan 2013 - 2018 covering infrastructure such as major roads rail lines and the airport. The purpose of the Plan is to manage environmental noise and to prevent and reduce noise where necessary. Strategic noise maps identify and prioritise cluster areas that require further assessment and may require mitigation measures to be put in place. Road traffic noise is the predominant noise source in Cork City and to a lesser extent commuter trains and aircraft using Cork Airport. The City Council through the planning system can minimise the adverse impacts of noise by controlling and segregating noise intensive developments (day-time and night-time uses) from noise sensitive areas such as residential areas. Where this is not possible the City Council shall impose conditions on development such as limiting the hours of operation of proposed development where it is likely to create disturbance due to noise. 12.65 12.66 12.67 Objective 12.20 Joint Cork Noise Action Plan To implement the recommendations of the Cork Agglomeration Noise Action Plan 2013 - 2018 upon its adoption in order to prevent and reduce environmental noise. Objective 12.21 Noise Levels in Developments To require all developments to be designed and operated in a manner that will minimize and contain noise levels Where appropriate the City Council shall apply conditions on new developments uses that restrict noise emissions and hours of operation in particular night time uses such as public houses private members clubs casinos fast food take-aways restaurants and nightclubs or conditions on noise sensitive developments uses to mitigate the effects of existing noise levels. 12 Major Accident Hazards ( SEVESO ) 12.68 In accordance with EU Directives 27 landuses involving dangerous substances and chemicals are controlled to prevent major accident hazards and limit consequences for people and the natural environment. Sites with such uses are commonly referred to as SEVESO Sites in reference to the directive. As shown in Figure 12.3 there are five existing SEVESO Sites in Cork City. The Health and Safety Authority has established zones around each site with regard to the nature of activity at the respective sites. Landuse within these zones may be subject to special controls or restrictions. EU Directive 96 82 EC commonly referred to as the SEVESO II Directive as introduced into Irish Law through S.I. No. 476 of 2000 the EC (Control of Major Accident Hazards Involving Dangerous Substances) Regulations 2000. 27 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 179 x Volume One Written Statement Figure 12.2 SEVESO II Sites Objective 12.22 Assessment of Development in Vicinity of SEVESO II Sites Landuse proposals for development within the vicinity of sites identified under the Control of Major Accident Hazards ( SEVESO II ) Directive will be assessed with regard to technical guidance provided by the Health and Safety Authority.28 12.69 SEVESO II sites represent a significant constraint to realising the full development potential of the city particularly with respect to Docklands and Tivoli (see redevelopment plans in Sections 2.24 and 2.28 respectively). Their relocation outside the city is desirable over the medium to longer term. 12 Objective 12.23 Relocation of SEVESO II Sites Cork City Council will actively seek the relocation of SEVESO II facilities activities to suitable alternative sites outside the City working in conjunction with operators of SEVESO activities other statutory bodies and Cork County Council. 28 See http www.hsa.ie eng Your_Industry Chemicals Control_of_Major_Accident_Hazards Land_Use_Planning for more details. 180 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 12 Environmental Infrastructure and Management x Cork Airport Safety Zones Cork Airport and Public Safety Zones 12.70 The then Departments of Transport and Environment Heritage and Local Government commissioned a report to investigate Public Safety Zones (PSZs) at Cork Shannon and Dublin Airports in order to safeguard the public on the ground. The report was issued some years ago but guidelines for its implementation have yet to be prepared by the Minister for the Environment Community and Local Government. A two-zone protection system was proposed namely an Inner and an Outer Public Safety Zone for each runway each zone running parallel to and extending beyond the respective runway. The Inner Zones are located closest to the runways and have a greater risk of accident whereas there is less risk within the Outer Zones. In general no development will be permitted in the Inner Zone. However development will be permitted within the Outer Zone subject to restrictions. For example high density housing and facilities attracting large numbers of people will not be permitted but existing developments can remain as it is not a retrospective policy. The City Council area is not directly impacted by the Inner Zone however the proposed northern Outer Public Safety Zone traverses parts of Wilton and Bishopstown (See map in Volume 2 of the Plan). The City Council will have regard to the Outer Public Safety Zone that traverses the western south-western suburbs of the City in assessing new development proposals. 12.71 12.72 Objective 12.24 Public Safety Zones To promote appropriate land use patterns in the vicinity of the flight path over the City serving the Airport having regard to the precautionary principle based on existing and anticipated environmental and safety impacts of aircraft movements. To implement future policies to be determined by the Government in relation to Public Safety Zones for Cork Airport. 12 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 181 x Volume One Written Statement 12 182 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands Contents Introduction City Centre Strategy Core Principles City Centre Development Strategy Development Types Thematic Issues Retail Development Culture Tourism and entertainment Offices City Centre Living Tackling Vacancy and Dereliction Public Realm Movement and Accessibility Built Heritage and Urban Design Transformational Development Projects Cork City Docklands The Vision for Docklands North Docks South Docks 185 185 186 187 188 188 190 192 193 195 195 197 199 200 202 202 204 206 13 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 183 x Volume One Written Statement 13 historic cultural and commercial heart 184 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x CHAPTER 13 CITY CENTRE AND DOCKLANDS Introduction 13.1 This chapter is organised into a number of key sections starting with the overall strategy for the city centre which highlights the importance of the City Centre to the city and region. It then goes on to set out objectives for the various City Centre development types and thematic issues. The concluding section deals with objectives for development of the North and South Docklands areas. The emphasis will be on the importance of having good quality connections between the City Centre and Docklands with the priority being on development of the City Centre eastwards into Docklands rather than seeing them as two separate entities. As outlined in Chapter 2 Core Strategy the priority development area within the city is Cork City Centre with the planned development of the Docklands acting in a complementary role. The City Council prepared local area plans for both the North and South Docks in 2005 and 2008 respectively. The North Docks Local Area Plan expired and the main development objectives for the area are contained in this Development Plan. The South Docks Local Area Plan (SDLAP) has been extended in duration to 2018. The zoning objectives for the Docklands areas are outlined in Chapter 15 with detailed guidance on zoning infrastructure appropriate land use types public realm projects and urban design guidance suitable within the area contained in the South Docks Local Area Plan. Where overlap or perceived conflict exists between the local area plan and the City Development Plan the content of the City Development Plan takes precedence. 13.2 City Centre Strategy 13.3 Cork City Centre is the historic cultural and commercial heart of Cork and the South West region and its success is fundamental to the well-being of the local and wider Irish economy and to the projection of a vibrant image for the overall city. It has the greatest concentration of employment in the city and an expanding residential base. It is essential that the City Centre continues to develop its role as the key economic driver of the region and withstands the threat of vacancy dereliction and locational competition heightened by the economic recession. The Cork Area Strategic Plan (CASP) 2001-2020 identifies Cork City Centre as the engine of the region. As a regional capital and national Gateway city the success of the City Centre is both a key driver of the sub-region and a key indicator as to the health and prosperity of the metropolitan area. The City Centre is the symbol of the vibrancy and vitality of Cork City. It contains a diverse range of primary uses (including retail office cultural and civic functions) which complement each other and support a range of other services. While there has been significant investment in the public realm and in private sector development in the last decade the City Centre has faced increasing challenges particularly during the economic recession. Employment has fallen (down 13% from 27 700 in 2006 to 24 200 in 2011 although it is still the area of the city with the greatest concentration of employment at 34%) vacancy dereliction and under-use have increased and competition from the suburbs for office development and retail spend is significant. While there have been some new retail developments in 13.4 13 13.5 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 185 x Volume One Written Statement prime areas in recent years the retail function of other parts of the City Centre has declined while older office buildings also have significant vacancy. 13.6 The City Council commissioned the preparation of a City Centre strategy report to address these concerns by re-examining the role of the City Centre and looking at what mixture of uses and functions it should aim to have in the future. This report has informed the policies set out in this section of the Plan. The central aim of the City Centre Strategy report 2014 is to revitalise the City Centre so that it is a Healthy Heart for the Cork region. It aims to have more people working in living in spending leisure time in and visiting the city centre. It proposes three strategies to deliver revitalisation of the City Centre Improvement and Development Marketing Management. All three aspects are important and will be pursued by the City Council. The Development Plan will particularly focus on policies to deliver Improvement and Development of the City Centre. This includes proposals that inform the development strategy for the City Centre as well as measures to improve the environment and infrastructure of the City Centre. 13.7 Core Principles 13.8 These core principles are designed to promote and encourage the city s inherent strengths and build upon those elements which make a city centre successful. The Cork City Council is committed to 1. Maintaining the City Centre as the vibrant healthy heart of the region. A sustainable mix of land uses is a key factor in maintaining and enhancing the vibrancy and attractiveness of the City Centre to business residents and visitors while also reducing trip demand by concentrating various functions within the most accessible area. The Plan seeks to build on and enhance the existing mix of uses in the City Centre and to develop retailing offices residential and other commercial uses public services and community and cultural facilities to create a dynamic and inclusive atmosphere in the City Centre so that Cork City and region has a Healthy Heart as promoted in the City Centre Strategy 2014. Maintaining and developing a City Centre of high quality. Cork City Centre enjoys a unique urban character and sense of place. Its particular combination of streets and spaces framed by buildings of character and surrounded in the wider context by a natural landscape of sloping ridges and attractive river corridors are integral parts of the Cork City Centre experience. It is important to respect and enhance the city s built and natural heritage and use its distinctive character to inform development schemes of high architectural and urban design quality which are locally distinctive and secure environmental improvements across the City Centre. These issues are addressed in more detail in Chapters 9 and 16. Easing access to and movement around the City Centre. The City Centre is a key focus for inter-urban and commuter rail transport links throughout the region and country resulting in a high level of accessibility. It is important to ensure that all people including business its customers and its employees can easily access the City Centre to ensure the city s continuing prosperity and growth. To attract inward investment the City Centre must aspire to having a high quality integrated transport network which will require substantial investment in public transport on an ongoing basis. The City Council will therefore aim to promote improved public transport and better conditions for pedestrians and cyclists whilst accommodating essential vehicle needs. These issues are further discussed in Chapter 5. 2. 13 3. 186 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x Objective 13.1 Strategic Objectives City Centre and Docklands It is a strategic objective of Cork City Council to a. Sustain and enhance the vitality and attractiveness of Cork City Centre as the Healthy Heart of the region and as a quality place to live work and visit b. Facilitate the orderly expansion of the City Centre eastwards into Docklands and support the progressive development of Docklands as a sustainable urban quarter to complement the continued vibrancy and primacy of the City Centre c. Implement the appropriate recommendations of the City Centre Strategy report (2014) d. Support the City Centre in realising its full potential as the leading regional retail centre and the primary office location e. Continue to develop Cork City Centre as a high quality vibrant and adaptable location for the growth of indigenous and international business f. To develop the City Centre as a desirable place to live for all by providing a quality sustainable and socially inclusive housing stock in proximity to quality services and amenities g. To develop and establish the City Centre as an international destination for tourism business culture leisure and arts h. To continue to enhance the quality of the city s public realm and improve access into and within the City Centre for all the city s users and ensure that the City Centre is attractive to all age groups including children young people and families i. To facilitate the safe efficient and sustainable movement of people to from and within the City Centre. City Centre Development Strategy 13.9 The priority development area within the city is Cork City Centre with the Docklands area developing over time in a complementary role. Figure 13.1 illustrates the broad development strategy for the city centre. This broadly reflects the land use zoning objectives outlined below. The City Centre Retail area will be the focus for retail development and in certain streets other uses will be discouraged in order to retain a concentration of higher order retail in key areas. Outside of these key retail streets all other uses including office development will be permitted in this zone and also in the Commercial Core Area. Restaurant and leisure uses are also dispersed throughout these zones. New office development will be particularly targeted at the eastern end of the City Centre and extending into the adjacent parts of Docklands. Residential development is encouraged throughout the City Centre but the areas north and south of the central island in Shandon and the South Parish will continue to have a predominant residential focus. Cultural tourism and leisure uses are dispersed throughout the City Centre but from a cultural heritage point of view particular emphasis is given to the historic spine running through the medieval city and linking the Shandon and South Parish cultural heritage precincts. The land use zoning objectives for the City Centre are shown on Map 1 in Volume 2 and explained in Chapter 15. The zonings help to focus development into appropriate locations and provide the backdrop for a range of objectives for sustaining the City Centre. The four main zoning areas are 1. The City Centre Retail Area (CCRA) (located primarily on the Central Island but extends northwards over the river into McCurtain Street) 2. The City Centre Commercial Core Area (CCA) (extends from the Central Island to areas north and south of the river channels) 3. The Inner City Residential Neighbourhoods (north and south of the Central Island) 4. The Docklands zonings (to the east of the central island on the North and South Sides of the river). 13.10 13 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 187 x Volume One Written Statement Figure 13.1 City Centre Development Strategy Development Types Thematic Issues 13.11 The following sections outline in more detail objectives for the main City Centre uses and themes Retail development Culture tourism entertainment Office Development Living in the City Centre Public realm Movement and accessibility Built Heritage and Urban Design. Retail Development 13.12 13 The aim of the zoning objectives is to ensure that the City Centre retains its primacy as the commercial and employment heartland of Cork City. Overall retail policy is addressed in Chapter 4 Retail Strategy. The City Centre Retail Area zone (CCRA) as defined in Chapter 15 and identified in Volume 2 Map 1 City Centre Zoning Objectives will be the priority location for comparison retail development during the lifetime of this plan alongside a supporting mix of uses which stimulate activity and develop the vibrancy of the City Centre. The aim is to make the City Centre retail area a fusion of shopping leisure and entertainment and to distinguish it from the more functional shopping centres in the suburbs. It is this mixture of retailing restaurants pubs entertainment and cultural experiences that makes the City Centre different from other retail locations and it needs to be accompanied by a good quality and safe environment as well as branding and marketing to capitalise on this unique potential. 188 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x 13.13 The core retail aim is that St Patricks Street and the streets adjoining it should be the prime location in the region for national and international multiples to locate. It is recognised that there is a need for improvement and expansion of modern retail space to attract new occupiers. Within this core area there is potential for a combination of upgrading of existing buildings and new mixed use development with retail as the core use. The following locations have particular potential for upgrading or redevelopment for retail and related uses Merchants Quay Parts of the Academy Street French Church Street block Parts of the Marlborough Cook Street Robert Street blocks Paul Street Cornmarket Street area Capital Cinema area on Grand Parade and south-western end of St Patrick s Street. The City Council will support the development of suitable sites for retailing and associated mixed uses through the objectives of this plan and if appropriate through preparation of Development Briefs. It will also where necessary work in partnership with landowners and developers to bring forward strategically important retail sites. It is recognised that some development sites in the City Centre Retail Area are somewhat removed from the prime retail streets are more likely to have potential for development for other uses in the medium term at least although it is desirable that future potential for retailing is taken account in the building design. While international brands are a major part of the retail offer particularly in the prime retail streets such as St Patrick s Street Cork City Centre also has a high proportion of independent shops and restaurants which differentiate it from suburban centres such as Mahon Point. These add greatly to the uniqueness and attractiveness of the City Centre and their continuation will be supported. The City Centre Strategy report (2014) analysed the city centre retail mix and identified a number of character areas based on the proportion of branded and independent shops present and the mix of retail restaurant leisure and entertainment uses. For example it highlighted St Patrick s Street as the prime flagship shopping area the Oliver Plunkett Street area and streets off it as the independent retail and leisure quarter Mc Curtain Street as an eclectic shopping and leisure quarter with a distinctive architectural style and North Main Street as the alternative Old Town retail and leisure mix. The mix of uses and character of each area can form the basis for developing a future strategy by identifying and building on the unique features of the area. The City Council will support local traders groups in developing and implementing such strategies including environmental improvements where resources permit. The City Council aims to support and strengthen the higher order retail function of the City Centre and the concentration of shops within the City Centre Retail Area. While a mix of retail and other uses is appropriate for many City Centre streets there is a need to maintain the strong retail character and identity of the prime retail streets. Primary Retail Frontages which represent the city s primary shopping core are identified in Volume 2 Map 2 City Centre Development Objectives Map. Additional streets which already contribute significantly to the retail offer of the City Centre are also identified on Map 2 as Secondary Retail Frontages and by reason of their mix of uses are seen to reinforce and complement the Primary Retail Frontages. Large floorplate shops such as department stores play an extremely important role in providing for large retail users which can act as anchor stores for other retail outlets in the city centre and the City Council will support their retention. A shortage of good quality medium sized outlets for modern higher order fashion and other retail outlets has also been identified in the prime retail areas. Amalgamation of units will therefore be open for consideration while taking into account the need to protect the streetscape and building character and retain active frontages. 13.14 13.15 13.16 13 13.17 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 189 x Volume One Written Statement Objective 13.2 New and upgraded retail development To support the development and expansion of retailing in the City Centre Retail Area through upgrading and expansion of existing buildings and redevelopment on suitable sites particularly in areas close to primary retail frontages. Objective 13.3 Character Areas Cork City Council will support traders groups in developing strategies for improving and promoting distinct character areas within the city centre and in particular will support the continuation of independent retail outlets in the City Centre as a vital part of its uniqueness and attractiveness. Objective 13.4 Protection of Prime and Key Secondary Retail Frontage To restrict retail offices general offices hot food takeaways general convenience stores public houses night clubs mobile phone shops bookmakers betting shops and restaurant uses from locating at ground floor level on prime retail frontages and restrict retail offices general offices hot food takeaways bookmakers betting shops at ground floor level on secondary retail frontages (as defined in Map 2 Volume 2). Objective 13.5 Restriction on sub-division of large floorplate shops To restrict the subdivision other conversion or change of use of existing large and medium floorplate shops (e.g. department stores) in order to retain the City Centre s anchor stores and ensure an adequate distribution of accommodation size in the City Centre. Objective 13.6 Amalgamation of shop units Amalgamation of small retail units will be open for consideration in order to meet demand for medium size units to suit modern retailing needs subject to the need to have regard to the protection streetscape and building character. Objective 13.7 Active Ground Floor Uses New-build developments within the CCRA and CCA should generally be designed to accommodate higher order retail uses at ground floor level and thus include high floor-to-ceiling heights of at least 3.75 metres (excluding servicing etc.) at ground floor level separate and independent access to upper floors servicing capability and the avoidance of support pillars in the middle of floorplates except where having regard to site size and location it is not practical or appropriate. Culture Tourism and entertainment 13.18 The City Council acknowledges the essential role which restaurants bars clubs and other entertainment uses play in the economy and vibrancy of the City Centre and it will facilitate the future development of this sector while balancing the needs to protect amenities of residents from excess noise and disturbance. There is concern also to ensure that entertainment uses don not over-dominate the commercial and visual character of particular streets. 13 Objective 13.8 Leisure and Entertainment Uses The City Council will support the development of leisure and entertainment facilities such as restaurants public houses music and dance venues visitor attractions and other leisure facilities in the City Centre to facilitate the needs of residents and visitors and contribute to the vibrancy of the area. Applications for new development will be treated on merit but discouraged in areas where conflicts with established residents are likely to arise. The Cork City Council will control location size and activities of entertainment uses that are likely to attract large numbers in order to safeguard residential amenity environmental quality and the established character of parts of the City Centre. 190 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x 13.19 The overall offer of the City Centre is important to all age groups whether activities happen in public or private spaces internally or externally. The City Centre is very important to young people for whom it provides an opportunity to congregate and socialise as well as use services and facilities. The City Council will consciously seek to work with stakeholders and partners to ensure that the needs of young people are met in the City Centre and that their voice is heard in any consultations. Similarly the City Council will consciously seek to ensure that the City Centre meets the needs of families and children. Tourism generates significant expenditure in the city helps to support businesses and jobs and contributes to the infrastructure and physical regeneration of the built and natural environment. A strong tourist industry can help enhance the image of the City Centre and generate a positive attitude within the wider population prospective developers and investors. The strength of the City Centre s appeal for tourists lies in arts culture and heritage based tourism as well as the growing business conference and leisure tourism markets. Chapter 8 identifies a number of and strategies and projects to improve the attractiveness of the City Centre for tourists. 13.20 The Medieval Spine and Cultural Precincts 13.21 The clustering of cultural activity within parts of the City Centre is as much a result of chance as deliberate design. Certain areas of the City Centre in and around Emmet Place and Shandon already exhibit this clustering effect. The promotion of links between arts and cultural activities should strengthen the development of creative industries and business and establish the conditions for the formation of areas of cultural distinctiveness and vibrancy. In order to build upon the idea of clustering cultural facilities and business the Shandon and South Parish have been identified in Chapter 8 as Cultural Precincts and are illustrated on Map 2 Development Objectives. Together with the medieval City centered on North and South Main Street they form the historic spine of the City Centre. Building on the existence of multiple tourist attractions retail and leisure uses as well as the historic built heritage and character of these areas the Plan will seek to expand upon the range and nature of uses within each area in order to stimulate the development of vibrant and distinct City Centre cultural precincts with a high concentration of cultural facilities. On Barrack Street and Douglas Street in South Parish Cultural Precinct and Shandon Street and Church Street in Shandon Cultural Precinct the development of bars and restaurants will be encouraged as will a supply of flexible small to medium scale office space to accommodate cultural businesses. Such businesses may include media music publishing fashion design architecture etc. Small scale independent and specialty retailers will also be encouraged on these identified streets. The Cork City Council will encourage the development of cultural or tourist venues and the promotion of cultural events within these areas in key sites such as Elizabeth Fort and possibly in time in South Presentation Convent and Crawford College of Art. The improvement of the public realm the creation of attractive focal public spaces and the enhancement of strategic pedestrian linkages to and from these areas will also be encouraged. In the medieval core a similar range of uses will be encouraged but with greater emphasis on retailing particularly on North Main Street and nearby streets due to its location in the retail core area. Within the cultural precincts of Shandon and the South Parish outside of the streets indicated above the Cork City Council will support applications which retain and enhance the residential function of each area in line with policies pertaining to the ICRN within which they are generally located. Consideration will however be given to small scale live work units throughout the cultural precincts as well and developments which enhance the areas cultural artistic and tourist potential. 13.22 13.23 13 13.24 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 191 x Volume One Written Statement Objective 13.9 Cultural Precincts In Barrack Street and Douglas Street in the South Parish Cultural Precinct and in Shandon Street and Church Street in the Shandon Cultural Precinct the City Council will encourage and support uses and developments which will assist the growth of cultural tourist related and small to medium scale cultural business activities such as bars restaurants and small offices suitable for cultural businesses. Consideration will also be given on these streets to proposals for small scale independent and specialty retailers. Proposals will be viewed in terms of their contribution to the mix and diversity of cultural uses and to their potential to enhance the areas cultural visitor and tourist potential. Offices 13.25 Office based activities are a major part of the City Centre s business and employment base and contribute to the well-being of the City Centre by generating spend that support shops restaurants and service businesses. The City Centre Strategy report (2014) states that City Centres globally are increasingly attractive as office locations due to the range of services good quality environment and accessibility that City Centres provide - countering the trend towards business park locations for high density offices. There is significant potential both in the City Centre and the adjoining Docklands areas to meet the need for large floor plate offices medium sized businesses and also attractive low rent space with character for start up and grow-on businesses. This Plan proposes the City Centre and the adjoining Docklands areas as the prime office locations in the city. However it is recognised that if Cork City is to benefit from the global trends there needs to be a significant expansion and improvement in the range and quality of office product available. The provision of high-quality office space aimed at attracting key investment and office-related employment also needs to be supported by public transport and environmental improvements. Large Floor Plate Offices 13.26 The City Centre Development Strategy diagram (Figure 13.1) proposes concentrating new office development in an office quarter taking the eastern end of the City Centre and the western end of Docklands including the land around transport interchange centred on Kent Station in the North Docks. The strategy is to encourage development of a modern office quarter here as it is the main deliverable opportunity to provide modern large office space (floor plates of c 1 000 to 2 000 sq.m.) which could house large scale FDI and domestic corporate businesses. Some of the land is in public ownership or control and there is potential for a proactive approach by the state and local agencies in conjunction with the private sector to bring the sites forward for development. There is also scope for office development to extend to sites on the northside of the north channel and the southside of the south channel some of which already have planning permission. Designation of this area as the new office quarter helps create an image and critical mass to compete with suburban and out of town locations. Offices in this location will benefit from the broad range of infrastructure and services already available in the City Centre and in time there is plenty of capacity to extend the quarter eastwards into Docklands. South Mall 13 13.27 South Mall is Cork s main traditional prestigious office location. It has for many years been the home of professional service firms (accountants lawyers and property advisors) finance institutions banks and marketing professionals. The buildings are a mix of distinguished classical buildings and more recent development in the 1960s and 1970s. Many of the buildings have a very attractive character but require continual investment to ensure the space is attractive to potential occupiers. If upgraded the heritage buildings on South Mall have potential to attract small- and medium-sized office users interested in a prestigious office building of character. The later 20th century buildings have larger floorplates but also need to be refurbished to meet modern standards. The City Council recognises that there are relatively high levels of vacancy on the street particularly above first floor level and is actively exploring ways of improving this by considering development models architectural feasibility and finance issues. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 192 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x 13.28 The City Council will seek to promote the retention of office uses in South Mall in order to provide suitable office space for small- to medium-sized business. Ground floor uses on the street should support the office district and its business profile and should ensure the conservation of heritage assets and ensure proper access to upper floors is maintained. The preferred use at ground floor level will be retail office. Non-offices uses at ground floor level such as restaurants will only be open for consideration in the part of the street east of Morrison s Street on the south side and east of Beasley Street on the north side (as these areas form a book-end to the street and have the potential to interact with nearby public spaces) where it can be clearly shown that they would support the primary office uses and do not detract from heritage assets or the character of the street. Non-office uses on upper floors of heritage buildings will be open for consideration where they do not have a negative impact on the area or on the heritage asset. Uses that will be considered favourably in this circumstance are residential hotel or serviced accommodation. Supporting Innovation 13.29 The City Centre is a suitable location for small to medium sized innovative high-tech and creative businesses which would benefit from the vibrant atmosphere and range of services available and many of which require an office type environment. Cork City Council will support the expansion of this sector in the City Centre by facilitating the provision of dedicated supported floorspace for start-up and developing businesses. Over time as they develop these businesses would be encouraged to move on to exiting office space within the City Centre. Objective 13.10 City Centre Office Development It is the objective of Cork City Council to support office development within the City Centre by a. Facilitating the development of an expanded office quarter including large floor plate office development on suitable sites in the eastern end of the City Centre and extending into Docklands as shown in Figure 13.1 and in other suitable sites in the Commercial Core Area and City Centre Retail Area subject to the need to respect the character and profile of the City Centre. The Cork City Council will work with other public agencies and the private sector to bring forward office developments in these areas Supporting the development of supported space for start-up and grow-on businesses in suitable buildings in the City Centre by working with other public and private sector stakeholders Seeking to promote and enable the retention of office uses in South Mall in order to provide suitable office space for small-to medium-sized businesses in this premier office location (as outlined in 13.27 and 28) Implementing environmental improvements and measures to improve transport and access to the City Centre as outlined in Chapter 5. b. c. d. City Centre Living 13.30 Increasing City Centre living has a positive impact on City Centres and on the wider city reflecting a buoyant City Centre economy and a thriving and attractive urban environment. People businesses and local authorities all benefit which in turn raises the profile and people s perception of the city. The growth of City Centre living represents one of the most visible symbols of urban stability and success. Residential uses also add activity and vitality to the area reduce traffic congestion and make investment viable in new and historic building stock. Despite a fall in the overall population of Cork City the City Centre has seen a significant increase in population (approximately 12% to a total of 13 490 between 2006 and 2011) over the same period. An analysis of this population change shows an increase in well educated in-migrants many of them 13 13.31 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 193 x Volume One Written Statement apparently working in FDI companies and living in apartments. This suggests there is a market for good quality accommodation in and close to the City Centre and that this market may expand further if more office development occurs in the central area. In order to attract the market units have to be generously sized well designed and with convenient access to quality private and public open space. The Cork City Council will continue to encourage the delivery of quality housing apartment schemes as well as refurbishment of the existing housing stock. 13.32 The Plan outlines those areas of the City Centre most suitable for residential development namely the Commercial Core Area (CCA) Inner City Residential Neighbourhoods (ICRN). In the case of the CCA the City Council seeks to encourage the development of active commercial ground floor uses and above ground residential uses to encourage more sustainable development. Within the Commercial Core Area (CCA) new residential developments will not normally be encouraged at ground floor level but will be encouraged on the upper floors of new developments. Residential development will be supported in the City Centre Retail Area provided it does not threaten the retail commercial vibrancy of the City Centre and is located on above ground floor levels. In addition the City Council will promote the use of vacant upper floor space in existing buildings in the City Centre for residential purposes particularly where it preserves the architectural heritage of protected buildings or buildings considered to be important to defining the character of the City Centre. This policy will increase the number of residential units population in these areas provide greater levels of activity and better support local services as well as physical improvements to buildings and a reduction in dereliction. Managing the tenure mix and type of housing in new development areas is crucial to ensuring the creation of balanced communities in City Centre areas and helping maintain the existing residential character of the Inner City Residential Neighbourhoods (ICRN) in particular. The generic targets for dwelling size mix for urban areas are set out in Chapter 16 and it is considered realistic to apply a requirement that one-third of new dwellings within the City Centre and in particular in the ICRN should be family type units of 3 bedrooms or more. The ICRN has many attractive areas of considerable character however there is a need for refurbishment of many dwellings to bring them to a modern standards and the City Council will investigate ways that this can be incentivised such as financial supports for renovating houses in Architectural Conservation Areas through conservation grants and the initiatives such as the Governments City Living Initiative. Local services and civic and institutional uses are an important part of the character of the ICRN and help support its attractiveness for residential uses and their presence in these areas will continue to be supported. 13.33 13.34 Objective 13.11 City Centre Living It is the objective of Cork City Council to a. Encourage residential development throughout the city centre providing it does not prejudice the functioning of the City Centre as place for mainly commercial activity it is designed to a high quality ensures a sustainable mix of housing type and tenure as outlined in Chapters 6 and 15 and contributes to the development of sustainable urban communities b. Encourage a greater mix of housing types and tenure within the City Centre c. Support the refurbishment of existing residential development in the City Centre particularly in the ICRN and seek to identify measures to incentivise this d. Encourage the development of residential units on upper floors of existing and new buildings in the CCA and CCRA subject to other City Centre policies and objectives. 13 194 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x Tackling Vacancy and Dereliction 13.35 Turnover of businesses and short-term vacancy is normal in a City Centre. However there are certain areas of the City Centre which have persistent vacancy and increasing numbers of run-down and derelict buildings (Section 13.5). Many of the objective in this chapter and the City Centre Strategy aim to ensure a strong demand for a mixture of uses in the city centre to maintain vitality and reduce vacancy and dereliction. For example polices to increase office employment in the City Centre will make shops restaurants and services more viable. Reductions in Development Levies for City Centre development have also been put in place to promote investment in the City Centre and its buildings. A series of incentives and enforcement of regulatory provisions to tackle vacancy and dereliction are also underway or planned. Positive actions include a painting grant scheme grants for repair of buildings facilitation of arts and cultural uses in vacant buildings a number of arts projects a postcard project for vacant shop-fronts and co-operating with traders groups in improving their areas. Actions under the Derelict Sites Act to combat dereliction are also underway. The Government s planned Living City Initiative will also support the revitalisation of marginalised areas of the City Centre. The Plan also includes measures to support residential uses in and around the City Centre and to upgrade the public realm and amenities to make it a more attractive place. 13.36 Objective 13.12 Tackling vacancy and dereliction Cork City Council will implement measures to tackle problems of vacancy and dereliction in and around the City Centre and elsewhere in the city. An overall strategy will be developed to tackle dereliction including active use of the legal powers available under the Derelict Sites Act (e.g. placement on the Derelict Sits Register acquisition and legal notices requiring works to be carried out). The strategy will include actions to address Strategic sites in the City Centre Derelict buildings and gap sites in the City Centre and along the Historic Spine Derelict houses and other buildings sites in suburban areas. Public Realm 13.37 A high quality public realm makes the City Centre a more desirable place to live work and visit. It is therefore extremely important that the city continues to invest in its public realm in order to provide a functional arena for movement relaxation and commerce and a good quality visual backdrop to the City Centre. The upgrades of St. Patrick s Street Oliver Plunkett Street Grand Parade and Cornmarket Street by the City Council and the development of Opera Lane and the boardwalk on Lapp s Quay by the private sector have helped to enhance the appearance of the city s core and reduce through traffic on some of the centre s main streets. A range of public realm improvements for the City Centre are proposed in this plan. A number of streets will be upgraded as part of the City Centre Movement Strategy as outlined in Chapter 5 Transportation. This strategy aims to remove unnecessary thought traffic from the City Centre and improve access for public transport walking and cycling. Many of the streets identified for upgrading have a role as a place in their own right as well as having movement access functions. For example McCurtain Street has retail cultural and entertainment functions as well as transport and access functions and these roles need to be taken into account when designing the layout and use of the public space. A City Centre public realm strategy will be prepared to help highlight both the movement and place functions of the streets in the City Centre and ensure they are taken into account in design of new public realm and traffic management schemes (as required in the Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets. As well as improvements identified in the City Centre Movement Strategy (2012) a number of other streets and areas need upgrading to improve the overall urban environment. The City Centre Strategy 13.38 13 13.39 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 195 x Volume One Written Statement (2014) identifies a need for upgrading of the streets linking St Patricks Street and South Mall to improve the attractiveness of this retail and restaurant quarter. Chapter 8 Arts Cultural Heritage and Tourism identifies the Medieval Spine and the River Lee Waterfront as areas where the upgrading of the public realm would greatly enhance the attractiveness of the city for tourists and act as links between tourist attractions as well as providing attractive places for tourists to pause and orientate themselves. The priority areas for public realm improvement are listed in Objective 13.15 and illustrated in the City Centre Development Objectives Map 2 Volume 2. The Cork City Council will work closely with key agencies and private developers to help realise these projects as speedily as possible. Objective 13.13 City Centre Public realm projects A public realm strategy will be prepared to highlight the link and place function of City Centre streets and other places public spaces and to guide future public realm projects. The Cork City Council will aim to deliver the public realm projects outlined in Objective 13.15 and illustrated in Map 2 Volume 2 within the lifetime of the Plan. Waterfront Amenity Areas 13.40 In recognition of the importance of improving the amenities of the areas along the City Centre waterfront the Cork City Council will seek as a priority the development of a south facing Waterfront Amenity Area (Map 2 City Centre Development Objectives Volume 2) from Custom House Quay to Morrison s Quay as far as South Gate Bridge and westwards through the Beamish and Crawford site. This will complement the proposed Quayside Amenity Area upgrades planned for the Docklands and eventually provide an uninterrupted south facing river walk linking the City Centre and Docklands along an EastWest axis. On the north side of the river the Cork City Council will seek to build on the upgrade of Parnell Place and the proposed provision of a pedestrian bridge from Merchant s Quay with a planned upgrade of St. Patrick s Quay Penrose Quay and in time Camden Quay Popes Quay and North Mall. In time the upgrade of Horgan s Quay in conjunction with redevelopment of the North Docks will extend the route eastwards. To help deliver these objectives there is a general presumption against development within the Waterfront Amenity Areas identified in Map 2 Volume 2. 13.41 13.42 Objective 13.14 Waterfront Amenity Areas To create Waterfront Amenity Areas to provide accessible public space along the river for pedestrians and cyclists. There is a general presumption against development encroaching within 10 metres of the existing quayside apart from - Small-scale development within the space which relates to the use of the river or quayside space and can ensure an adequate amenity space to facilitate passive recreation walking and cycling or - In confined sites provision of a reduced setback supplemented by a boardwalk may be an acceptable alternative. 13 196 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x Objective 13.15 Priority Public Realm Improvement Projects a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. McCurtain Street and Bridge Street Parnell Place and Parnell Bridge Waterfront amenity route on Northside of South Channel Waterfront amenity route on Northside of North Channel Princes Street Marlboro Street Cook Street South Main Street North Main Street South Mall Pedestrian bridge linking Merchant s Quay to St Patrick s Quay Pedestrian bridge and link from Beamish and Crawford site to Wandesford Quay. Public Parks 13.43 The provision of high quality well managed public parks within the City Centre can play a crucial part in attracting people to live there. Within the City Centre the only significant green spaces are Bishop Lucy Park Shalom Park and St. Anne s Graveyards in Shandon. In order to redress this imbalance the City Council will seek to secure the development of a quality green open space on the southern side of the Beamish and Crawford site on South Main Street if this is not developed as an Event Centre and on O Mahony s Avenue near St. Luke s Cross. The provision of green spaces will be a key part of the character of the development of the Docklands and in particular the green spaces on the Kennedy Park Saint Luke s Church axis will serve Inner City Residential Neighbourhoods in that area and benefit the open space provision of the City Centre overall. The potential for additional pocket parks both soft and hard will be explored in other key areas in the City Centre during the lifetime of the Plan. Opportunities along the quays and in the Marsh area would be particularly beneficial. Linkages to the major public parks at Fitzgerald Park and the planned Marina Park. It will also be important to make these parks accessible for City Centre residents and visitors. Objective 13.16 City Centre Parks It is the policy of Cork City Council to improve the number and variety of public spaces both hard and soft in the City Centre. This will be achieved through the following initiatives a. Promote the river corridors as strategic lungs of the city with the long term objective to create an uninterrupted pedestrian connection on the south side of the River Lee from Fitzgerald s Park to Marina Park (see Waterfront Amenity Areas section above) through the City Centre b. Promote pocket parks as rest and reorientation points throughout the City Centre and along the river corridor in particular with small play areas refreshment stands and caf s developed and encouraged where appropriate. Movement and Accessibility 13.44 Cork City is a relatively compact city with real opportunities to sustain high levels of public transport use walking and cycling compared to other cities. The City Centre is best placed of all locations in the city region to be accessed by sustainable modes of transport and to achieve the Smarter Travel objective of 55% non-car mode share. It is the hub for the public transport system and walking and cycling to the City Centre are reasonable options for many people living in the city s more central residential areas. Measures to improve access to the City Centre by all modes are outlined in Chapter 5 Transportation while access around the City Centre will be addressed by the City Centre Movement Strategy also detailed in Chapter 5. Map 2 City Centre Development Objectives in Volume 2 illustrates some of the key transport measures. 13 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 197 x Volume One Written Statement Encouraging Walking 13.45 The City Council is committed to encouraging people to walk to and around the City Centre and will strive to create a walking environment which is both safe and pleasurable. The public realm improvements described earlier and shown on Map 2 will also serve to prioritise the pedestrian and minimize the dominance of the car on the city s streets. Every effort will be made to give priority to pedestrian movements including total or partial pedestrianisation improved priority at junctions and creation of new pedestrian linkages when sites are redeveloped. Objective 13.17 Strategic Pedestrian Linkages To upgrade and provide new strategic pedestrian linkages where required in the City Centre to increase permeability through key development sites reflect pedestrian desire lines between key areas and to strengthen connections between the City Centre and the Docklands. This will be achieved through the implementation of the City Centre Movement Strategy public realm upgrades the upgrading of key pedestrian junctions and the provision of new pedestrian linkages as part of the redevelopment of strategic sites. Encouraging Cycling 13.46 A major upgrade of cycling facilities is being implemented as part of the City Centre Movement Strategy. Cycle lanes and cycle priority at junctions will be provided on a number of key routes in the City Centre and will link with suburban routes. New cycle parking facilities will be provided within the public realm in appropriate locations. New developments are required to provide cycle parking provision in line with standards outlined in Chapter 16. Objective 13.18 Developing cycling in the City Centre The Cork City Council is committed to developing cycling in the City Centre and will upgrade cycle lanes and cycling facilities where necessary throughout the City Centre. Traffic Management 13.47 The City Centre Movement Strategy as outlined in Chapter 5 aims to reduce through traffic from passing through the City Centre core area and to improve access for non-car modes of travel. Reversion to twoway working of streets such as on McCurtain Street will also greatly improve the environment of these streets and allow reallocation of space from the car to other modes in some instances. One-way streets tend to promote faster speeds result in longer vehicle journeys make it more difficult to navigate around the area and have a negative impact on the attractiveness of the street for pedestrians. Therefore the City Council aims to revert over time to two-way working in the City Centre where possible. These initiatives will directly impact on the quality of the public realm in these areas and ease movement through the City Centre. It is an objective of the Cork City Council to develop a pedestrian priority core on the City Centre Island between North Main Street South Main Street and Custom House Quay. This will not preclude the use of streets like St. Patrick s Street by vehicles in principle but where possible will limit vehicular movement to public transport and taxis during normal trading hours and upgrade public transport provision into and out of the City Centre. In some cases total pedestrianisation will be considered (e.g. on smaller City Centre lanes) but the intention would be to develop a traffic management system that could provide for the needs of City Centre users throughout the day. The presence of vehicles in the evening can be desirable as they contribute towards actual safety and the perception of safety due to the additional surveillance and activity provided by vehicles and drivers. 13.48 13 198 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x Objective 13.19 Two-way streets The City Council will seek to revert over time from one-way to two-way streets in the City Centre to improve the attractiveness of the City Centre for pedestrians and to make it easier to navigate. Objective 13.20 Pedestrian Priority Core It is the policy of the City Council to facilitate a pedestrian priority core at the heart of the City Centre that prioritises pedestrian activity and movement and reinforces the Centre as a desirable destination for pedestrians. Built Heritage and Urban Design 13.49 The City Council will encourage innovative and well designed developments that relate sensitively to the existing quality and architectural character of the local and wider environment respect important views and prospects within the City Centre generate distinctiveness and a sense of place and help build stronger communities. Developments must be sensitive to the City Centre s unique built fabric both architectural and archaeological and make a valued and positive contribution to the modernization of the City Centre. The approach will focus on the way that all buildings old and new work with each other to create the spaces and sense of place that influence the quality of life for communities. We must design successful places by placing emphasis on the creation of spaces with a distinct identity spaces that are safe and pleasant and that are easy to move around especially on foot. Visitors must feel a sense of welcome in these spaces and their design should seek to incorporate environmentally sustainable design in terms of materials used and lighting where appropriate. These issues are further addressed in Chapter 16 Development Management. 13.50 Objective 13.21 City Centre Design Quality and Context a. b. c. To ensure that new development is of the highest quality and respects safeguards and enhances the special character of the City Centre To create new and distinctive places which enhance the special character of the city Development proposals in the City Centre should demonstrate that they contribute towards a high quality sustainable living or working environment. They should respect the height mass and scale of surrounding buildings should not compromise protected views and prospects and should draw upon positive characteristics of the surrounding environment to create a sense of place security and vitality. The Cork City Council encourages a comprehensive approach to redevelopment and regeneration whenever possible. To this end the Cork City Council encourages the preparation of development frameworks or master plans to identify the full design potential for creating successful places for Cork City Centre. Proposals for piecemeal development will not be supported. In exceptional cases it may be necessary for the Cork City Council to use its powers of compulsory purchase to assemble a site for development and enable a satisfactory outcome to be achieved. 13.51 Objective 13.22 Co-ordinated Development Planning permission will not be granted for development which might compromise the effective development of adjacent land of strategic importance to the City Centre or the comprehensive development and regeneration of a wider area as provided for in a master plan or development brief. 13 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 199 x Volume One Written Statement Transformational Development Projects 13.52 There are a significant number of sites in the City Centre with development potential and these were analysed in the City Centre Strategy report 2014. Two particularly important clusters of development sites which could have transformational impacts on the City Centre were identified in the City Centre The Grand Parade Beamish and Crawford Sullivan s Quay cluster (outlined below) Cork City Harbour Interchange cluster made up of sites at the eastern end of the City Centre (outlined below) and the Horgan s Quay lands (described later in the Chapter under the North Docks 13.64). The Grand Parade Beamish and Crawford Cluster 13.53 The combination of the Beamish and Crawford site the Grand Parade sites and the former Government Buildings on Sullivan s Quay provide major opportunities for redevelopment that could transform the western end of the City Centre Island. Together there is potential for a new mixed use quarter with an emphasis on entertainment creative activity cultural activity (library museum) third level education (such as the schools of Art and Design and Architecture) as well as scope for residential uses and other mixed uses. Beamish and Crawford A development brief was prepared for the Beamish and Crawford site and adopted by Council (2010). It sets out the planning policy framework conservation strategy urban design guidance and access and parking issues and will guide the future development of the site. Planning permission has been granted for a mixed use development including an event centre cinema offices retailing and student housing. Whether or not this particular development goes ahead a mix of leisure cultural office retail uses (including comparison retail uses up to a maximum of 15% of floor area supporting cultural civic or leisure functions) and residential development is considered desirable and acceptable and would have a significant positive impact in terms of regeneration of this part of the City Centre. Grand Parade The group of sites on the western side of Grand Parade also has significant development potential and would benefit from the investment in the public realm in recent years as well as the proximity of the retail core and the English Market. Although planning permissions have been granted on some of the sites it would be desirable that the area be developed in the context of an overall masterplan rather than piecemeal and the City Council will work with other landowners to achieve this. Proposals for development should take into account the following policies and objectives for the area To create a new vibrant face to the upgraded public realm of Grand Parade through the redevelopment of the existing City Centre Library and reuse and upgrade of important streetscape buildings thereby encouraging pedestrian flow from the main shopping artery of St. Patrick s Street to the upgraded Grand Parade To facilitate redevelopment for a range of uses which could include cultural and civic uses commercial leisure retail offices and residential uses incorporating active ground floor uses To protect the archaeological and architectural value of the site and in particular the old city wall and the historic quay wall through appropriate best practice methods To strengthen east-west pedestrian links between Grand Parade and South Main Street via Old Post Office Lane Kift s Lane and the proposed waterfront amenity area Any development proposal should respect the site s location as a former medieval gateway to the city in terms of design form and scale To ensure that provision is made for a south facing waterfront amenity area so that a continuous link will be created along the quayside To protect and frame protected views of St. Fin Barre s Cathedral from South Mall (SFC1) and St. Nicholas Church from South Main Street (SN2) as illustrated in the Views and Prospects Maps in Volume 2. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 13.54 13.55 13 200 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x 13.56 Government Buildings The former tax office on Sullivan s Quay has planning permission for redevelopment for offices apartments hotel and ground floor retail uses and would complement the redevelopment of the other sites in the vicinity. It currently in short term use for artists studios workshops and by the Crawford School of Art. In the event that the full redevelopment of the site is not feasible in the short to medium term there is potential to further develop the role of the existing building for other purposes such as a Creativity Centre housing studio space for artists musicians and other creative businesses and possible high tech start up businesses. Objective 13.23 Beamish and Crawford Grand Parade Quarter The support the development of a new mixed use quarter at the western end of the city centre centred on the development sites at Beamish and Crawford Grand Parade and Sullivan s Quay and to examine the potential for this area to become a creative civic entertainment and residential quarter within the City Centre. Development site cluster at Eastern end of the City Centre Island 13.57 The eastern end of the City Centre was identified in section 13.25 as the location for future office development in the City Centre in association with the development of the railway station lands for similar purposes. There are a number of sites with development potential along the eastern end of the City Centre island and along the river channels. The waterfront location adds greatly to the attractiveness of these sites. There are also a number of attractive heritage buildings such as the Custom house and Bonded Warehouses at the tip of the Island which acts as a centrepiece for the area. The area has potential for an office-led mixed use district which would include large floor plate offices tourist leisure uses making use of the heritage building assets and residential apartments. The Bonded Warehouses are unique and of national importance and could be sensitively reused as an arts crafts cafes bars and restaurant complex (although other uses compatible with the character of the buildings will be open for consideration). The sites with potential for redevelopment for offices include those on Albert Quay West Copley Street Andersons Quay Penrose Quay and St Patrick s Quay. They should incorporate active ground floor uses and in some cases a mixed office residential scheme is desirable. The Albert Quay east block has an attractive character deriving from the mix of building forms and styles. Planning permission exists for an Event centre on the Navigation House site and this or another entertainment use would be complemented by reuse of some of the other buildings for cafes restaurants arts and cultural uses and could provide services for the extensive office uses on the nearby sites. Development of these areas would be the precursor of development of the adjacent parts of the Docklands area and improvement in linkages in particular pedestrian linkages with the North and South Docklands is also important. 13.58 13.59 Objective 13.24 Development area at eastern end of city centre Cork City Council will facilitate the development of an office-led mixed use quarter in the eastern end of the City Centre island and the areas facing the river channels to the north and south. 13 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 201 x Volume One Written Statement Cork City Docklands The Vision for Docklands 13.60 Cork City Docklands represent the biggest development opportunity for Cork City and the CASP (Cork Area Strategic Plan) area over the Plan period and beyond its redevelopment and renewal being of regional and national significance. The vision for Docklands is that of a vibrant mixed use and socially inclusive urban quarter that will capitalise on the intrinsic advantages of the area Four kilometres of waterfront provides an attractive setting for new development Lying directly adjacent to the established City Centre Proximity to the city s transportation hubs Potential for integration into the areas of the city it addresses Potential to provide a new high quality socially inclusive residential quarter of sufficient quality to encourage significant growth in sustainable City Centre living Potential for the creation of a new City Quarter of vibrant mixed uses of sufficient scale to bring about an urban transformation in Cork City and develop a city of European significance. A number of critical issues have been identified which require resolution to promote and facilitate the redevelopment process. These include Access and service infrastructure Relocation of Port and related activities including SEVESO land uses Ground contamination Flooding Enhanced Public Realm Implementation delivery and phasing Energy and telecommunications infrastructure Strong linkages to the City Centre and the surrounding neighbourhoods. The City Council prepared local area plans for both the North and South Docks in 2005 and 2008 respectively which expanded in detail upon the issues outlined above. The North Docks Local Area Plan (SDLAP) which covered an area of 17 ha expired in 2011 and has not yet been replaced. However many of the objectives still remain valid and have informed the policies in the City Development Plan. The South Docks Local Area Plan (SDLAP) which covers a much more extensive area of over 150 ha has been extended in duration to February 2018 and provides detailed guidance on zoning infrastructure appropriate development types public realm projects and urban design suitable within the Docklands as well as the policies and objectives pertaining to the area. It will come up for review over the period of the Development Plan and will take account of changes in circumstances since it was made in 2008. Progress has been made in addressing some of the issues outlined above since the last Development Plan including closure of two of the three Seveso sites in the South Docks Part X planning permission granted by An Bord Pleanala for the main elements of road transport infrastructure completion of a Public Realm Masterplan and Design Guidelines for the North and South Docks preparation of a Masterplan for Marina Park Part 8 process completed for upgrading of Monaghan Road to improve drainage and the public realm Quantification of the extent of land contamination. The contamination was found not to be severe or mobile. 13.61 13.62 13.63 13 202 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x 13.64 Planning permission has been granted for a number of major mixed commercial and residential developments notably the redevelopment of the Marina Commercial Park the former Topaz site on the Centre Park Road and former Ford storage depot on Centre Park road. Completed office buildings on Monahan Road which were vacant for some time are now being occupied. However development has not yet progressed on the large permissions granted on Centre Park Road or on the North Docks. The economic recession the lack of funding for transport and other infrastructure and the failure of Port activities to relocate have all been factors in this. A reappraisal of the economic proposition for Docklands was completed in 2012 (Cork City Harbour Unlocking Cork Docklands) and it concluded that the priority should be on expanding eastwards into Docklands from the city centre with a focus on developing a new office quarter in this first phase comprised of the edge of City Centre sites along the quays and the North Docks around Kent Station Horgan s Quay. An advantage of this approach is that existing City Centre infrastructure can cater for the new development without requiring major expenditure on new infrastructure. Other parts of Docklands will develop as demand increases and recourses for infrastructure become available and barriers such as removal of the Seveso site and Port relocation occur. This redevelopment process will take a considerable period and will extend well beyond the period of this Plan. Figure 13.2 shows a diagram from the Cork City Harbour study indicating a themed product area approach to future development of Docklands. This approach will inform the review and update of the Docklands local area plans to be carried out over the period of this Plan. 13.65 Objective 13.25 Development of Docklands Cork City Council aims a) To promote the development of the North and South Docklands as major development opportunities of regional and national importance b) To create a vibrant mixed use and socially inclusive urban quarter in Docklands c) To re-orient Docklands as an extension of the City Centre and to initially focus on development of areas easily accessible from the City Centre with other areas developing as barriers to development are overcome and opportunities arise d) To review the local planning frameworks and if appropriate amend them to take account of changed circumstances e) To work with key stakeholders including government agencies and landowners to overcome infrastructural deficits and other barriers to secure the development of Docklands. 13 Figure 13.2 Product Area Approach to future of Docklands (Source Cork City Harbour Unlocking Cork Docklands 2012) Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 203 x Volume One Written Statement North Docks 13.66 The North Docks LAP covered an area east of Brian Boru Street extending as far as Castle View Terrace and took in the Lower Glanmire Road and the Kent Railway station Lands. The Alfred Street Penrose Quay area is part of the existing City Centre and has a Commercial Core Area zoning with some potential sites for redevelopment for office uses and other mixed commercial residential purposes. Lower Glanmire Road and the residential areas adjoining it are similar in character to the other Inner City Residential Neighbourhoods and would benefit from traffic calming and renewal of the built fabric. The waterfront area the Kent Station lands and the timber yard and former port lands to the east present the main development opportunities and form the core of what can be described as the North Docks. The vision for the area is for the creation of a new urban quarter containing an upgraded railway station and associated transport interchange with the main access from the south giving better visibility from the quays and the City Centre A new square linking to the new station entrance more than likely located to the west of the protected Goods Depot Extensive new office floor space A new Neighbourhood centre south of the Railway station in the vicinity of the new square to serve station related and local residential needs A new residential neighbourhood facing the waterfront A new park and a riverside promenade along Horgan s Quay A new road and access layout including relocating the Arterial road away from the waterfront and creating a new access to the station as an extension of Alfred Street High quality pedestrian cycling and public transport linkages to the City Centre the south docks and the Lower Glanmire Road Taking account of the need to protect and reuse the heritage buildings in the area. The redevelopment of the Kent Station Horgan s Quay area is a key element in the unlocking of the transportation strategy for the City and Metropolitan Cork. The area must be developed in a comprehensive fashion to ensure that it performs its transport functions efficiently as well as providing significant new development opportunities and linking well to the Lower Glanmire Road and the waterfront. The preparation of a comprehensive Masterplan is needed to guide development of the area and the City Council will work with landowners and transport stakeholders to secure this. The Masterplan will be guided by the City Development Plan and will also be informed by the Docklands Public Realm Masterplan and Design Guidelines. The station lands are outside of the City Centre Commercial Core Area but are zoned as Mixed Use and will be developed as an extension of the City Centre with a mixture of commercial residential and civic uses. The range of uses may include general offices conference centres hotel commercial leisure cultural residential public institutions (e.g. educational or cultural) and business and technology with active ground floor uses where possible. Retail uses will be acceptable at the limited scale of stationrelated and neighbourhood retail uses (convenience and local low order comparison shopping - see Chapter 4). Retail office uses will be acceptable in the North Docks neighbourhood centre. The railway station lands centred on a strategic transport hub have potential to be a key location for new office development close to the City Centre and there is no restriction on the size of individual offices open for consideration within the Mixed Use Development site in the North Docks. There are a number of protected structures that give the area much of its character and need to be given suitable and viable new uses in any redevelopment. These include the limestone stone fronted Goods Depot the limestone Carriage shed and the original railway station building. 13.67 13.68 13.69 13 13.70 204 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x 13.71 The general building height in the North Docks will be 4-6 storeys overall height due to the context of the North Docks in relation to the St Lukes Montenotte Tivoli Ridge. Buildings fronting onto the river may increase to 7 storeys maximum. A taller building may be appropriate to mark the station location the precise location and form will need to be considered in the Masterplan and height will need to be constrained by the objective of retaining views of Montenotte Ridge from the City Centre. New development in the area must address both the River Lee and the Lower Glanmire Road successfully with buildings fronting onto both frontages with active ground floor uses where possible. There will be a new square fronting onto the river to the west of the Goods Shed providing a large public space as a dramatic entrance to the city from the railway station. This will be fronted onto by active ground floor uses and will provide a venue for outdoor seating related to the caf bar uses in the station and the ground floors of surrounding buildings. The development will also incorporate bus stops cycle parking facilities and a taxi rank. Of critical importance to the redevelopment of the site will be the creation of the McCurtain Street Alfred Street axis giving access to the new entrance to Kent Station and extending to the new National Road This link should provide a clear and legible route linking McCurtain Street and the City Centre to the railway station. A new public park is proposed fronting onto Horgan s Quay and is zoned public open space. The principle of a substantial neigbourhood park here must be included in any Masterplan however some flexibility in the layout and scale of the park may be permitted provided any reduction in scale is replaced elsewhere in the site. The area to the east of the park as far as Water Street is also zoned Mixed use however it is envisaged that this area will be the mainly a residential neighbourhood with approximately 80 per cent of floorspace proposed for high density residential use the balance being in live ground floor commercial uses local services and community uses. The area to the east of Water Street has an Inner City Residential Neigbourhood zoning and if redeveloped should for predominantly residential purposes and should incorporate a public plaza around the patent slipway. The development of a waterfront promenade linking the City Centre to the area and extending along the north quays as far as the patent slipway and if feasible on to Castleview Terrace is a key element in the reconfiguration of the area. It is of strategic importance that the City Centre is linked to the North Docks Area via Horgan s Walk which will be designed to connect the City Centre to Kent Station Station Square Horgan s Quay Square Patent Slipway Plaza and Castleview Plaza with buildings fronting onto and directly overlooking it. It will be a defining characteristic of the North Docks and needs to be of sufficient dimension to allow it to function as a major linear walk or promenade. A minimum of 10 metres is required and east of the ship turning basin there is scope for it to be significantly wider as part as an overall landscape design for the quayside area. 13.72 13.73 13.74 13.75 13.76 Objective 13.26 North Docks The North Docks including the railway station lands and waterfront areas will be developed in accordance with the vision set out above and indicated on Maps 1 and 2 of Volume 2. A comprehensive Masterplan in line with the Development Plan policy and informed by the Docklands Public Realm Masterplan will be required to guide development of the station and adjoining waterfront lands and Cork City Council will work with the landowners and the transport stakeholders to secure this. 13 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 205 x Volume One Written Statement South Docks Introduction 13.77 The South Docks Local Area Plan 2008 (SDLAP) was prepared to realise the vision of the Cork Docklands Development Strategy prepared in 2001. The South Docks Local Area Plan (SDLAP) consists of 4 documents the LAP containing the land use and planning guidance for the area a Public Realm Strategy an Infrastructure Strategy and a Strategic Environmental Assessment. Detailed guidance on the area wide and precinct strategies as well as Infrastructure and Public Realm strategies are contained within the South Docks Local Area Plan itself. Given the level of detail contained in the SDLAP it is only intended to present the key principles and maps for the South Docks in the City Development Plan. The City Plan introduces some changes to zoning in the SDLAP which take precedence over those in the SDLAP and which are itemised below. The SDLAP will be amended to make it consistent with the City Plan. As mentioned above the SDLAP will come up for full review over the period of the City Plan and may be amended more substantially to take into account changes in circumstances since it was adopted in 2008. With appropriate investment the South Docks area is capable of supporting a large residential and working population however the achievement of this will be dependent on the relocation of the Port of Cork and the SEVESO site and the delivery of the necessary infrastructure to support development including bridge and road access education cultural and social community uses and polices in the city region to direct development to this potential new urban quarter. The redevelopment of the South Docks is likely to extend for a considerable period beyond the lifetime of this Plan. 13.78 13.79 Objective 13.27 South Docks Cork City Council will a) Promote development of the South Docks as a new urban quarter with initial emphasis on those areas that can be developed without major infrastructural investment b) Review the South Docks Local Area Plan and consider whether it needs to be amended to take account of changed circumstances including reviewing the proportional mix and density of uses in different precincts and related infrastructural requirements c) Support the upgrade of recreational and amenity facilities at Marina Park Pairc U Caoimh and Monahan Road over this Plan period d) Work with key stakeholders to overcome barriers to development of South Docks. Zoning and Development Framework 13.80 The zoning objectives for the area are defined in the SDLAP and outlined in Chapter 15 of this Plan and illustrated in Map 1 in Volume 2. The bulk of the South Docks area is zoned for Mixed Use development to allow for flexibility in land uses and to create a lively and sustainable urban quarter. In addition the land use framework identifies three central hub areas which provide the commercial retail and local service focal points for the area. Each hub is within a 350m walk-band of surrounding mixed-use areas and centred on a public transportation stop in accordance with the promotion of sustainable travel principles. The hubs are also further defined by their function as District or Neighbourhood Centres. A high quality public transport system is required to serve the South Docks and to link to Kent Station and the city in the future. The District Centre for the South Docks has been placed centrally at the junction of the public transport system on Centre Park Road and the proposed Water Street Bridge. This location will benefit from the provision of a south facing plaza and a public transport stop. The Plaza is an ideal location for district retail and commercial development as well as recreational and hospitality facilities. A Primary Medical Facility is also proposed within the District Centre. Two 13 13.81 206 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x Neighbourhood Centres are identified in the remaining hubs at Kennedy Spine South (to the west) and the Marina (to the east). These hubs will serve the local working and resident populations and are also anchored by public transport stops. 13.82 In addition two new primary schools and a post-primary school are proposed to provide for the educational demands of Docklands. These have been located both for ease of access to immediate neighbouring facilities having access to secure open space and to the lands at Marina Park. A limited number of changes have been introduced to the zoning of land in this Development Plan in the South Docks area which vary from and take precedence over those in the SDLAP The ESB and NORA lands have been changed from Third fourth level education and advanced technology uses to mixed use . This will allow more flexibility in the future use of these lands. The uses in the original zoning will also be permitted under the new zoning The Cultural and community facilities zonings have been changed to Mixed Use . The objective of securing these facilities will continue in the South Docks Plan but it is not considered necessary to give them a specific zoning The small areas zoned Public open space on the former Ford car compound on Centre Park Road have been changed to Mixed Use as they are of very limited extent and considered overly prescriptive in terms of possible future development of the site The small canal like areas zoned Waterways protection near the Marina Commercial Park have been changed to Mixed Use . The detailed objectives in the SDLAP will allow for achievement of the objective without needing a specific zoning for these areas. 13.83 Transport Infrastructure 13.84 Improved access infrastructure is proposed for Docklands via new vehicular and pedestrian bridge crossings (see Map 2 in Volume 2). The Water Street Bridge and Eastern Gateway Bridge are initially proposed with further study required to progress the Mill Road Bridge and pedestrian bridges linking the tip of the island (Custom House Quay site) with the North and South Docks. All bridges are intended to have opening spans. The main vehicular street is proposed along Monahan s road while Centre Park Road is intended to act as the primary public transport route through the area. The main pedestrian and cyclist route will be along the Quayside Amenity area. Movement throughout the area is also complemented by the provision of waterbus stop facilities at the quayside which will further connect the South Docks with the City Centre. Bord Pleanala granted Part X planning permission for the main road network in the South Docks area as well as the Water Street and Eastern Gateway Bridges in 2010. These have not proceeded in the absence of funding for infrastructure and as stated above the emphasis for the first phase of Docklands development has shifted to those areas close to the City Centre as proposed in the Cork City Harbour report. It is hoped that key elements of overall layout will be implemented at a later stage as resources for infrastructure become available and port and land-based activities decline relocate and sites come forward for re-development. 13.85 Public Open Space Public Realm 13.86 The City Council will seek the provision of a number of key public open spaces within Docklands as a constituent part of the creation of a high quality urban extension to the City Centre to provide for the amenities of residents workers and visitors alike. These spaces are outlined in Map 1 Volume 2. A Public Realm Masterplan for Docklands was completed in 2012 and this provides detailed guidance on the landscape design and layout of public parks paths and streets to guide public and private development proposals. 13 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 207 x Volume One Written Statement 13.87 A Masterplan has also been prepared for the major Park to serve Docklands Marina Park. It will contain an extensive path and waterway system and a series of active and passive recreational areas which will serve the existing city population as well as the future Docklands population. It is intended to implement Phase1of the park over the period of the Plan and this will be complemented by the planned major upgrade and extension of Pairc Ui Caoimh Stadium and associated Centre of Excellence. Additional open space to the zoned areas of open space will be sought for residential developments in accordance with the requirements laid out in Chapter 16 Development Management. Public open spaces will be provided through The direct provision of spaces by developers (including Kennedy Spine North and South Quayside Amenity Areas Station Square Centre Park Square and smaller green spaces in residential areas) The development improvement of public open spaces through the Development Contributions Scheme The compulsory purchase of lands for open space where required as occurred in the case of Marina Park. 13.88 13.89 Objective 13.28 Docklands Public Realm Public realm design in Docklands will be guided by the Docklands Public Realm Masterplan and Public Realm Guidelines 2012 and by Marina Park Masterplan 2013. Building Height 13.90 The SDLAP outlines the general building height strategy for the area. A general building height of 5-6 stories at parapet with an additional setback storey has been established for the bulk of the area with higher buildings (6-7 stories at parapet with an additional storey setback) in the Neighbourhood and District Centres and along the waterfront with lower heights in areas abutting existing developed parts of the city. The SDLAP (Table 4.4) identifies specific locations for tall buildings and local landmark buildings which are also indicated on Map 2 Volume 2 of this Plan (Chapter 16 Development Management paragraphs 16.34-16.38 and Objective 16.7 for further details on Tall Building Policy). Conservation and Industrial Archaeology 13.91 The SDLAP also sets out a Conservation Strategy for the South Docks noting the industrial archaeology remaining and the key heritage structures. Two new Architectural Conservation Areas in the South Docks are included in this Development Plan at Albert Quay and in the Marina Commercial Park. These are detailed in Volume 3 of this Plan and will supersede the Docklands Heritage Areas identified in the SDLAP. The development of a Conservation Plan for the Georgian Docklands (Custom House and Bonded Warehouses site) continues to be a key recommendation of the SDLAP along with a general objective of ensuring the sensitive refurbishment of and identification of suitable uses for the Georgian Docklands structures and the Odlum s building on Kennedy Quay. The buildings and sites identified on the National Inventory of Archaeological Heritage and within the SDLAP as being of heritage value have been examined and where considered appropriate will be included in the Record of Protected Structures or alternatively in the ACAs referred to above. Developments in Docklands will be required to incorporate protected structures into proposals and must cross-subsidise their conversion with development on adjacent sites should their conversion not be viable in its own right. The City Council will work in partnership with developers national government and local organisations to identify non-commercial civic cultural uses for protected structures where appropriate. 13 13.92 208 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands x Non-Compatible Uses 13.93 Applications for the intensification or extension of existing uses within the Docklands area will be assessed against the zoning objectives within which the relevant site falls. This will mean that new general industrial uses will not normally be permitted in the South Docks area except where specific mention and reference is made to the activity in the South Docks Local Area Plan. In the case of the ESB Marina Power Station and facilities directly related to electricity transmission associated with the station for example the zoning objectives for the site are not intended to constrain the future development of power generation or power transmission or other related activities such as CHP or district heating on the site but will operate as lands become available for redevelopment. Applications for intensification of any use may be permitted where they are not compatible with the zoning objective if They do not involve significant investment that would have high capital costs relative to the likely term of usage They are envisaged as being short-term investments as a precursor to relocation out of the Docklands. In this instance short-term permissions may be granted. Delivery and Implementation of the Docklands 13.94 The SDLAP outlined the critical steps that need to be undertaken to facilitate and encourage the redevelopment of Docklands. These include The relocation of the Port and SEVESO site Construction of the critical access infrastructure such as the bridge crossings (at Water Street the Eastern Gateway Bridge and Mill Road) Raising of levels within the South Docks area to deal with flooding and surface water drainage. The overall development of the South Docks is estimated to take at least 20 years to complete including the securing of necessary finance and infrastructure. An indicative phasing programme was included in the SDLAP in order to guide the development of the area. However in the short to medium term and in the likelihood that the above issues will take a considerable time to be fully addressed the emphasis will be on development of sites at the eastern end of the City Centre and nearby parts of Docklands which can benefit from existing infrastructure and are not impeded by Port or Seveso activities. Many of the existing activities in Docklands such as in Marina Commercial Park can continue to operate successfully. Cork City Council will implement measures such as the planned improvements to the Monahon Road area to support development in this area and will also seek to implement phase 1 of the Marina Park over the period of the Plan. It was also continue to address the barriers to development referred to above with a view to seeing the overall Docklands redevelopment proceeding in the medium to long term. In summary over the period of the Development Plan there are three main areas where development can take place and which would not require extensive investment in infrastructure Development close to the eastern end of the City Centre Development along Monahan Road (apart from those areas affected by Seveo sites) Development of the Marina Park Pairc Ui Caoimh. The review and updating of the SDLAP which will occur during the Plan period will present an opportunity to examine in detail whether changes to the proposed mix of uses density or infrastructure provision etc are required to secure the redevelopment of the area. 13.95 13.96 13.97 13 13.98 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 209 x Volume One Written Statement 13 210 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 14 Suburban Area Policies Chapter 14 Suburban Area Policies Contents Introduction Key Suburban Development Regeneration Areas Mahon Mahon Local Area Plan 2014 Blackpool Kilbarry North Blackpool Local Area Plan 2011 The North-West Regeneration Area Cork City North - West Regeneration Masterplan Tivoli Tramore Road Kinsale Road Key Suburban Centres Wilton Key Land Use and Transportation Objectives Mahon District Centre Blackpool Douglas Ballyvolane District Centre Hollyhill (North-West Suburban District Centre) Major Institutions University College Cork Cork Institute of Technology Cork University Hospital 213 213 213 213 214 214 215 215 215 216 217 217 217 219 219 219 220 220 220 221 221 222 14 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 211 x Volume One Written Statement vibrant and high quality residential and employment locations. 14 212 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 14 Suburban Area Policies x CHAPTER 14 SUBURBAN AREA POLICIES Introduction 14.1 (a) Building upon the Core Strategy outlined in Chapter 2 this Chapter outlines policy for Key Suburban Development Regeneration Areas Mahon Blackpool Kilbarry the North-West Suburbs and future development areas at Tivoli and Tramore Rd Kinsale Rd Suburban District Centres Mahon Point Wilton Blackpool Ballyvolane and Hollyhill and Major Institutions University College Cork Cork Institute of Technology and Cork University Hospital. (b) (c) Key Suburban Development Regeneration Areas 14.2 Blackpool Kilbarry and Mahon are the major development opportunities in the city suburbs. Tivoli and the Tramore Rd Kinsale Rd also represent future redevelopment and intensification opportunities. Identified in the Cork Area Strategic Plan (CASP Update) these centres in combination with the City Centre and Docklands provide the main employment and mixed-use opportunities for the city in the medium to long term. The overriding objective for these areas is the creation of vibrant and high quality urban residential and employment locations served by an expanded and integrated public transport system. In addition a major regeneration initiative is underway in the North West of the city focused on the Knocnaheeney Hollyhill social housing areas. Mahon 14.3 Significant development has already taken place in Mahon and there is potential for more through the development of greenfield lands and the intensification of existing sites in particular industrial business and technology lands. A greater mix of uses is needed including more residential development and a major upgrade in public transport provision. The detailed strategy for Mahon is set out in the Mahon Local Area Plan 2014. Mahon Local Area Plan 2014 14.4 The purpose of the local area plan is to set out objectives that when implemented will transform the area into a cohesive connected and well-serviced neighbourhood and employment area. The rationale for future growth is based upon Mahon s strategic significance within Metropolitan Cork as a suburban employment location and residential neighbourhood capable of being supported by high quality public transport. The vision of the Plan is that Mahon will develop into a coherent mixed use suburb that meets the needs of the community and make it an attractive place to live . 14.5 14 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 213 x Volume One Written Statement Objective 14.1 Mahon Local Area Plan The local area plan vision for Mahon will be achieved by a. Expanding the population and improving residential amenity b. Gradually replacing low density industry with higher density employment accessible to those living in the area c. Creating strong focal places at Mahon Point and Neighbourhood Centres providing local services and a physical focus for their areas d. Supporting a shift to non-car modes for transport environmental social and health reasons and e. Conserving landscape built heritage and environmental assets. 14.6 Provision is also made for mixed use development at Jacobs Island of up to 15 000 sq. m. of business and technology office space and residential uses. Blackpool Kilbarry 14.7 Blackpool Kilbarry area forms the northern gateway to the City from the Limerick Rd (N20). The Blackpool Development Area includes Blackpool Shopping Centre the former Sunbeam manufacturing complex Kilbarry Industrial Estate and greenfield lands at the Old Whitechurch Road. There is potential for mixed-use development in Blackpool including the former Sunbeam Complex residential development at Old Whitechurch Road and technology office based industry at Kilbarry. The area represents a key opportunity to provide balanced growth in employment and housing to support the planned commuter rail station at Kilbarry as identified in CASP and provide a sustainable transport option. The detailed strategy for the core of the area taking in the shopping centre and the former Sunbeam Complex is set out in the North Blackpool Local Area Plan. 14.8 North Blackpool Local Area Plan 2011 14.9 The Plan area centred on the catchment of the Kilbarry Blackpool rail station and set out an integrated land use transportation and urban design framework for both existing and emerging development areas of Blackpool. The Vision of the Plan is that Blackpool will develop its role as the economic and social heart of the northside and gateway to the City and be a vibrant and attractive place to live work and visit. 14.10 Objectives 14.2 Blackpool Kilbarry a. To create a high quality vibrant distinct and accessible mixed-use urban centre in Blackpool serving as an attractive northern gateway to the city and a desirable destination for northside suburban communities encompassing retail commercial employment uses residential neighbourhoods community and recreational facilities To protect and improve residential neighbourhoods from detrimental traffic impacts creating a safe and attractive network of pedestrian cyclist orientated streets and spaces connecting communities to local services and amenities To facilitate the development of an integrated public transport interchange centred on a commuter rail service and connecting bus services To respect and enhance the built heritage and architectural character of the area through the creation of a high quality public realm and high standards of building design To preserve and enhance the sensitive and distinct landscape visual character and biodiversity of the area and in turn provide for recreational uses open space and amenity facilities To develop Kilbarry Industrial area for business and technology employment uses and to improve access by sustainable modes of transport including access to the proposed rail station To develop the Whitechurch lands as a new residential neighbourhood with associated community facilities. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 b. c. d. 14 e. f. g. 214 Chapter 14 Suburban Area Policies x The North-West Regeneration Area 14.11 A major regeneration initiative is underway in Knocknaheeney and Hollyhill as set out in the Cork City North - West Regeneration Masterplan & Implementation Report (adopted 2011). This area of the city was developed as rented social housing in the 1970 s and suffers high levels of economic and social deprivation. It is one of three RAPID (Revitalising Areas through Planning Investment and Development) areas on the northside of the city. Cork City North - West Regeneration Masterplan 14.12 This non-statutory Masterplan covers an area of 80 hectares and sets out a detailed strategy for new residential neighbourhoods local services and public open spaces for recreational and amenity purposes. This will involve the phased demolition of existing neighbourhoods (in excess of 400 units) and the reconfiguration of a new residential neighbourhood (in excess of 600 units) on an area of 16 hectares. This new 16 hectare neighbourhood is outlined on Map 11 Volume 2 of the City Plan. The Masterplan shows an overall configuration for the new neighbourhood including an indicative layout of streets houses and open spaces. Detail design work is progressing and layout changes may result from this process. The final layout will comply with Development Plan residential density and open space standards as set out in Chapter 16. 14.13 Objective 14.3 a. b. c. d. e. f. North West Regeneration area To create a regenerated residential quarter in the North West with associated services and recreational amenities To restructure the housing provision to provide good quality housing and create a better balance of dwelling type and tenure To improve accessibility and transport To improve the physical environment of the neighbourhood and enhance its image To evaluate the needs of the community in employment educational initiatives and community development and facilities To combat crime and anti social behaviour and enhance the sense of security. Tivoli 14.14 The Port of Cork proposes to relocate the existing container shipping operations from Tivoli to the lower harbour namely Ringaskiddy. When implemented this will create an opportunity to redevelop Tivoli Docks for alternative purposes. Tivoli has an extensive south facing waterfront and the commuter rail line runs along its northern boundary. The CASP Update identifies it as an area with future potential for residential and employment uses. The City Council is committed to supporting the regeneration of the Tivoli area through the preparation of a local area plan in order to determine a development strategy i.e. an appropriate mix of land-uses and sequencing of development. The timing of the preparation of a local area plan will be linked to the programme for relocation of the Port and the likely timetable for lands becoming available for redevelopment. It will be important to ensure that the mix of uses and timing of redevelopment of Tivoli does not take away from the potential of the City Centre and North and South Docklands for economic development and employment generating uses. Key issues to be resolved prior to redevelopment of Tivoli include the relocation of Port activities and related industrial uses including the SEVESO uses and resolution of access issues including public transport provision. 14.15 14.16 14 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 215 x Volume One Written Statement Objective 14.4 Tivoli To prepare a local area plan for the redevelopment of Tivoli in consultation with key stakeholders in particular Port of Cork taking account of the following requirements a. To develop a vision for the future redevelopment of the Tivoli Docks taking account of its waterfront location and potential commuter rail access b. To investigate the feasibility of developing the area as a new medium-density waterside residential quarter incorporating in the region of 3 000 residential units complemented by local services and recreational amenities which should include high quality parks and riverside walks (and if feasible access for water-based activities) to serve local residents workers and the wider community c. To identify suitable types and quantum of other uses including employment uses which would complement the residential development d. To develop a transport and access strategy for the area in particular the provision of high quality public transport e. To identify a strategy for the phasing of development in the area. Tramore Road Kinsale Road 14.17 The mixed industrial commercial area centred on the Tramore Road and Kinsale Road was identified by the CASP Update as an area with potential for intensification of development linked to the development of a high quality public transport route linking the northside to the City Centre and the Airport. Since then the Cork Area Transit Study (CATS) study concluded that the North South route would not sustain a Rapid Transit Route but should be served by a good quality bus transport system. The area is proximate to the southern gateway to the city namely the South City Link Road (N27). The range of existing land-uses in the area includes light industry trade showrooms retail and retail warehouses. It is important that locations for light industrial and trade uses are retained within or close to the city however there is a somewhat disorderly appearance to the area and some vacant and underutilised land. There is an extensive area of similar development in the adjoining County Council area and there is a need for a co-ordinated approach to the future planning of the area on both sides of the administrative boundary. Nearby uses within the city include sports facilities and residential neighbourhoods. A redevelopment strategy for the area will need take account of the context of the overall employment and population targets for the city and any significant intensification would be dependent on the development of high quality public transport infrastructure and an assessment of impact on the existing road infrastructure including South Ring Road (N40). A future strategy for the area may be in the form of a local area plan or a non-statutory plan. 14.18 14.19 Objective 14.5 Tramore Road Kinsale Road a. To develop a vision for the future of the area including identifying a suitable mix of uses and appropriate quantum of development taking into account the need to retain locations for light industry while facilitating suitable reuse of vacant and underutilised land To co-operate with Cork County Council in devising a co-ordinated approach to the future development of the adjoining areas on each side of the administrative boundary To take account of transport and access issues including potential impact on the adjoining national road and the provision of sustainable modes of transport. b. 14 c. 216 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 14 Suburban Area Policies x Key Suburban Centres 14.20 There are five suburban District Centres in the Cork namely Blackpool to the north Ballyvolane to the north-east Wilton to the south-west Douglas to the south Mahon Point to the south-east. Hollyhill Neighbourhood centre in the north-west of the city has the potential to be District Centre with an emphasis on convenience goods and local services. The objective of the Council is that these (shopping) centres evolve into mixed-use urban centres with good public transport access and high quality urban design. The future role of these centres form a retail perspective is detailed in Chapter 4 of the Plan. Wilton 14.21 Wilton Shopping Centre is the District Centre for the south-west of the city. The original shopping centre (apart from the more recent Tesco development) is outdated and would benefit from complete redevelopment in order to transform it into a high quality mixed-use urban centre. The vision for the redevelopment of the Wilton Shopping Centre and related lands as outlined in the Bishopstown & Wilton Area Action Plan 2007 is to seek the comprehensive redevelopment of the Wilton Shopping Centre and related lands and the creation of a new city precinct which includes a mixed-use urban format district centre that is the commercial and community focus for the south-west of the city and also a new residential neighbourhood with a new city park to serve the needs of the development and the wider area. 14.22 Objective 14.6 Wilton District Centre To seek the regeneration of Wilton District Centre and related lands as a vibrant mixed use precinct according to the zoning objectives and development objectives outlined in this plan and supplemented by the Bishopstown and Wilton Area Action Plan 2007 (BWAAP). In particular proposals for the development of sites will be required to - Be comprehensive in nature - Be urban-format development of the highest standards of urban design and building design - Provide traffic-controlled junctions and access points to the lands in accordance with section 14.27 below - Provide the following public spaces as illustrated in the BWAAP a. The Wilton Neighbourhood Park incorporating passive and active facilities b. The Wilton Public Square c. Key primary and secondary streets outlined in the Development Objectives diagram d. A 15 metre River Glasheen Corridor. - Support the continued use of the Church Community Centre and Bishopstown Library particularly in terms of access and parking - Preserve and enhance protected structures - Preserve key trees and key tree groups identified in the Bishopstown Wilton Action Area Plan. Key Land Use and Transportation Objectives 14.23 The primary use within the district centre will continue to be comparison and convenience retailing and redevelopment should be in accordance with the Retail Strategy outlined in Chapter 4. Secondary uses within the District Centre will include Ground floor level commercial leisure (cafes public houses restaurants) retail offices and local commercial and community services Upper floor levels should predominantly be residential in character but other uses will also be appropriate including a hotel cinema general offices of appropriate scale (as outlined in Chapters 3 and 14) and medical services to provide for the demands generated by proximity to the hospital and general demand particularly fronting onto Bishopstown Road. 14.24 14 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 217 x Volume One Written Statement 14.25 It is a specific objective to seek the development of a hotel within the centre to serve the general needs of the city and those visiting Cork University Hospital. It is also a specific objective to seek a mix of commercial and community uses that provide for all sectors of the community (age and socio-economic groups) to ensure that the centre serves the whole community and also to provide a balanced pattern of evening activity. The lands to the south and west of the District Centre should be developed as a high quality residential neighbourhood with associated local and community services including the provision of a new neighbourhood park to serve the needs of the development and the surrounding neighbourhood and a cr che. The following junction changes are proposed Replacing the Wilton Roundabout with a traffic-controlled junction Traffic management at Wilton Gardens Wilton Road will be addressed in conjunction with the Wilton Roundabout signalisation if not already done so Providing at least one traffic-controlled junction on Bishopstown Road to provide access to the Wilton District Centre and related lands Cardinal Way and Cork University Hospital. One option is to retain the existing arrangement but there is an opportunity to replace the existing junction with the two junctions indicated in the Bishopstown and Wilton Area Action Plan. This is an option that will require co-ordinated action between a number of landowners and stakeholders Providing two vehicular traffic-controlled junctions on Sarsfield Road. Preferred locations are identified in the Bishopstown Wilton Action Area Plan. Different locations for site access points and streets proposed at planning application stage will be considered on their merits and insofar as they achieve the objectives set out in the area action plan. The area action plan also shows indicative locations for primary and secondary streets within the development site to achieve key linkages and to provide for transport and urban design purposes. Alternative proposals for the location and orientation of primary and secondary streets will be considered on their merits. Private pedestrian shopping lanes (within blocks) will be considered appropriate within larger blocks. It is envisaged that three public squares will be provided within the development including a new public square to the front of Saint Joseph s Church which will provide the public focus for the district centre as a whole. Building heights and intensity of use should correspond to that set out in the area action plan. In general terms building heights should be 3 storeys to the west of the development precinct. Building fronting onto Bishopstown Road and Sarsfield Road will generally be located on the street edge and could vary from 3-5 stories in height. Slightly taller corner buildings (i.e. one storey above the general building height) would be appropriate in three locations Cork University Hospital site adjacent to the Bishoptown Road Wilton Road junction the corner of Bishopstown Road Sarsfield Road and the corner of Sarsfield Road South Ring Road. Key trees and tree groups of value to the character of the area are identified in the BWAAP and should be preserved in any redevelopment. Vehicular access to lands between Hawkes Road and The Rise at Ardrostig Cross fronting onto Waterfall Road Bishopstown Road should not be provided through The Rise in order to protect the amenity of residents with the exception of one private dwelling house with a permanent site boundary wall on the land adjoining No.2 and No.3 Fairwinds The Rise and the rear of Karridale Bishopstown Road. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 14.26 14.27 14.28 14.29 14.30 14.31 14 14.32 218 Chapter 14 Suburban Area Policies x Mahon District Centre 14.33 Mahon Point Shopping Centre is a relatively new shopping centre which serves the south-east suburbs of the city. The centre has a significant level of comparison goods floorspace anchored by a Department Store and a substantial convenience goods anchor store. The centre also has a multiplex cinema commercial leisure and retail office functions including a food hall. The Shopping Centre is complemented by the Mahon Point Retail Park. The Metropolitan Cork Joint Retail Strategy limits further comparison retail development at Mahon Point Shopping Centre in order to promote a more even geographical distribution of comparison goods retailing throughout the city suburbs. The Mahon Local Area Plan 2014 sets out an integrated land use transportation and urban design framework for the future development of the area. 14.34 Objective 14.7 Mahon District Centre To ensure Mahon District Centre is developed as a high quality shopping leisure working residential and urban environment in accordance with the local area plan and the Retail Strategy. Blackpool 14.35 Blackpool District Centre is the historic heart of the northside and the northern Gateway to the city. The North Blackpool Local Area Plan 2011 sets out an integrated land-use transportation and urban design framework to facilitate the sustainable redevelopment and rejuvenation of the area. The overriding objective for Blackpool is to create a vibrant high quality retail residential and employment location served by an integrated public transport system. Blackpool District Centre consists of the Blackpool Shopping Centre and Retail Park and the former Sunbeam complex. The existing low density format of the shopping centre and surface car-parking and the semi-derelict former Sunbeam lands represent an opportunity to redevelop the area in the future as the economic and social heart of the northside of the city. 14.36 Objective 14.8 Blackpool District Centre To support the regeneration of Blackpool District Centre as a vibrant mixed-use urban centre in accordance with the objectives of the North Blackpool Local Area Plan 2011. Douglas 14.37 Douglas District Centre is the District Centre serving the southern suburbs of the City and environs of the County. The majority of the centre lies within the County boundary and is covered by the Carrigaline Electoral Area Local Area Plan 2011. Cork City Council acknowledges that Douglas District Centre plays an important role for the city s southern suburbs. The CASP Update 2008 also identifies Douglas as a strategic employment location. Douglas suffers from serious traffic congestion. The Douglas Land Use and Transportation Study (LUTS) commissioned by Cork County Council will provide a framework to address this issue and allow for the future development of the area as a retail and employment centre. A co-ordinated planned approach to Douglas is considered appropriate to ensure success of Douglas. 14.38 Objective 14.9 Douglas District Centre To support the development of Douglas District Centre as a vibrant mixed-use urban centre in accordance with the objectives of the Metropolitan Cork Joint Retail Strategy. 14 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 219 x Volume One Written Statement Ballyvolane District Centre 14.39 Ballyvolane is identified as a district centre to serve the north-east suburbs of Cork City in accordance with the Retail Strategy. The existing shopping centre anchored by Dunnes Stores is within the city boundary and there is an adjacent cluster of neighbourhood scale retail units and a Discount store across the county boundary. Planned population growth in Ballyvolane as set out in the Blarney Electoral Area Local Area Plan within the County administrative area will require expansion of retail provision. The Metropolitan Cork Joint Retail Strategy advocates a co-ordinated approach between Cork City Council and Cork County Council regarding the appropriate development of Ballyvolane District Centre. The existing Shopping Centre within the city requires upgrading and expansion to take on the role of a District Centre as set out in the following objective. 14.40 14.41 Objective 14.10 Ballyvolane District Centre a. b. To support the development of an urban format centre with an appropriate urban structure density and built form that creates frontages onto the streets at the edge of the block To ensure provision of a mix of uses that includes retail units of a range of sizes to meet the needs of different types of occupier and complementary commercial and community services in accordance with the zoning objective and in a comprehensive redevelopment could include residential upper floor uses Conservation and enhancement of the Glen River and its setting maximising its landscape and natural heritage value Upgrade of existing public transportation services and other green modes infrastructure in the area to ensure that the centre is accessible to its catchment in the city and county. c. d. Hollyhill (North-West Suburban District Centre) 14.42 The North-West Regeneration Masterplan highlights maintaining the focus of the Hollyhill neighbourhood centre at the junction of Courtown Drive and Harbour View Road and to explore the potential of developing a strong retail frontage on Harbour View Road. The Retail Strategy identifies the potential for an additional district centre in the north-west sector of the City. Over the lifetime of the development plan the existing Hollyhill neighbourhood centre has the potential to develop into a district centre with the focus on improved convenience retail facilities a broad range of retail services modest comparison provision as well as improved social and community infrastructure. 14.43 Objective 14.11 Hollyhill District Centre To support the development of a District Centre in Hollyhill to serve the north-west sector of the city as a vibrant mixed-use urban centre. Major Institutions 14 14.44 Objectives for the three largest institutions in the city University College Cork Cork Institute of Technology and Cork University Hospital are outlined below. Objectives relating to institutions are also included in Chapter 3 Economic Strategy. The main campuses headquarters of these institutions are zoned for Residential Local Services and Institutional Uses and this land-use zoning objective supports the expansion of these important institutions. 14.45 220 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 14 Suburban Area Policies x University College Cork 14.46 Continued growth in student numbers will require the provision of new buildings. The City Council will encourage and supports in principle future expansion plans including intensification of the existing campus and or new development at the North Mall Distillery lands (as part of a joint development with Mercy University Hospital for educational and healthcare purposes) that respects the landscape character built and natural heritage of such sites and the amenities of adjoining uses taking account of the site specific objectives in Chapter 10. Objective 5.11c and Objective 10.5 makes provision for a pedestrian cycle bridge to access the North Mall Distillery Site. The provision of an emergency vehicular bridge to the North Mall Distillery site is an aspiration of MUH. The provision of a vehicular bridge is not a specific objective of the City Council and the principle of providing a bridge at this location must be founded on an evidence-based plan-led basis which should include the rationale for the necessity of such a bridge following an assessment of the likely environmental flood risk built heritage and traffic impacts of such a bridge. The City Council recognises the role that UCC plays in the city and the contribution its education and research and development activities make to the attractiveness of the city and region for investment. The UCC Strategic Plan Sustaining Excellence 2013 - 2017 sets out the strategies projects and targets for the future. The vision is to be a world class university connecting our region to the globe. One of the key goals is to strengthen the University s infrastructure and resource base. Strategies to achieve this include to develop the campus to further enhance the UCC experience and to contribute to the cultural attractiveness of Cork City to improve the condition safety and accessibility of buildings and pursue campus development to the highest standards. Continued growth in student numbers will require the provision of new buildings. The City Council will encourage and supports in principle future expansion plans including intensification of the existing campus and or new development at the North Mall Distillery lands that respects the landscape character built and natural heritage of such sites and the amenities of adjoining uses. There is also potential to locate on new sites such as in Docklands which is supported in the South Docks Local Area Plan. The City Council supports the expansion of UCC activities including its activities in partnership with other Institutions such as the CUH Group HSE. 14.47 14.48 14.49 Objective 14.12 University College Cork To support the sustainable development and expansion of University College Cork as an educational facility of regional and national importance. Cork Institute of Technology 14.50 Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) is one of the State s oldest and largest providers of technological education and emerged from the Royal Cork Institution and technical education services developed by Cork Corporation. There are 14 000 students of which 7 500 are full-time students. CIT operates over four main sites namely the Bishopstown Campus in the western suburbs the College of Music and Crawford College of Art and Design in the City Centre and the National Maritime College of Ireland Ringaskiddy. CIT s Masterplan 2013-2020 prioritises the development of its Bishopstown Campus and securing a new location for the Crawford College of Art and Design in the City Centre. At its Bishopstown campus it hopes to develop an indoor sports arena refurbish the older buildings provide a new Business and 14.51 14 14.52 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 221 x Volume One Written Statement Humanities building and develop a new Learning Resource Centre. It also seeks to integrate the Tyco building into the main campus and re-arrange the internal road layout. 14.53 Traffic access and car-parking and its impact on the surrounding residential areas is an issue for the Bishopstown campus. A western access to the campus may alleviate congestion. Further development of the campus will require the implementation of a Travel Plan for the campus to encourage modal shift to public transport walking cycling. Objective 14.13 Cork Institute of Technology To support the sustainable development and expansion of the CIT Campuses both suburban and City Centre as educational facilities of regional and national importance. Cork University Hospital 14.54 Cork University Hospital (CUH) Wilton with 1 000 beds is one of the largest and busiest hospitals in Ireland. CUH is the largest university teaching hospital in Ireland and is the primary teaching hospital for the Faculty of Health and Science in University College Cork. The UCC School of Dentistry is located in the grounds of CUH Wilton. The Hospital employs 3 400 staff. The most recent development at Wilton is the 85m Cardiac Renal centre completed in 2010. Challenges for CUH include how to accommodate future expansion of services and facilities how to manage access and car parking and encouraging use of public transport walking and cycling. Further development of the complex will require the implementation of a Travel Plan to address the transport and access issues. 14.55 Objective 14.14 Cork University Hospital To support the sustainable development and expansion of the Cork University Hospital. 14 222 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 15 Land-use Zoning Objectives Chapter 15 Land-use Zoning Objectives Contents Introduction Non-conforming uses Material Contraventions and Variations of the City Development Plan Land-Use Zoning Objectives 225 225 225 226 15 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 223 x Volume One Written Statement a tool to shape the future 15 224 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 15 Land-use Zoning Objectives x CHAPTER 15 LAND-USE ZONING OBJECTIVES Introduction 15.1 The purpose of land use zoning is to indicate the land use planning objectives of the City Council for all lands in its administrative area. Nineteen zoning objective types are indicated in this plan. These zoning objectives should be read in association with the policies set out in earlier chapters and with the area based objectives in Chapters 13 and 14. The zonings described in this chapter are indicated on the Zoning Maps in Volume 2 of this Plan. The overall approach as regards zoning is based on the following To use zoning as a tool to shape the future orderly development of the city and not just to reflect existing land uses To reflect the development needs of the city over the Plan period and for a reasonable period beyond To promote particular uses in appropriate locations to reduce conflict of uses and to protect natural and man-made resources To promote the renewal of under-utilised and brownfield land thus ensuring the efficient use of urban lands and infrastructure while meeting demands for space for housing and other development To safeguard and improve amenities and general quality of life To promote the achievement of sustainable development by facilitating mixed use zones in certain cases by ensuring a balance of housing employment and local facilities within an area and reducing the need to travel. 15.2 Non-conforming uses 15.3 In relation to change of use expansion and intensification of uses which do not conform to the zoning objectives for an area the City Council will consider each case on its merits having regard to the impact on the surrounding environment. This policy will not apply in the North and South Docks areas where the overall redevelopment objectives for the area will prevail (Chapter 13). Objective 15.1 Non-conforming uses Where uses exist as non-conforming uses it is the policy of the City Council to facilitate their continued operation provided they do not seriously detract from the zoning objectives for the area or from residential or other amenities. Material Contraventions and Variations of the City Development Plan 15.4 Development Plan objectives are written in the interests of the proper planning and development of an area. However it s not possible for the Plan to take account of every eventuality situations may arise where proper planning and development of an area may be best served by a development or proposal that contravenes the zonings or objectives of the Plan. The Planning Act provides for this circumstance through the Material Contravention process whereby Council Members can agree to grant permission following public consultation for a development which materially contravenes an objective of the Plan. 15 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 225 x Volume One Written Statement 15.5 Similarly the Development Plan objectives or policies can be changed in response to a change in circumstances through the Variation process whereby Council Members following public consultation decide to vary the Development Plan. Land-Use Zoning Objectives 15.6 Each Land Use Zoning Objective (hereafter referred to as ZO with a reference number assigned) is defined below. ZO 1 City Centre Retail Area (CCRA) OBJECTIVE To provide for the protection upgrading and expansion of retailing in particular higher order comparison retailing as well as a range of other supporting uses in the City Centre retail area. 15.7 The City Centre Retail Area boundary is drawn to reflect the existing and growing core area of retail activity in the City Centre. The City Council is committed to the reinforcement of the City Centre s role in the retail hierarchy by supporting exiting retiling and facilitating the development new floor-space to meet projected demand. Retailing is prioritised in this area but not to the exclusion of other land use types. Other uses such as residential hotel office and cultural and leisure facilities etc which compliment the retail function of the CCRA and promote vibrancy in the City Centre are also permitted subject to the policies to promote City Centre retailing in Chapter 13. ZO 2 City Centre Commercial Core Area (CCA) OBJECTIVE To support the retention and expansion of a wide range of commercial cultural leisure and residential uses in the commercial core area (apart from comparison retail uses). 15.8 The Commercial Core Area reflects the commercial and employment zone of the City Centre extending from the City Centre Retail Area. All uses are permitted throughout the CCA except comparison retail uses which are restricted to the City Centre Retail Area. Retail uses serving local needs only are open for consideration in this zone (Chapter 13). ZO 3 Inner City Residential Neighbourhoods OBJECTIVE To reinforce the residential character of inner city residential neighbourhoods while supporting the provision and retention of local services and civic and institutional functions. 15.9 The areas outside of the CCA but within the City Centre boundary and some areas in Docklands fall within this zoning type. These areas include a large quantity of older housing stock some low end commercial uses and a range of other non-residential types such as large health and education institutions and community facilities which strongly contribute to the character of these areas. The City Council is committed to protecting the established residential housing stock in these areas by restricting the development of incongruous development types and providing the range of local service provision required to ensure their attractiveness and vibrancy. Civic and institutional functions will also be facilitated where appropriate and new residential development to compliment the established areas will be supported (Chapter 13). ZO 4 Residential Local Services and Institutional Uses 15 OBJECTIVE To protect and provide for residential uses local services institutional uses and civic uses having regard to employment policies outlined in Chapter 3. 226 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 15 Land-use Zoning Objectives x 15.10 The provision and protection of residential uses and residential amenity is a central objective of this zoning which covers much of the land in the suburban area. However other uses including small scale local services institutional uses and civic uses and provision of public infrastructure and utilities are permitted provided they do not detract from residential amenity and do not conflict with the employment use policies in Chapter 3 and related zoning objectives. Small scale corner shops and other local services such as local medical services will be open for consideration. Schools third level education institutes and major established health facilities are located within this zone and appropriate expansion of these facilities will be acceptable in principle. The employment policies in Chapter 3 designate particular locations for offices office based industry major retailing development and these uses are not generally permitted in this zone (Chapter 3 Enterprise and Employment). New local and neighbourhood centres or expansion of same are open for consideration in this zone provided they meet the criteria for such centres set out in Chapter 4. ZO 5 Light Industry and Related Uses OBJECTIVE To provide for light industry (and related uses). 15.11 The zoning objective for areas zoned light industry is to protect the industrial nature of the development and provide for light industry where the primary activity is the manufacturing of a physical product. The following uses will be acceptable in principle in this zone light industry small to medium sized manufacturing and repairs trade warehousing and distribution wholesaling trade showrooms retail showrooms (where ancillary to manufacturing fitting and business to business activity) car showrooms and incubator units. Pure retailing retail warehousing offices and office based industry will not generally be acceptable in these zones (Chapter 3). Leisure uses may be open for consideration in this zone in certain limited circumstances (see 3.35). ZO 6 General Industry OBJECTIVE To provide for general industry. 15.12 The zoning objective for these areas is to allow for general industry. The majority of these activities would not be compatible with residential environments. Light industrial activities are also permitted under this zoning. The substantial industrial estate at Tivoli is currently the only site within the city that is zoned for General Industry. However with the proposed relocation of Port and related activities from this area it may have potential for the creation of a mixed use quarter. The timing of the preparation of a local area plan (and Development Plan variation if required) to facilitate this will be linked to the programme for relocation and the likely timetable for lands to come available for redevelopment. ZO 7 Business and Technology OBJECTIVE To provide for high technology related office based industry. 15.13 The main purpose of this zoning objective is to promote and encourage the provision of high technology industry and office based industry. These industries include software development information technology telemarketing commercial research and development data processing publishing and media recording and media associated activities (Chapter 3 paragraph 3.34). General Offices where each office unit is in excess of 1 000 sq. m. will also be open for consideration on sites zoned for Business and Technology subject to Objective 3.10. Light industrial uses will also be permitted in this zone. In exceptional circumstances primary healthcare centres and hospitals will be open for consideration under this zoning in suitable Business and Technology zones close to District Centres namely Mahon and Blackpool where suitable space is unavailable in District Neighbourhood and Local Centres and where access and amenity considerations are acceptable. 15 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 227 x Volume One Written Statement ZO 8 District Centres OBJECTIVE To provide for and or improve district centres as mixed use centres with a primary retail function which also act as a focus for a range of services. 15.14 These centres are characterised by a mix of convenience and comparison shopping serving a district of the city and beyond in some cases. Mahon Blackpool Wilton Ballyvolane and Douglas function as the District Centres for the city. It is proposed the Hollyhill centre be upgraded over time to a District Centre and it is zoned as such. An additional District Centre is proposed for the South Docks. Centres will be required to have a mix of anchor units and individual shop service units. In addition to retail uses District Centres will also provide a focus for other uses including retail warehousing retail office commercial leisure services (e.g. libraries hotels personal and medical services) and residential uses. Future development of these centres will be considered in the context of the retail strategy outlined in Chapter 4 and the individual objectives for centres set out in Chapter 14. Detailed objectives for the Docklands District Centre are contained in the South Docks Local Area Plan. Retail offices within District Centres will be subject to guidance on size outlined in paragraph 3.28 (e.g. a maximum size of 150 square metres floorspace). General Offices will be open for consideration in District Centres provided each office unit is in excess of 1 000 sq. m. and the total area of offices is appropriate to the scale of the individual centre subject to a maximum of 10 000 sq. m. of offices in any one centre. High quality urban design and availability of access by sustainable modes of transport will be a key factor in the development and extension of District Centres. 15.15 ZO 9 Neighbourhood Centres OBJECTIVE To protect provide for and or improve the retail function of neighbourhood centres and provide a focus for local services. 15.16 Neighbourhood Centres are listed in Table 4.1 and shown in the suburban zoning maps in Volume 2. The primary purpose of these centres is to fulfil a local shopping function providing a mix of convenience shopping lower order comparison shopping and local services to residential and employment areas. Some of these centres need to be enhanced significantly in terms of their retail offering mix of uses public realm and overall viability and vitality. Limited retail offices will be acceptable in these centres to serve local needs and are subject to guidance on size and extent (paragraph 3.28) including a limit of 100sq.m. per unit. Residential uses are also acceptable within this zone. Where neighbourhood centres are located in areas of historic significance for example former villages now within the suburbs of the city such as Blackpool policies to protect and enhance their architectural character will be applied. ZO 10 Local Centres OBJECTIVE To protect provide for and or improve the retail function of local centres and provide a focus for local centres. 15.17 Local centres provide for convenience shopping with anchor units of 400 net sq. m. or less and a similar amount of associated small units containing convenience lower order comparison shopping and local services outlets. Limited retail offices will be acceptable in these local centres to serve local needs subject to guidance on scale and extent (paragraph 3.28) including a cap of limit of 75 sq. m. per unit. Residential uses are also acceptable within this zone. Where neighbourhood centres are located in areas of historic significance for example former villages now within the suburbs of the city such as Blackrock policies to protect and enhance their architectural character will be applied. 15 228 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 15 Land-use Zoning Objectives x ZO 11 Retail Warehousing OBJECTIVE To provide for retail warehousing development 15.18 This objective relates to sites where retail warehousing uses are permitted. This is limited to the sale of bulky goods as defined in Chapter 4 Retail Strategy. Pure comparison or convenience retailing is not permitted in this zone. ZO 12 Landscape Preservation Zones OBJECTIVE To preserve and enhance the special landscape and visual character of landscape preservation zones. There will be a presumption against development within these zones with development only open for consideration where it achieves the specific objectives set out in Chapter 10 Table 10.2. 15.19 These areas have been identified due to their sensitive landscape character and are deemed to be in need of special protection due to their special amenity value which derives from their distinct topography tree cover setting to historic structure or other landscape character. Many of these sites have limited or no development potential due to their landscape character and development will be limited in scope and character to the specific objectives for each site set out in Chapter 10. ZO 13 Sports Grounds OBJECTIVE To protect retain and enhance the range and quality of sports facilities and grounds. 15.20 Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure outlines the City Council s position in relation to development of sports pitches. Sports grounds zoning protects the city s sports grounds and there will be a presumption against the loss of land zoned sports ground to other forms of development. Only development that is ancillary to the principle use of the site for sports and which will only affect lands incapable of forming part of the playing pitches will be considered in these areas. Ancillary uses include other sport and leisure facilities such as a clubhouse changing rooms meeting rooms a gym sports training halls catering facilities caretaker accommodation and appropriate car parking facilities. Cr ches and community uses are open for consideration provided they are linked to the sports use. ZO 14 Public Open Space OBJECTIVE To protect retain and provide for recreational uses open space and amenity facilities with a presumption against developing land zoned public open space areas for alternative purposes including public open space within housing estates. 15.21 It is an objective of the City Council to provide for or retain all land zoned public open space in that use. Objective 11.7 in Chapter 11 outlines the City Council s approach to the development and protection of public open space. While primarily used for passive and informal recreation lands zoned public open space may also incorporate public sports facilities and grounds. Furthermore City Parks are large parks that will incorporate ancillary and incidental uses that add to the life of the park (such as small cafes and other amenities) and also add to and support the public open space and public recreational infrastructural role of the parks (Chapter 11 Recreational Infrastructure). ZO 15 Public infrastructure and utilities OBJECTIVE To provide for public infrastructure and utilities. 15.22 This zoning covers the provision of public infrastructure and utilities such as park and ride facilities at Carrigrohane Road and various other transport water drainage and other utility facilities. 15 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 229 x Volume One Written Statement ZO 16 Mixed Use Development OBJECTIVE To promote the development of mixed uses to ensure the creation of a vibrant urban area working in tandem with the principles of sustainable development transportation and self-sufficiency. 15.23 This zoning objective facilitates the development of a dynamic mix of uses for Docklands which will interact with each other creating a vibrant residential and employment area. A vertical and horizontal mix of uses should occur where feasible including active ground floor uses and a vibrant street frontage on principle streets. This zoning applies to areas of the North and South Docks. The range of permissible uses within this zone in Docklands includes general offices conference centre third level education hospital hotel commercial leisure cultural residential public institutions childcare services business and technology research uses (including software development commercial research and development publishing information technology telemarketing data processing and media activities) and in addition local convenience stores corner shops and community civic uses. 15.24 ZO 17 Quayside Amenity Area OBJECTIVE To protect and preserve quayside natural heritage and river amenities through the provision of a public quayside area including walkway. 15.25 This zoning objective applies to the provision of a public quayside area incorporating a walkway cycleway in the South Docks area from Albert Quay West to the Marina Walk at Shandon Boat Club in accordance with the Cork South Docks Local Area Plan 2008 and the provision of Horgan s Walk in the North Docks Area. Elements of public art will be actively encouraged along these walkways and information signage will be permissible within this area subject to agreement with the City Council. ZO 18 Schools OBJECTIVE To provide for new primary and post-primary schools. 15.26 This objective facilitates the provision of primary educational facilities to serve the educational needs of the populations of the South Docks and the Mayfield Montenotte area and a post-primary school site to serve the future population of the South Docks. ZO 19 Rivers Water Bodies Protection OBJECTIVE To protect and provide for the appropriate recreational amenity and transport use of the river waterways. 15.27 Rivers and waterways within the Cork City area are important to the city for their intrinsic qualities as open spaces and also for their landscape value natural heritage value recreational value and visual value. Areas zoned for this purpose are protected as rivers water body open spaces and for appropriate water-based recreational cultural river transport activity. Proposals for permanent or temporary commercial leisure uses will be open for consideration. The River Management and Use Plan when completed will provide a framework for the long term management of the River Lee in Docklands for recreation environmental other activities. ZO 20 Mixed Use Zoning Jacob s Island 15 OBJECTIVE To provide for mixed use development to accommodate up to 15 000 sq. m. business and technology offices and residential uses. 15.28 In addition to the business and technology uses and residential uses (Chapter 14 paragraph 14.6) other local service uses would also be open for consideration under this zoning. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 230 Chapter 16 Development Management Chapter 16 Development Management Contents Introduction Part A Requirements for Significant Developments and those in Sensitive Areas Part B Urban Design Part C Residential Development Part D Alterations to Existing Dwellings Part E Non-Residential Development Part F Shop Fronts & Commercial Facades Part G Car & Cycle Parking Requirements for Development Management Part H Advertising & Security Signs Part I Natural Heritage Conservation & Archaeology 233 233 235 242 249 251 257 258 263 265 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 231 16 x Volume One Written Statement development of the highest possible architectural and urban design quality 16 232 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x CHAPTER 16 DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT Introduction 16.1 This Chapter sets out the qualitative and quantitative standards against which development proposals will be assessed. Of foremost importance will be the encouragement of development of the highest possible architectural and urban design quality. Proposals should first ensure compatibility with the designated zoning and refer to Chapters 15 LandUse Zoning Objectives and other relevant chapters throughout the Development Plan for example Chapter 3 Economic Strategy & Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage. 16.2 Part A Requirements for Significant Developments and those in Sensitive Areas Design Statements 16.3 For all significant retail commercial residential and office developments or development in sensitive areas applicants will be required to submit a detailed design statement. The design statement is required to Outline how the development meets the Development Plan Objectives and the objectives of any local area plan Masterplan City Centre Strategy Framework Plan or other similar Plan affecting the site Explain the design principles and design concept The urban design and architectural context including a site and area appraisal (illustrated with diagrams) Demonstrate how the twelve urban design criteria as outlined in the Urban Design Manual a Best Practice Guide (2009) have been taken into account when designing schemes in urban areas. Each of the twelve criteria is of equal importance and has to be considered in an integrated manner Submit a landscape strategy to inform the site analysis and development proposal configuration as well as detailed design of public private and communal space Include photographs of the site and its surroundings Include other illustrations such as photomontages perspectives sketches. Objective 16. 1 Design Statement All significant planning applications shall submit an accompanying design statement which provides a framework explaining how a proposed development is a suitable response to the site and its setting. 16.4 Transport Assessment (See also Chapter 5 Transportation) In accordance with national guidelines development proposals should account for sustainable transportation requirements at the earliest stages of development design. Traffic and Transport Assessments may be requested by local authorities on developments where it is considered that there Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 233 16 x Volume One Written Statement may be an impact on the road network. Any development which will directly access or indirectly cause some impact on the national road network has to submit a TTA with their application. The thresholds which determine if a Traffic and Transport Assessment is required are outlined in the Department of Transports Traffic Management Guidelines and the NRA Traffic and Transport Assessment Guidelines 2014. Objective 5.2 Transport Assessment in Chapter 5 refers to same. Planning applications should be in line with the Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets (2013). Road Safety Impact Assessments and Road Safety Audits may also be required in appropriate situations. 16.5 As a complement to appropriate design both proposed and existing developments can also benefit from preparation of a Travel Plan which is a package of measures aimed at supporting sustainable travel. Objective 5.3 Travel Plans requires planning applications for new and significantly extended developments to include a Travel Plan. Visual Impact Assessments 16.6 The City Council will generally require Visual Impact Assessments (VIAs) to be completed to illustrate the visual impact of proposals likely to have an impact on protected views and other views of special amenity value identified by the Planning Authority of a strategic or local significance. Failure to properly assess any major proposal in this regard will normally result in further information being required. Visual Impact Assessment will be required for sites that lie within or towards views of landmark building viewing corridors landmark buildings within panoramic views River Prospects Areas of outstanding landscape or townscape value Approach Views. General viewing locations are provided in the Views and Prospects Section of Volume 2 of the Development Plan and Protected Views are listed in Volume 3. Pre-planning discussions with the Planning Authority are essential to agree appropriate assessment points for views of strategic and local significance in order to enable the proper visual assessment of a development proposal. VIA s will be required from the Panoramic Assessment Points for development proposals that propose to break the existing city skyline roofscape or established building heights in an area to enable accurate assessment of their possible impact on panoramic views and vistas of important landmark buildings. These include the City Centre Panoramic Assessment Points from the viewing platform at St Anne s Church Bell s Field Sunday s Well Road and Elizabeth Fort the suburban points at Shanakiel Churchfield and Dublin Hill (if appropriate) and from all axes of strategic views. 16.7 16.8 Objective 16.2 Visual Impact Assessments All significant planning applications shall submit an accompanying visual impact assessment. Retail Impact Assessments 16.9 As per Objective 4.15 Retail Impact Assessment significant retail proposals should be supported by a Retail Impact Assessment. Larger developments e.g. over 1 000 sq. m. net floor area in suburban areas shall be required to submit a retail impact assessment. Further to this retail impact assessments may be required in the Commercial Core Area. Further details are provided in Chapter 4 Retail Strategy. 16 234 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x Part B Urban Design Introduction 16.10 The achievement of good urban design is about how we plan for and create sustainable places that successfully embody the values of society and best practice in town planning architecture landscape architecture and engineering. Cognisance should also be had to the principles set out in Urban Design Manual A Best Practice Guide (DoEHLG 2009). Factors such as density height traffic generation parking provision accessibility safety design criteria open space provision etc. are important in establishing whether or not a development proposal conforms to the proper planning and sustainable development of an area. Objective 16.3 - Urban Design To deliver high quality built environments through good place making To ensure that development is designed to high qualitative standard and is cognisant of the need for proper consideration of context connectivity inclusivity variety efficiency distinctiveness layout public realm adaptability privacy and amenity parking and detailed design. Design & Layout 16.11 Cork City Council will ensure that all new developments enrich the urban qualities of the city. A high standard of design is essential to this process as well as the fostering socially and economically viable communities. Creating a distinctive sense of place taking into account site history and setting is important. The analysis of any proposal shall assess the visual characteristics of the building form(s) and related elements such as aspect and orientation proportion the balance of solid to void the shapes and details of roofs chimneys windows and doors and the materials used. Details of walls gates street furniture paving and planting will also be noted. Roof forms should harmonise with and not clash with the city s traditional pitched roof forms. Layouts of buildings and spaces must be designed to ensure that areas are permeable pleasant legible and safe. Density 16.12 Density is a measure of the relationship between buildings and their surrounding space. Density is expressed as units per hectare. The attainment of higher densities is not a stand-alone objective rather higher densities must be delivered in tandem with quality to ensure the creation of good urban places and attractive neighbourhoods. The appropriate density for any site will be determined by a wide range of factors. In assessing proposals for higher density development proposals the following design safeguards will be relevant Presence or capacity of public transportation system (Chapter 5) Vision for urban form Appropriate response to context Acceptable building heights (Paras. 16.25 - 16.38) Conservation (ACA RPS and setting) (Chapter 9) Amenity considerations Overlooking overshadowing daylight sunlight etc. Provision of adequate external space (16.18 - 16.20 and 16.64 - 16.69) Provision of adequate internal space (16.52 - 16.53) Parking (Part G) Provision of ancillary facilities paragraph 16.40 - 16.42 for residential density. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 235 16 x Volume One Written Statement Plot Ratio 16.13 Plot ratio expresses the amount of floor space (proportionally) in relation to the site area (see key terms in text box). Plot ratio provides a useful indicator when considering the capacity of a development site and ascribing building volumes to be placed on a site and in determining the necessary infrastructure that will be required to service a development. Plot Ratio Gross Floor Area of the Buildings Site Area Site Area Site Area Net of Large Public Open Spaces Gross Floor Area Sum of Floor Space within the External Walls of the Building(s) of Above-Ground Floors. (In the case of a group of buildings within a common curtilage the floor areas will be aggregated.) 16.14 Indicative standards of plot ratio for certain parts of the city and types of development are set out as follows (See also Core Strategy Chapter 2) Table 16.1 Indicative Plot Ratio Standards Location City Centre Docklands (north and south docks) Suburban Key Development Areas Inner Suburban (pre-1920 city) Neighbourhood and District Centres Suburban Offices 16.15 Plot Ratio 1.5 - 2.5 1.5 - 2.5 1.0 - 1.75 1.0 - 1.5 1.5 - 1.75 0.75 - 1.0 Notwithstanding the above local area plans may amplify this guidance and provide additional guidance in relation to the appropriate plot ratios for a given area. Plot ratio is secondary to other built form and planning considerations and should not be used to justify a particular built form as qualitative standards (such as scale building height enclosure ratio space provision and quality street widths etc.) will be overriding considerations. A key assessment of proposals is their context and fitting in with the existing pattern of development. In some cases higher plot ratios may be permitted e.g. Adjoining major public transport termini and nodes along rapid transit corridors where an appropriate mix of commercial and residential is proposed To maintain townscape and building elevation profiles. 16.16 Designing for a Safe City 16.17 As outlined in Section 7.21 Chapter 7 people want to live in a safe city. The following guiding principles can assist in the provision of safe spaces with regard to proposals for larger developments and new streets Access to and through a development should be safe and efficient Maximise visibility and surveillance of the public environment Entrances should be positioned so that pedestrian movement is adequately lit and directly 29 Excluding Knocknaheeny as this area is covered under the Knocknaheeny Regeneration Masterplan 16 236 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x visible from a public space Access to and from car-parking areas and building entrances should be adequately sign posted with the provision of good lighting to enable safe out of hours use Encourage active edge spaces including those at ground level that spill out onto public space and those located at the front of the building on the first floor that enables overlooking into public spaces Planting and landscaping should not create concealed spaces and lighting should allow clear lines of visibility. Public Open Space All Developments 16.18 As part of the policy approach to develop the green network enhance bio-diversity and provide public open space throughout the city the provision of public open space will be required in development proposals. While the specific requirements for residential developments are outlined in Table 16.6 in Part C Residential Development public open space will be required at a rate of 10% of site area in all major non-residential developments to provide for passive recreational needs with the exception of the central area of the city unless otherwise appropriate. Within local area plans for major development areas public open space to a rate of 15% or higher will be required. Local area plans will provide additional guidance on the appropriate locations and types of space required. The type of space could contribute towards the green network provide local parks provide playgrounds play spaces provide outdoor civic spaces plazas improve the streetscape amenities landscaping. Public open space will normally be required in all developments apart from in exceptional circumstances. Exceptional circumstances would include Where developments are close to existing public parks and other amenity facilities Smaller residential and commercial developments where it may not be appropriate to provide public open space The need to protect the established pattern of streets spaces and or development. Exceptional circumstances will be assessed on their merits on a case-by-case basis and in such instances sufficient private and semi-private open space (or open space for use by all the occupants of the proposed development) should be provided. Gated (semi-private) developments are not considered an appropriate development type in the city (see Objective 16.5) and therefore semi-private open space should be provided as part of private space provision for residential (or other) development. On minor streets and spaces safe well designed shared surface play streets and courtyards may also be considered as fulfilling or part-fulfilling the overall requirement for public open space in the case of residential developments. 16.19 16.20 Table 16.2 General Public Open Space Provision Area Greenfield sites areas for which a local area plan is appropriate General provision Institutional Sites Sites forming the setting to a Building of Significance Public Open Space Provision 15% 10% Minimum 20% (subject to site specific analysis) Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 237 16 x Volume One Written Statement Landscaping 16.21 Good quality landscaping schemes are important for the city in providing functional and visual amenities and in contributing towards sense of place. To ensure that landscaped areas are attractive safe and well maintained their design and maintenance plans will be regarded as an integral part of all new development applications. Materials must be appropriate durable and of a good quality. Skyline and Roofscape 16.22 The city skyline is formed by a combination of elements the general scale of buildings streets and spaces from area to area major landmarks on the skyline other individual higher buildings higher building groups and landscape elements. The preservation of a hierarchy of buildings that break the skyline and ensures that the city is legible with buildings indicating their place in the hierarchy and displaying their function. The City Council will seek to conserve and enhance Cork s skyline by identifying measures to enhance the skyline roofscape and through the following design policy. Objective 16.4 Skyline and roofscapes The City Council will seek new buildings to be designed to - enhance the roofscape in terms of their bulk massing materials and aesthetics - where appropriate divide building mass into smaller elements which respect the existing cityscape and the setting and views and prospects of landmark buildings and the other special amenity views - where appropriate locate plant housing for buildings in basements to avoid impact on views of cityscape. Gated Streets 16.23 In general all streets and spaces should be accessible to the public and be designed to appropriate standards. Gated streets will not be appropriate in Cork City as they are exclusive by nature and therefore contrary to creating good places and good urban design. Exceptional circumstances will be considered only on clear urban design grounds. Objective 16.5 Gated Streets The City Council will not support proposals for gated streets and spaces. Creating Adaptable Buildings In order to ensure that places and buildings are adaptable and flexible and capable of accommodating a variety of functions and therefore sustainable in the long term new structures should be designed with appropriate floor-to-ceiling heights. Buildings should also be designed to have clear floorplates as far as possible to enable adaptability. The City Council will seek to promote the following floor-toceiling heights whether buildings are mixed use or residential from the outset Ground floor 4.5 metres in new developments in major development areas and City Centre District Neighbourhood and Local centres and 4 metres on main roads. An appropriate exception to this would be on residential-only streets with 1-bed 3-bed duplexes with 3 metre heights First Floor 3.5 metres in major development areas and District Neighbourhood and Local centres. 16.24 Objective 16.6 Creating Adaptable Buildings The City Council will seek to ensure that new buildings are designed to be flexible and adaptable throughout the city. 16 238 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x Building Height 16.25 Within the context of Cork City the following building height categories can be identified Low-rise buildings (1-3 storeys in height) Medium-rise buildings (less than 32metres in height 4-9 stories approximately). Buildings which are taller than the general building height in any area will be considered taller even where they are less than 10 storeys Tall buildings (32metres or higher the approximate equivalent of a 10 storey building with a commercial ground floor and residential in the remaining floors). Building height should be in proportion to the space between buildings and where appropriate be set back from the road edge or the existing building line to allow wider footpaths and space for landscaping to reduce overlooking or overshadowing of adjoining buildings and to avoid creating a canyon effect between buildings. 16.26 Building Height in Suburban Areas 16.27 Within the suburban areas of the city (developed after 1920) low rise buildings will be considered appropriate (including cases where demolition and replacement of existing buildings occurs) except in the following areas Major development areas identified in this development plan for which a local area plan or Development Brief will be prepared Larger development sites sites of greater than 0.5 hectares (or one residential block) which are capable of accommodating their own intrinsic character without having an adverse impact on their neighbours. Buildings of between 3-5 storeys will be considered appropriate in principle in major development areas and larger development sites subject to normal planning considerations. In exceptional circumstances local landmark buildings may be considered with a height of up to 20-23 metres (approximately 6-7 storey equivalent). Building heights greater than this will only be considered where specifically identified in a local area plan. 16.28 Building Height in the City Centre and Inner Urban Areas 16.29 Within the City Centre and Inner Urban Areas (developed until 1920) the general building heights are varied due to their naturally evolving character and varied building types and styles. The City Centre typically has a general building height of 3- 5 storeys. Due to the importance of the City Centre as an area of historic and architectural character the building height of any new development within the City Centre should generally respect the area s existing character and context and should be in accordance with the prevailing hierarchy character of buildings save in exceptional circumstances where an increase in building height can be justified on sound urban design or architectural grounds. In appropriate circumstances new corner (local landmark) buildings may reflect their location by means of additional building height of 1-2 storeys subject to other planning considerations. The building design and treatment of a building (including built form height) should reflect new civic and public benefit uses. The North and South Channel River Corridors provide an opportunity for new developments to address and celebrate the landmark river corridors. Much of the river frontage contains historic groups of buildings and it is an objective to conserve these areas of architectural and historic significance. Building heights in these areas typically have building heights of 3-4 storeys. There is some scope for modest increases in appropriate circumstances as outlined below. New building height should differ between the north and south river channels within the City Centre due to their different scales and character (see Table 16.3). In addition the north-facing shoulder heights should be lower to Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 16.30 16.31 239 16 x Volume One Written Statement allow sun-penetration to the public realm. The river frontage to the east of Brian Boru Bridge Clontarf Bridge where the river broadens is capable of accommodating increased building height. The height of buildings fronting onto Lapp s Quay illustrates this principle. Table 16.3 City Centre River Corridor Building Heights Guidelines Front wall height NORTH CHANNEL (building height (m) approximate storeys) 18-20 (6) 16-18 (5) SOUTH CHANNEL (building height (m) approximate storeys) 16-18 (5) 13-15 (4) South-facing (north side) North-facing (south side) 16.32 Indicative maximum heights for the river corridors are outlined in Table 16.3. Set-back floors should be provided at 45 degrees (or greater) from shoulder on north-facing quays to allow sun-penetration and normally be one floor only. The heights indicated will only be appropriate on major development sites due to the need to step-down to adjacent existing buildings. Building height reductions below the guideline figures and building massing may be necessary depending on the context and strategic design consideration. The Inner Urban Areas i.e. those parts of the 1920 city outside the commercial core of the city) typically have a general building height of 1.5 to 3 storeys. New development should respect this scale of development due to the important character of these areas and their high visibility from the City Centre and historic approach roads. 16.33 Tall Buildings 16.34 Tall buildings can play a visual role as landmark buildings and can make a positive contribution to the skyline of a city. Due to the visual prominence and strategic significance of tall buildings their design must be of a high standard. There are large areas of the city where tall buildings are unsuitable given the potential conflicts with the character grain and the amenity enjoyed by users of adjacent sites. In particular high buildings should be avoided in the historic areas of the city. The City Council has identified Docklands and South Mahon as areas with the potential to accommodate high buildings. Maps 2 & 7 in Volume 2 identifies these locations. All other areas of the city are not considered appropriate for tall buildings. Such development will be resisted in areas of special and or significant character in the city i.e. - The City Centre (within the 1869 boundary) - The North and South River Lee Channels (west of Docklands) - Architectural Conservation Areas - Other historic areas of the city of architectural and historic character (including the old city approaches and the villages enveloped by city expansion) - The suburban areas of the city (apart from locations specified in the Plan) - Areas of significant landscape value (including Landscape Preservation Areas and Areas of High Landscape Value). Cork s tallest strategic landmark building should be that proposed for the Eastern gateway in the South Docks area as this location defines the gateway to Docklands and the City Centre from the east. The South Docks Local Area Plan provides guidance on the appropriate height for tall buildings in the area including the city s strategic landmark building. Any minor non-material increase in the height of this building above that set out in the LAP should be justified by an urban design and architectural rationale. While the development plan identifies locations considered appropriate for tall buildings and provides guidance on their height this does not imply that planning permission will automatically be granted by Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 16.35 16.36 16 240 Chapter 16 Development Management x the local planning authority. All proposals for tall buildings will be subject rigorous appraisal due to the potential impacts of tall buildings given the scale and potential impacts of any tall building. 16.37 Tall buildings will normally be appropriate where they are accessible to a high quality public transport system which is in operation or proposed and programmed for implementation. Significant intensification will only be considered appropriate where public mass transit is either in operation or where its delivery is programmed. Tall buildings should always be of high design quality to ensure that they fulfil their role as strategic landmarks. As well as having a positive impact on Cork s skyline and built environment tall buildings can have negative impacts also. These impacts will need to be assessed in any planning application and can include relationship to context the effect on the whole existing environment the relationship to transport infrastructure the architectural quality of the building sustainable design and construction the credibility of the design the contribution to public spaces and facilities the effect on the local environment the contribution made to the permeability of the environment and the provision of a high quality environment. 16.38 Objective 16.7 Tall Building Locations The City Council will aim to protect the special character of Cork City which have been identified as having potential for tall buildings. These are South Docklands & South Mahon. (Locations are indicated on Zoning and Objectives Maps in Volume 2) Objective 16.8 Tall Building in South Mahon A tall building to mark the gateway into the city from the Harbour the Jack Lynch tunnel exit and the Dublin Road (N8) should be provided in the location identified in Volume 2 Map 8. This apex tall building must be located to be the focus for the following strategically significant views - From Lough Mahon Cork Harbour as a signpost when viewed from the river - From the N8 Dublin Road Glanmire Road - When emerging from the Jack Lynch tunnel on the N25. The tall building should be located at the apex of the Jacob s Island lands at its eastern side. The tall building should be - Of high design quality and designed to be seen from the Harbour the Dunkettle roundabout the Dublin Road and the Southern Ring Road (westbound from the Tunnel) - A maximum of 64m high approx. 67.5m OD (or equivalent of approximately 16-20 storeys) - Either a slender point building with a slenderness ratio of at least 3 1 a sail-like building or an apex building in design - In residential use with the possibility of ground floor commercial use at ground floor to provide for the needs of residents and users of the Mahon walkway - The tall building should be approximately twice the height of its adjacent building - Particular consideration should be given to daylight sunlight amenity impacts on adjacent blocks & public space - Proposals to re-orientate the buildings so that it addresses the site s context in a positive fashion (i.e. the apex of the river) will be considered on their merits providing they do not result in significant loss of area to the proposed park. A Local Landmark Building should be provided at the south-east corner of the N25 junction to mark the junction in the cityscape. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 241 16 x Volume One Written Statement Part C Residential Development Residential Quantitive Criteria 16.39 Well-designed homes in the right locations are fundamental to building strong sustainable communities. These general principles on controls and safeguards need to be considered in conjunction with a set of quantitative guidelines which are set out below and which form the basis of residential design guidance that the City Council will prepare during the Plan period. Objective 16.9 Sustainable Residential Development Residential developments shall be sustainable and create high quality places and spaces which a. Deliver a quality of life which residents and visitors are entitled to expect in terms of amenity safety and convenience b. Provide adequate open space which are practical in terms of scale and layout and naturally supervised by the aspect of the dwellings it serves c. Provide a good range of suitable facilities d. Prioritise walking cycling and public transport and minimise the need to use cars e. Present an attractive appearance with a distinct sense of place f. Are easy to access and navigate g. Promote the efficient use of land in terms of density and plot ratio h. Promote social integration and provides accommodation for a diverse range of household types and age groups i. Enhance and protect the built and natural heritage Residential Density 16.40 Density is a measure of the relationship between buildings and their surrounding public and private space. This section provides guidance on appropriate densities measured in dwellings per hectare for residential or predominantly residential developments. It should be considered in combination with Section 16.13 on Plot Ratios. Within the city minimum residential density in Suburban30 areas should be 35-50 dwellings per hectare. Densities of greater than 50 dwellings per hectare will normally require a mix of houses and apartments. Densities higher than this baseline level will be appropriate in other types of location Along bus routes densities should be to a minimum density of 50 dwellings per hectare (subject to constraints imposed by the character of the surrounding area) At larger development sites ( 0.5 hectares in size the size of a residential block) capable of generating and accommodating their own character Major development areas and mixed use areas (including the central areas District Neighbourhood and Local centres). The residential density of developments in central and inner suburban (pre-1920) areas of the city will normally be higher than 75 dwellings per hectare responding to the nature of their context and are more likely to be controlled by other considerations. These will include plot ratios (see Table 16.1) and other planning and design considerations. 16.41 16.42 30 All other suburban areas excluding Inner Suburban. 16 242 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x Dwelling Size Mix 16.43 Policies setting out the need for a mix of dwelling sizes (in terms of units with different numbers of bedrooms) are set out in paragraph 6.19 and Objective 6.8 Housing Mix as detailed in Chapter 6 Residential Strategy. The provision of a range of housing types and sizes in the city will increase in importance as trends show a decline in family households and an increase in elderly and single person households. Provision of dwellings with 3 3 bedrooms are very important to achieving balanced communities as they are attractive to families providing they are of a sufficient size and accompanied by high quality amenities and infrastructure. Larger units are also flexible in that they can accommodate a variety of household types. Within Zone 1 and Zone 2 the predominant development format is likely to be mainly apartment duplex schemes but houses will be appropriate on sites within historic townscapes. Within Zone 3 all residential developments should comprise a mix of houses and apartments duplexes to the size and distribution targets. (See Figure 16.1 Car Parking Zones Map 12 of Volume 2 and Table 16.4 below) Whilst it is the long term objective to ensure that a half of dwellings in Zones 1 and 2 are three bed or larger (family-sized units) it is considered more realistic to apply lower targets in the medium term and to increase the size of units to ensure that they are attractive dwellings for all household types. 16.44 16.45 Table 16.4 Indicative Targets for Dwelling Size and Distribution Existing Household mix Household size 1 Person 2 Person 3 Person 4 Person 5 Person Total 100% 100% Dwelling size distribution targets Zones Zone 3 (Suburbs) (mixed house apartment schemes) Max 20% Min 30% Min 50% House size Zone 1 and Zone 2 and all Apartment Duplex schemes 1 Bed 2 Bed 3 3 Bed Max 15% Max 50% Min 35% Zones defined in Figure 16.1 and on Map 12 of Volume 2. Residential Design 16.46 All residential developments should Reflect the existing character of the street with regard to the proposed design proportion massing density and material of surrounding buildings Maintain existing building lines roof pitches and window proportions In residential developments of more than 20 units variations in window design roof types etc. based around a common theme should be incorporated. Lifecycle Homes 16.47 Provision of dwellings which are capable of being lifecycle homes are encouraged. All dwellings with pitched roofs must be designed to enable extension into the roof space in the future for extra living space without increasing site coverage. Housing Strategy 16.48 Every applicant for permission for residential development other than for exempted residential development must specify in the planning application how they propose to meet the requirements of the Housing Strategy. Planning applications for residential development will be assessed on the basis Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 243 16 x Volume One Written Statement of the Housing Strategy the land use zoning the design and layout accessibility to public transport housing mix the provision of special needs housing and the provision of social and affordable housing. Objectives 6.2 Housing Policies and 6.3 Social Housing under Part V refer. Proposals for New Residential Developments 16.49 When assessing proposals for residential developments the following (but not limited to) shall be considered Density Plot ratio Accessibility traffic impact proximity to public transport provision of adequate car & bicycle parking etc. Statement of housing mix & type and special needs housing as per Housing Strategy Access to neighbourhood facilities Design and quality of proposed layout Orientation overlooking and overshadowing Provision of adequate public and private open space Provision of waste storage & recycling facilities. Apartments 16.50 The quality of an apartment duplexes in qualitative terms will be a function of the following key requirements Dual aspect Apartment size and key floor area dimensions Floor-to-ceiling height Private space provision. Dual Aspect 16.51 Dual aspect is a key quality of life issue and energy efficiency issue. Dual aspect provides for a more attractive usable and adaptable living space better views and also cross-ventilation and better sunlight daylight. The target is for 90% of apartments to be dual aspect. No single aspect apartments should be north facing. Applications will need to demonstrate daylight sunlight quality in these apartments. Atrium developments with a second apartment aspect onto a winter garden will be considered as an alternative to true dual aspect apartments only on constrained sites within the historic city and only where developments are to the same building height as their context. Apartment Size and Key Floor Dimensions 16.52 The size of a dwelling is a key determinant of its liveability and its adaptability to new household requirements and needs and therefore fulfilling lifecycle needs. Table 16.5 below specifies minimum apartment size standards and this is supplemented by minimum standards for private open space in Table 16.7. Table 16.5 Minimum Overall Apartment Gross Floor Areas Dwelling type One bedroom Two bedroom 3 persons Two bedroom 4 persons Three bedroom Four bedroom Size 55 sq. m. 80 sq. m. 90 sq. m. 100 sq. m. 115 sq. m. 16 244 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x 16.53 The minimum internal room dimensions outlined in Quality Housing for Sustainable Communities (DoEHLG 2007) will be applied to new dwellings. These include Minimum living dining room widths and aggregate floor areas for living dining kitchen rooms Minimum bedroom floor areas widths Minimum aggregate bedroom floor areas Minimum storage requirements. Provision should be made for general storage particularly for bulky items not in daily use e.g. suitcases vacuum cleaners etc. and these storage areas should be additional to kitchen presses and bedroom furniture. Floor-to-Ceiling Heights 16.54 Providing decent floor-to-ceiling heights has significant benefits for dwellings including more attractive living spaces better daylight sunlight ventilation and improved storage space opportunities. Apartments will have a minimum floor to ceiling height of 2.7m (3m floor to floor) apart from in exceptional circumstances relating to architectural conservation and historic character of townscapes and the significant character of streets and their existing building elevations. Stair and Life Cores 16.55 It is recommended that a maximum of 4 apartments per floor should be accessed from a lift stair core in order to ensure a high quality of internal circulation space. Cycle Facilities for Apartments 16.56 Cycle parking facilities for apartments shall be provided in accordance with that set out in Table 16.9 Part F of this chapter. Private cycle storage should also be complemented by communal cycle parking for frequent cycle users close to building access points within semi-private areas. (See also Sections 16.111 & 16.112). Assessing Proposals for Apartment Developments 16.57 When assessing proposals for apartment developments the following (but not limited to) shall be considered Density Plot ratio Accessibility traffic impact proximity to public transport provision of adequate car & bicycle parking etc. Statement of housing mix & type and special needs housing as per Housing Strategy Access to neighbourhood facilities Design and quality of proposed layout Orientation overlooking and overshadowing Provision of adequate public and private open space Provision of waste storage & recycling facilities. Single Units Including Corner Garden Sites 16.58 The planning authority will have regard to the following criteria in assessing proposals for the development of single units The existing character of the area street Compatibility of design and scale with the adjoining dwelling paying particular attention to the established building line form heights and materials etc. of adjoining buildings Impact on the residential amenities of adjoining areas Open space standards Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 245 16 x Volume One Written Statement The provision of adequate car-parking facilities and a safe means of access and egress to and from the site The provision of landscaping and boundary treatments Trees and gardens which make a significant contribution to the landscape character of an area are retained and unaffected by the proposal. Infill Housing 16.59 To make the most sustainable use of existing urban land the planning authority will consider the appropriate development of infill housing on suitable sites on a case by case basis taking into account their impact on adjoining houses traffic safety etc. In general infill housing should comply with all relevant development plan standards for residential development however in certain limited circumstances the planning authority may relax the normal planning standards in the interest of developing vacant derelict and underutilised land. Infill proposals should Not detract from the built character of the area Not adversely affect the neighbouring residential amenities Respect the existing building line heights materials and roof profile of surrounding buildings Has an appropriate plot ratio and density for the site Adequate amenity is proposed for the development. Open Space Requirements for Residential Development 16.60 The quality of both public and private open space will be crucial to successful residential development. Public Open Space for Residential Developments 16.61 Chapter 11 Recreation (and Green) Infrastructure includes objectives which seek to secure the optimum quality of public open space in developments (e.g. Objective 11.2 Open Space Strategy). Public open space in all types of residential development should Be visually as well as functionally accessible to the maximum number of dwellings within the residential area Be adequately overlooked by residential units Integrate natural features (for example natural contours outcrops of rock) where appropriate as part of the open space Be viable spaces linked together where possible designed as an integral part of the overall layout and adjoining neighbouring communal open spaces Not include narrow pedestrian walkways which are not overlooked by house frontages Create safe convenient and accessible amenity areas for all sections of the community Generally no rear boundaries should face onto public open space. Public open space for residential developments will normally be required as per Table 16.6 above apart from in exceptional circumstances as specified in Sections 16.19 & 16.20. 16.62 Semi-Private Open Space 16.63 In some exceptional circumstances the provision of good quality semi-private open space may be considered in lieu of public open space subject to the agreement of the planning authority. Private Open Space for Residential Development 16.64 The requirements for the provision of private open space for residential developments are set out in Table 16.7. A reduction in private open space standards may be considered to facilitate the development of small infill sites in City Centre and inner-urban areas. In townhouse and mews developments private open space should be provided in small rear yards and balconies. Front garden space will not be considered as private open space for calculation purposes. 16 246 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x 16.65 Duplex units are two storey dwellings with residential units either above or below them. Duplex units provided at ground floor level (or fronting onto communal spaces) will need to be provided with generous amounts of private open space to reflect their target household type (i.e. families or those wishing to occupy larger units). The amount of private space for duplex units is also set out in Table 16.7. Within the South Docks area the private open space standards specified in the South Docks Local Area Plan will apply. The provision of adequate and well-designed private space may be in the form of balconies terraces roof gardens etc. exclusive of surface car parking. Where balconies etc. cannot be provided for valid planning reasons there must be some compensating amenity for occupants. Balconies should Provide a continuation of the principal living space. Two balconies should be considered an option for private space provision in dual aspect apartments (second balconies can be provided as extensions of bedrooms) Are a minimum depth of 1.5 metres to make them usable Include a well-designed screened area for the outdoor drying of clothes Safe for children to play and provide appropriate intervisibility At ground floor levels incorporate gates to allow access to communal spaces. Where adjoining householders intend to construct drive-ins a more efficient use of garden space can be achieved by the use of a shared vehicular entrance to serve both houses. Any alterations required to the footpath will be carried out by the City Council at the applicant s expense. 16.66 16.67 Student Accommodation 16.68 Given the growth in recent years of the numbers of third level students together with the planned expansion of the city s major educational facilities there is a demand for specific residential accommodation to cater for this need. Chapter 6 Residential Strategy outlines the City Council s policy on student housing. When dealing with planning applications for such developments a number of criteria will be taken into account including The location and accessibility to educational facilities and the proximity to existing or planned public transport corridors and cycle routes The potential impact on local residential amenities Adequate amenity areas and open space The level and quality of on-site facilities including storage facilities waste management bicycle facilities leisure facilities (including shop caf uses) car parking and amenity The architectural quality of the design and also the external layout with respect to materials scale height and relationship to adjacent structures. Internal layouts should take cognisance of the need for flexibility for future possible changes of uses In all schemes the applicants will be required to provide written documentary confirmation for a Qualifying Lease as defined in the Guidelines on Residential Developments for third level students published by the Department of Education and Science in May 1999 to prove that the accommodation is let to students within the academic year. As per Objective 6.5 in Chapter 6 all permissions for student housing shall have a condition attached requiring planning permission for change of use from student accommodation to other type of accommodation. Future applications for this type of change of use will be resisted except where it is demonstrated that over-provision of student accommodation exists in the city. 16.69 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 247 16 x Volume One Written Statement Table 16.6 Residential Public Open Space Provision Area Greenfield sites areas for which a local area plan is appropriate General provision Public Open Space Provision 15% 10% Nursing Homes Housing for the Elderly 16.70 There is a continuing and growing need for nursing and elder care homes. Such facilities should be integrated whenever possible into the established residential areas of the city where residents can expect reasonable access to local services. In considering applications for nursing elder care homes the following factors will be taken into account The effect on the amenities of adjoining properties Provision of adequate parking facilities and proper access and egress from the facility Adequate provision of open space Proximity to local services and facilities Design and proposed materials The size and scale of the facility proposed the scale must be appropriate to the area. Naming and Numbering of Residential Estates New Developments & Streets 16.71 All new street and development names shall reflect local historical heritage or cultural associations. Naming and numbering of new developments streets and residential estates shall Be agreed with Local Authority prior to launching any advertising campaign for the residential development Nameplates of an approved type to be provided on all estate roads Nameplates shall be provided in bilingual format in English & Irish All houses to be provided with numbers legible from the adjoining roads. Objective 16.10 Naming of Estates Naming of Residential Estates New Developments & Streets shall be agreed with the Local Authority prior to the launching of any advertising campaign for the development. Table 16.7 Private Open Space Standards (Min. Requirements) Unit Type Area (sq. m.) per Unit City Centre Docklands and Inner Urban Areas Townhouses Terraced Houses Detached semi-detached Houses (1-2 beds) Detached semi-detached Houses (3-5 beds) Duplexes Apartments 1 Bed Apartments 2 Bed Apartments 3 Bed 30 30 30-50 5-8 6 sq. m. 8 sq. m. 12 sq. m. Suburban Areas 48-60 48-60 60-75 12-15 16 248 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x Part D Alterations to Existing Dwellings Extensions Some residential extensions porches garages etc. do not require planning permission see citizensinformation.ie for more details.1 16.72 The design and layout of extensions to houses should have regard to the amenities of adjoining properties particularly as regards sunlight daylight and privacy. The character and form of the existing building should be respected and external finishes and window types should match the existing. Extensions should Follow the pattern of the existing building as much as possible Be constructed with similar finishes and with similar windows to the existing building so that they will integrate with it Roof form should be compatible with the existing roof form and character. Traditional pitched roofs will generally be appropriate when visible from the public road. Given the high rainfall in Cork the traditional ridged roof is likely to cause fewer maintenance problems in the future than flat ones. High quality mono-pitch and flat-roof solutions will be considered appropriate providing they are of a high standard and employ appropriate detailing and materials Dormer extensions should not obscure the main features of the existing roof i.e. should not break the ridge or eaves lines of the roof. Box dormers will not be permitted where visible from a public area Traditional style dormers should provide the design basis for new dormers Front dormers should normally be set back at least three-tile courses from the eaves line and should be clad in a material matching the existing roof Care should be taken to ensure that the extension does not overshadow windows yards or gardens or have windows in flank walls which would reduce the privacy of adjoining properties. Residential Entrances Parking in Front Gardens 16.73 The cumulative effect of removal of front garden walls and railings damages the character and appearance of suburban streets and roads. Consequently proposals for off street parking need to be balanced against loss of amenity. The removal of front garden walls and railings will not generally be permitted where they have a negative impact on the character of streetscapes (e.g. in Architectural Conservation Areas Street Improvement Areas and other areas of architectural and historic character) or on the building itself e.g. a protected structure etc. Consideration will be given to the effect of parking on traffic flows pedestrian and cyclist safety and traffic generation. Where permitted driveins should Not have outward opening gates Have a vehicular entrance not wider than 3m In general have a vehicle entrance not wider than 50 per cent of the width of the front boundary Have an area of hard-standing (parking space of 2.5m x 5m) Inward-opening gates should be provided. Where space is restricted the gates could slide behind a wall. Gates should not open outwards over public footpath roadway Suitably landscape the balance of the space Other walls gates railing to be made good. Family Flats Granny Flats 16.74 Ancillary family accommodation refers to sub-division extension of a single unit to accommodate an immediate family member. It is also recognised that there may other circumstances other than age (e.g. illness disability) where a close relative may need to live close to their family for support but still 1 http www.citizensinformation.ie en housing planning_permission planning_perm_altering_a_house.html Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 249 16 x Volume One Written Statement enjoy some degree of independence. Applications for such ancillary family accommodation shall demonstrate A bona-fide need for such a unit including details of the relationship between the occupant of the main dwelling and the occupant of the ancillary accommodation The unit shall comprise a physical extension of the main house with direct access to the main dwelling and shall be located at ground floor level The ancillary unit should not impact adversely on either the residential amenities of the existing property or the residential amenities of the area The entrance to the family flat shall be via the main dwelling. Where own-door access is unavoidable own-door access shall be located to the side or rear The accommodation shall revert back to being part of the original house when no longer occupied by a member of the family No sub-division of the garden shall be permitted. Home-Based Economic Activity 16.75 Home based economic activity is defined as small scale commercial activity carried out by residents of a house being subordinate to the use of the house as a single dwelling unit and includes working from home. The home-based activity should be ancillary to the main residential use and the resident continues to reside in the house. The proposal shall not have any adverse impacts on the amenities of neighbouring dwellings. In determining applications involving working from home the planning authority will have regard to the following considerations The type of business proposed The nature and extent of the work Reason for its location (e.g. why it is not in a designated neighbourhood district centre etc.) The proposed times of operation Anticipated levels of traffic generated by the proposal accessibility and car-parking The effects on the amenities of the adjoining occupiers particularly in relation to hours of work noise and general disturbance Members of the public in terms of numbers coming and going from the premises at what times car-parking traffic noise generated from visiting members of the public Whether the proposals requires deliveries to be received & how this will be dealt with Arrangements for storage and collection of waste. A temporary permission may be granted to enable the planning authority to monitor the impact of the development in the area. Furthermore thereafter a condition may be applied requiring that the unit be returned to residential use on the cessation of the business in question. Conversion of Residential Units to Non-Residential Use 16.76 Small extensions or conversions for use as a studio office childcare facility or small enterprises by the occupier of the dwelling at a scale as would not unduly interfere with the primary use of the dwelling as a private residence or adversely affect the general residential amenity will be considered. This may apply to Conversion or subdivision of exceptionally large residential units on relatively large sites to multiple units without a dramatic alteration in the prevailing character of the area will be considered. Part conversion will only be considered when the building is adjacent to commercial premises adjoining major traffic routes or located on particularly large sites where the character of the area is not adversely affected The assessment of such proposals would have to take into consideration the established character of the area residential amenity recreation and amenity space parking traffic considerations etc. Part conversion to commercial units will only be considered where it can be demonstrated that the proposed use serves a local need and or is located with an established commercial area. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 16 250 Chapter 16 Development Management x Conversion of Existing Houses to Flat Accommodation 16.77 Houses suitable for family accommodation may not be sub-divided and converted to flats. Notwithstanding same the subdivision of housing above business premises housing on traffic routes and certain large houses may be permitted in some instances provided The minimum size of the unit is above standards outlined in this plan (apart from historic buildings where flexibility maybe applicable) Flats are self-contained (apart from in exceptional circumstances with regard to historic buildings). When this is not possible flats should have at least one bathroom and toilet for every 2 units or one for every floor of a house Parking spaces provision is not at the expense of a garden courtyard There is adequate amenity area Each flat has a refuse bin storage area and washing drying facilities accessible to the occupants. Demolition of Existing Residential Dwellings 16.78 National policy and City Council policy is to increase the city s population and to increase the general density of development throughout the city to achieve this. This has brought pressure for the intensification of existing areas of the city and for the demolition of existing lower density dwellings. This is of concern for three main reasons Many buildings predate suburban development and make a very significant contribution to the overall character and distinctiveness of an area though often of modest architectural significance in themselves. This would include farmhouses artisan cottages and other building types Buildings are of architectural merit (either in their own right or as part of a group whether or not they are protected on a statutory basis) It generally results in the loss of larger housing stock Demolition rather than re-use may not be energy efficient as it represents a loss of the embodied energy in the existing building. Part E Non-Residential Development Amusement Centres Arcades 16.79 For the purpose of this development plan an amusement centre arcade includes places where the playing of amusement with-prizes machines and or amusement only (e.g. video gaming) is the main use. In assessing applications for amusement centres arcades the proposal must demonstrate It will not cause harm to neighbouring properties in terms of noise and general disturbance The external appearance and design of the amusement centre shall not detract from the streetscape and it is recommended that an appropriate shop front with a window display be included in proposals Appropriate opening hours. The planning authority may consider a temporary permission in order to fully assess the implications of the development. B&B s Guest Houses Hotels 16.80 Planning permission is required for the conversion of more than four bedrooms in a dwelling house into a bed and breakfast establishment in accordance with Article 10(4) of the Planning and Development Regulations 2001 (as amended). In determining planning applications for both new and for change of use to bed and breakfast guesthouse hotel or hostel in residential areas the Planning Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 251 16 x Volume One Written Statement Authority will have regard to the following Size and nature of facility The effect on the amenity of neighbouring residents The standard of accommodation for the intended occupiers of the premises The availability of adequate safe and convenient arrangements for car parking and servicing The type of advertising proposed The effect on listed buildings and or conservation areas The number of existing facilities in the area. Betting Offices 16.81 Betting Offices are retail offices that provide a local service within the City Centre District Centres Neighbourhood and Local Centres (Objective 3.8). Proposals that comply with Objective 3.8 will be considered favourably provided they do not limit the potential for a range of types of retail offices (e.g. solicitors accountants credit unions estate agents etc.) to be established in any centre (refer to paragraph 3.15). Betting Offices should not take up more than one-third (approx.) of the retail office quota in a centre. Caf s Restaurants 16.82 The positive contribution of caf s and restaurants and the clusters of such uses to the vitality of the city is recognised. The following (but not limited to) shall be considered in assessing applications for caf s restaurants The effect of fumes hours of operation and general disturbance on nearby amenities and residents Traffic implications resulting from the proposed development including any parking requirements Waste storage facilities Adequate and safe delivery areas Any proposed advertising lighting is suitable and unobtrusive. Any advertising signage should be removed on the cessation of operation of the business. Casinos Private Member s Clubs 16.83 The following (but not limited to) shall be taken into consideration when assessing applications for casinos private member s clubs The amenity of neighbouring residents and occupiers Hours of operation Traffic management as it is expected clients will mainly arrive and depart using private car or taxi Affect on the streetscape and shop frontage treatment Proposed signage. Childcare Facilities 16.84 The provision of childcare facilities is subject to the Child Care Act and the Child Care (Pre-School Services) Regulations 1996. The Childcare Facilities Guidelines state that appropriate locations for childcare facilities include a) Major new residential developments b) Places where there are significant numbers of workers c) In the vicinity of schools d) Neighbourhood and District Centres and e) Adjacent to Public Transport Corridors. 16 252 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x In assessing applications for childcare facilities the following (but not limited to) will be considered Location & Type of Facility Audit of Existing Facilities in the vicinity Design and compliance with We Like This Place - Guidelines for Best Practice in the Design of Childcare Facilities (DoE 2005) Adequate traffic management provision of drop-off & collection Areas & car-parking provision for staff Outdoor amenity space Affect on neighbouring amenity in terms of noise generation storage of waste etc. Hours of Operation and any proposed week-end use Proposed Signage. Community Leisure 16.85 See Paras. 3.37-3.38. Community Facilities 16.86 As a general principle the location and provision of community facilities is a pre-requisite to the creation and enhancement of viable enjoyable sustainable and attractive local communities. In assessing planning applications for example leisure facilities sports grounds playing fields play areas community halls organisational meeting facilities medical facilities childcare facilities new school provision and other community orientated developments regard will be taken of considerations such as Overall need in terms of necessity deficiency and opportunities to enhance share existing facilities Design to allow for multi-functional use Practicalities of site location in terms of site location relating to uses impact on local amenities desirability and accessibility. They should be well integrated with pedestrian and cycle routes and where they serve a wider community on or close to a public transport route. Fuel Filling Stations 16.87 Applications for petrol stations including refurbishments to existing premises will be required to have a high standard of design and layout. To take account of same standard corporate designing may need to be modified as required. Consideration will be given to the following Distribution of existing facilities in the city Access to filling stations will not be permitted closer than 35 metres to a road junction Frontage on primary and secondary routes must be at least 20 metres in length All pumps and installations shall be set back at least 5 metres from the roads A wall of a minimum height of 0.5 metres must separate the forecourt from the public footpath Forecourt lighting including canopy lighting should be limited to that which is necessary for the safe operation of a petrol station. All external lighting should be cowled and directed away from the public roadway to prevent traffic hazard. The use of high-level and powerful lighting should not interfere with the amenities of adjoining premises A proliferation of large illuminated projecting signs will not be permitted at filling stations. Generally only one such sign will be permitted Car-washing and turbo-drying facilities are to be sited so as not to interfere with residential amenities A landscape masterplan will form part of any planning application Any shop being provided shall be ancillary to the principal use of the premises as a filling station and shall be a maximum size of 100 sq. m. excluding storage Late night opening will only be permitted if it does not impact adversely on nearby residences. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 253 16 x Volume One Written Statement Hot Food Takeaways Fast-food Restaurants 16.88 In order to maintain an appropriate mix of uses and protect night-time amenities in a particular area it is the objective of Cork City Council to prevent new takeaways in inappropriate locations to prevent an excessive concentration of takeaways and to ensure that the intensity of any proposed takeaway is in keeping with both the scale of the building and the pattern of development in the area. Hot Food takeaways and fast-food restaurants can also have an adverse economic impact by affecting the commercial viability of areas by affecting status and consequently rental levels and also the attractiveness of upper floor occupation for other uses. Within the City Centre applications for fast-food takeaway units will be assessed against the criteria below. A concentration of hot food premises will not be permitted within the City Centre Retail Area and Commercial Core Area and historic centre. The loss of prime retail space in the City Centre Commercial Core Area will be resisted. In order to protect residential amenity in suburban areas fast-food takeaway units will only be permitted in district centres neighbourhood centres and local centres and will be subject to the criteria below. These locations provide the focus for social and commercial activity in any area. The provision of hot food takeaways fast-food restaurants will be strictly controlled having regard to the following Land use zoning and specific objectives contained in the plan (for example Objective 13.4 Protection of Prime and Key Secondary Retail Frontage) The potential impacts on buildings on the RPS NIAH or in Architectural Conservation Areas The impact on the economic viability of streets The need to safeguard the vitality and viability of shopping areas in the city and to maintain a suitable mix of retail uses The number frequency of such facilities in the area The effect of fumes hours of operation and general disturbance on nearby amenities and residents. The need for adequate ventilation systems which are to be integrated into the design of the building Design of the unit in particular the shopfront and the need to avoid dead frontage onto the street Any proposed advertising lighting is suitable and unobtrusive. Any advertising signage should be removed on the cessation of operation of the business Traffic implications resulting from the proposed development including the need to service the business and provide for the parking needs of customers. The Planning Authority may impose restrictions on opening hours of hot food premises where deemed necessary. 16.89 16.90 16.91 Medical Related Practices 16.92 Currently premises for general practice and medical related consultants include a wide variety of building types ranging from adaptations of domestic premises for single practitioners to purpose built premises for larger group practices. Cork City Council will support the provision of health care consultants in district and neighbourhood centres. In assessing proposals for conversions in residential areas conversion of part of a dwelling to a medical or related consultancy provided the dwelling remains as the main residence of the practitioner and where a local need has been demonstration provided there are no adverse affects on the neighbouring amenity (e.g. in terms of traffic generated car-parking noise etc.). In assessing applications for medically related practices the following (but not limited to) will be considered Affect on the amenity of the area and privacy of adjacent neighbouring properties Adequate parking facilities Traffic generation. (Paragraph 3.39 3.41) Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 16 254 Chapter 16 Development Management x Offices 16.93 In assessing applications for office uses the following (but not limited to) will be considered (Objective 13.10 City Centre Office Developmentm paragraphs 3.25 - 3.33) High quality design finish layout and landscaping including creating active ground floor area. Identified need for the proposal Impact on streetscape and contribution to public realm Compatibility with adjacent lands uses and with the character of the surrounding area Proximity to public transport adequate traffic management car-parking and bicycle facilities. Service Areas Provision of open space appropriateness of boundary treatment and screening from public view Overshadowing. Off-Licences 16.94 Off licences provided in the city s commercial areas (local neighbourhood and district centres and the Commercial Core Area) provide a valuable local commercial service. Off licences in other locations will only be considered where they fall outside the catchments of existing proposed local and neighbourhood centres (Objectives 4.6 & 4.7 in Chapter 4 Retail Strategy). The City Council will ensure that centres provide a real diversity in retail provision that suits the needs of communities by ensuring that the proportion of off licences within local and neighbourhood centres is not disproportionate to the number of units. However the number and control of off licenses will primarily be a licensing issue. The consideration of proposals for off-licences will also have regard to the amenities of nearby residents i.e. noise general disturbance hours of operation and litter. The proportion of off licences should therefore not generally exceed 10 per cent of retail units or retail frontage within any local or neighbourhood centre. Places of Worship 16.95 There is an increasing trend towards the development of public worship and multi-use facilities. These proposals are characterised by occasional gatherings for specific events or practices. The activities can result in changes to traffic flow parking availability and impact on the prevailing amenity of an area amongst other planning factors. The following (but not limited to) will be taken into consideration when determining proposals for places of worship including changes of use To facilitate public worship activities at appropriate locations within the city Proposals must be considered to complement the activities and use of adjoining developments Proposals should not have a detrimental impact on the amenity of the area Proposals will be assessed in the context of the location of the site ease of access to transport links and services and utility connections and the existing and or desired level of amenity in the area. Any additional uses proposed should be made known to the Planning Authority as the likely wider use of the facility is a factor that assists the Cork City Council in its assessment of the appropriateness of the location for the desired activity. Public Houses Night Clubs Disco-bars Dance Floors 16.96 Public houses and night clubs etc play an important role in the city providing a night-time use which adds to the attractiveness of the city. The City Council s approach to such developments in the City Centre and Docklands is outlined in Chapter 13. (Objective 13.8 Leisure and Entertainment Uses.) Cork City Council shall ensure all applications for new or extensions of existing uses such as public houses other licensed premises nightclubs disco-bars and dance floors protect residential and visual amenity. They will not be permitted in residential areas. An over-predominance of these uses in any particular area whether through redevelopment refurbishment or extension will not be permitted. In Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 255 16 x Volume One Written Statement applications for such developments the onus will be on the applicant to demonstrate that the proposed n e w entertainment use an extension to an existing entertainment use or variation in opening hours would not cause harm to residential or adjoining amenity environmental quality or the established character and function of the area. Restaurants Caf s 16.97 See Caf s Section 16.82 above. Retail Developments 16.98 See Part F. Schools & Colleges 16.99 The provision of suitable and adequate educational facilities is an essential element of any community. The following (but not limited to) shall be taken into account in the assessment of educational facilities Location site suitability and effect on neighbouring amenity Provide details of safe queuing and drop-off facilities including adequate staff car-parking Accessibility in terms of walking cycling and public transport Adequate provision of indoor and outdoor amenity space i.e. for recreation and sports Adaptability of building for other community uses. Taxi-Ranks 16.100 The importance of taxi and cab services as a means of public transport in the city is recognised. It is the policy of Cork City Council to facilitate the development of taxi ranks where they are considered appropriate. All proposals for development likely to generate a high density of patrons should include details of how taxis can be accommodated. Ranks will not be permitted where they are likely to interfere with traffic flows or on street parking. A proliferation of hackney bases will not be permitted in any one location. Regard will be had to the impact of the hackney cab base on the amenities of the area and restrictions will be placed on the hours of opening of such facilities. It will be a requirement that satisfactory off-street parking facilities are provided when the vehicles are not in use. Telecommunications 16.101 In evaluating application for telecommunications installations Cork City Council will have regard to Telecommunications Antennae & Support Structures Guidelines for Planning Authorities (1996) . Colocation of such facilities on the same mast or cabinets by different operators is favoured to discourage a proliferation. Warehouses Industrial Uses & Business Parks 16.102 A high standard of design finish layout and landscaping will be required for warehousing industrial and business park development. Where proposals of this nature generate large volumes of HGV traffic they shall not be located where they would encourage movement of such traffic through residential areas. The following shall also be taken into consideration The compatibility with adjoining uses Site layout and the quality of urban design and building design including materials and reflectivity A comprehensive landscaping plan prepared by fully qualified landscape architects must be submitted at the application stage Each proposed warehouse industrial business park unit must be provided with adequate space for loading and unloading goods (including fuels) in areas clear of the public road Adequate car-parking to serve the unit(s) shall be provided Where possible a variety of unit size shall be provided to cater for the differing needs of potential occupants. 16 256 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x Part F Shop Fronts & Commercial Fa ades Shop Fronts & Commercial Fa ades 16.103 Shop fronts and fa ades are one of the most important elements in determining the character quality and image of retail streets in the City Centre as well as in smaller centres located throughout the city. As such Original traditional shop fronts pub fronts & fa ades shall be retained preserved or restored Contemporary shop pub fronts will be considered when - Materials and proportions are appropriate to the scale and fabric of the building and or street. - The design complements the design of the upper floors of the building. - The shop front fa ade does not extend into the floor above concealing first floor window cills. - Existing elevations are not straddled. The City Council will aim to reduce visual clutter and control the number and type of signs that are displayed Generally the use of external roller shutters security screens shall not be permitted on the front of shops. If required they should be placed behind the shop front display Consideration will be given to the protection and enhancement of the architectural character of the city. Particular care and regard will be had to any proposed shop fronts in ACAs The design of the shop front fa ade should include the street number of the premises The applicant shall submit proposals for the removal of external signage in the event the unit ceases trading. Security Screens 16.104 The following guidance applies in respect of Security Screens. Planning permission is required for the erection of roller shutters External roller shutters will not be permitted particularly in the City Centre Box housing for shutters mounted externally or concealed behind a large projecting fascia is a material alteration which is unlikely to be permitted in any shopping street Security screens located inside the shop window or to the rear of the display area do not require planning permission as a general rule Demountable metal-grills or wrought iron-work grills may also be acceptable. Canopies 16.105 Planning permission is required for the erection of canopies. Canopies of traditional design and retractable materials will be favoured. Shop Storage 16.106 In the case of retail development adequate on site storage space should be provided at the discretion of the Planning Authority to reduce the frequency of deliveries and consequent traffic congestion. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 257 16 x Volume One Written Statement Part G Car & Cycle Parking Requirements for Development Management 16.107 The Cork City Council area is divided into three zones for the purposes of car parking control (Figure 16.1 below and Map 12 in Volume 2) based on each areas accessibility to mass transit cycling and walking. Residential car parking standards for both residential and non residential developments are set out in Table 16.8. These standards are maximums in order to constrain car trip generation and promote patronage of green modes of transport. Figure 16.1 Car Parking Zones Zone 1 16.108 Parking Zone 1 is generally inner Cork City which includes the City Centre. Zone 1 is currently accessible by public transport and is a walkable environment. It is policy to constrain parking within the City Centre below the maximum level of provision indicated in the table in order to reinforce the pedestrian priority area and to cause a material shift to non-car transportation. Provision of additional commuter parking within this area will not generally be permitted. In exceptional cases a small amount of parking may be allowed on site (subject to mobility management plans) as an incentive to promote renewal redevelopment of large strategic sites. This will only be feasible where the location and configuration of sites is such as to allow parking without causing undue local congestion or negative impact on pedestrian movements. Zone 2 16.109 Parking Zone 2 occurs alongside public transportation corridors and within Local Centres . Zone 2 is divided into two sub-sections. Fewer car parking spaces are required in Zone 2a in areas with a mass transit system at Kent Station and Blackpool Station where the station is committed by means of an appropriate statutory consent. Zone 2a currently comprises lands within 500 metres of Blackpool Station and Kent Railway Station (outside Zone 1). This includes the North Docks and areas at the edge of the City Centre within the South Docks. 16 258 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x 16.110 Zone 2b includes those areas where a mass transit system is stated as an objective in the Development Plan but not yet committed. This standard applies to the South Docks (where a mass transit route is indicated in the local area plan). Developers wishing to provide car parking in addition to this standard (up to Zone 3 Standards) within the South Docks on a temporary basis (until mass transit is provided) can make temporary provision on the basis that The excess parking spaces will be capable of conversion to another use in the future or The excess parking spaces will provide for additional future floorspace on adjacent development sites. The excess parking spaces could be provided on a temporary basis in two possible ways Surface car parking or Basement level car parking capable of conversion to another use. These options are described fully in the South Docks Local Area Plan 2008. 16.111 The Zone 2B car parking requirements also apply to Local Centres which are intended to primarily serve a local catchment within walking distance. Zone 3 16.112 The remainder of the city falls under Parking Zone 3. Table 16.8 Car Parking Standards 1 2 3 City Centre Accessible to mass transit (existing Rest of Cork City committed and indicated) Land use category A Within 500m of Blackpool Station and Kent Station B South Docks (outside zone 2A) RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT RESIDENTIAL (1-2 Bedroom) RESIDENTIAL (3 - 3 Bed Unit) 0.5 1.0 1 2.0 1 plus 0.25 spaces for visitor parking 2.0 plus 0.25 spaces for visitor parking 0.5 ELDERLY PERSON DWELLINGS WARDEN SUPERVISED GROUP HOUSING SCHEMES SHELTERED HOUSING RESIDENTIAL INSTITUTION STUDENT HOUSING OTHER DEVELOPMENT CAFES RESTAURANS and TAKEAWAYS COMMUNITY and RECREATIONAL BUILDINGS CRECHES CONVENIENCE RETAIL 0.25 0.5 None None 1 per 20 bed spaces 1 per 20 bed spaces 1 per 10 bedspaces 1 per 10 bedspaces 150nsm 250 1 per 6 students 100 100nsm 150 1 per 6 students 50 50nsm 75 1 per 6 students 30 20nsm 50 1 per 6 students 20 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 259 16 x Volume One Written Statement Table 16.8 Car Parking Standards 1 2 3 City Centre Accessible to mass transit (existing Rest of Cork City committed and indicated) Land use category A Within 500m of Blackpool Station and Kent Station B South Docks (outside zone 2A) OTHER DEVELOPMENT COLLEGES OF FURTHER EDUCATION UNIVERSITIES 1 per 1 per classroom classroom and 1 per 20 and 1 per students 30 students 200 150 1 per 1 per classroom classroom and and 1 per 5 1 per 10 students students 100 50 COMMERCIAL LEISURE (AMUSEMENT CENTRES PLAY CENTRES ETC.) CONFERENCE CENTRES PUBLIC AREAS HOTELS and GUEST HOUSES (excl public areas) HOSPITALS (IN-PATIENT FACILITIES) NURSING HOMES HOSPITALS INDUSTRY (LIGHT AND GENERAL) MEDICAL CLINICS and GROUP MEDICAL PRACTICES OFFICES ENTERPRISE and EMPLOYMENT PLACES OF WORSHIP PUBLIC HOUSES (INCL HOTEL BARS) RETAIL (including retail office and retail services) RETAIL WAREHOUSE SCHOOLS SHOWROOMS THEATRES CINEMAS and AUDITORIUMS WAREHOUSE 100 2 Rooms 1 PER 2 PATIENT BEDS 100 200 1 per consulting room 200 25 Seats 300nsm 275 200 75 2 Room 1 PER 2 PATIENT BEDS 80 140 1 per consulting room 150 15 Seats 100nsm 100 100 50 1 Room 20 1 Room 1 PER 1 1 PER 1 PATIENT PATIENT BEDS BEDS 60 100 1 per consulting room 100 10 Seats 25nsm 50 75 2 Classrooms 100 10 Seats 200 40 80 1 per consulting room 50 10 Seats 10nsm 20 30 (net sq. m.) Classroom 50 10 Seats 200 5 2 Classrooms Classrooms 200 25 Seats 450 150 15 Seats 300 OTHER CULTURAL DEPENDENT UPON NATURE AND LOCATION OF USE RECREATIONAL and LEISURE USES A maximum of 1 space is required for each unit of gross floor area (sq.m.) indicated (unless otherwise stated). Zone 2A within the South Docks is spatially equal to Parking Zone 1 in the SDLAP paragraph 16.107 16 260 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x Disabled Car Parking 16.113 5% of car parking spaces provided should be set aside for disabled car parking. Where the nature of particular developments are likely to generate a demand for higher levels of disabled car parking the Planning Authority may require a higher proportion of parking for this purpose. 12.5% of the population are categorised as disabled. Disabled car parking spaces should as far as possible be provided within streets and spaces as close as reasonably possible to building entrance points. All disabled parking should be allocated and suitably sign posted for convenient access. Parking bay widths for disabled persons will be a minimum of 3.0 metres wide by 4.75 metres long. Motorcycle parking 16.114 Motorcycle parking should be provided to meet the requirements of any development. Parking spaces should be provided on the basis of one motorcycle parking bay per 10 car parking spaces provided for non-residential developments and apartment developments. Spaces should be provided in locations convenient to building access points similar to cycle parking requirements. Where parking is provided within streets and spaces drop-kerbs should be provided to facilitate access to motorcycle parking bays. Details of Bicycle Parking Facilities 16.115 Detailed guidelines in respect of cycle parking will be prepared during the lifetime of the Development Plan. Bicycle parking facilities shall comply with these guidelines when completed and in the interim should be provided to the standards set out in Table 16.9 and be Sheltered where possible Located close to main building entrances so that parking is both convenient and benefits from the direct surveillance of passerby. 16.116 Bicycle stands should allow both the frame and wheels to be securely attached to a steel tube against which the frame of a bike can be leant and locked. These can either take the form of steelwork required for other reasons (e.g. tree guards or balustrade rails) or special stands. Stands should be similar to the U Sheffield type. However the City Council is prepared to consider innovative types which satisfy the above requirement. Electric Vehicle Parking 16.117 There is a national target for 10% of all road vehicles to be powered by electricity by 2020 (Chapter 5). To meet this objective Developments providing five or more parking spaces shall incorporate ducting in at least one parking space to allow for future fit out of a charging point Development providing 10 or more parking spaces shall provide 1) at least one parking space equipped with a functioning EV charging point and 2) at least 10% of spaces shall incorporate ducting to allow for future fit out of a charging point The EV infrastructure specified above shall be in accordance with Cork City Council s Detailed Standards for EV Charging Infrastructure. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 261 16 x Volume One Written Statement Table 16.9 Bicycle Parking Requirements Land Use Residential Standard Apartments 1 per unit in City Centre Inner Urban Areas 0.50 per unit in Suburbs Student Apartments Retail Convenience (food) store Shopping Centre Non Food Retail Retail Warehouses Employment Retail Offices General Offices Business and Technology Light Industry (and related Uses) Warehousing and Distribution Hotel Restaurant Public House Hotels Hotels Public Houses and Hotel Bars Restaurants Cafes Leisure Development Cinema Theatre Fitness Centre Sports Centre Non-Residential Institutions Places of Worship Primary School Post Primary School Further and Higher Education Cr ches Clinics Surgeries 1 per 50 seats 0.1 per student 0.25 per student 0.10 per staff 0.25 per student 1 per 25 children 0.5 spaces per room 1 per 30 seats 1 per 150m2 GFA 1 per 10 bedrooms 1 per 5 bedrooms 1 per 200m2 GFA 1 per 200m2 GFA 1 per 250m2 GFA 1 per 150m2 GFA 1 per 200m2 GFA 1 per 250m2 GFA 1 per 500m2 GFA 0.5 per bed space GFA Gross Floor Area 1 per 100m2 GFA 1 per 200m2 GFA 1 per 250m2 GFA 1 per 250m2 GFA Cycle Parking Requirement 16 262 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x Part H Advertising & Security Signs Advertising on Buildings 16.118 In general advertising on buildings should conform to the following Be sympathetic in design and colouring both to the building on which they will be displayed and their surroundings The City Council will aim to reduce visual clutter and control the number of signs & advertising that are displayed Shop front advertising should be designed as an integral part of the shop front and not left as an afterthought Not obscure architectural features such as cornices or window openings Illuminated signs or other advertising structures will not be allowed above the eaves or parapet level on buildings in any part of the city. Fascia Signage and Illuminative and Projecting Signs 16.119 As a general principle fascia signs and protecting signs should be simple in design not excessive in illumination or size. The following basic guidelines will be applied in assessing planning applications The City Council will aim to reduce visual clutter and control the number of signs & advertising that are displayed Plastic derived fascias with product advertising will not be permitted Projecting signs should be of 2.4m clearance above street level Internally illuminated fascias will not be permitted Internally illuminated signs shall be restricted The design of illuminated signage should be sympathetic to the building on which it is to be displayed Overall illumination of fascia signage or shop fronts or distinctive architectural features should be discreet and limited to spot-lighting up-lighting or disguised minimalist strip lighting The daytime appearance when unlit will also be considered The use of banners flags billboards and other forms of commercial and cultural advertising will be strictly controlled in the City Centre and essentially restricted to those outlets of a cultural entertainment activity Product advertising on canopies will not be permitted An over-riding principle is the avoidance of visual clutter and an improvement in the quality of the commercial character of the city. Bus Shelters Other Structures 16.120 Advertising on bus shelters will be permitted only in proposed structures and in locations which do not detract from the primary purpose of the transport shelter. Planning permission will be required for all such structures in the City Centre Commercial Core Area. General advertisements and promotional design advertisements on telephone kiosks within the City Centre will not be permitted. Further detailed design guidance is given in the City Council s Shop Front and Design Guidance publications. Advertising Hoardings Billboards Location 16.121 Excessive outdoor advertising will be strictly controlled. Such advertising will not be permitted in the following locations Fronting onto the new Mallow Road and Blackpool By-pass South City Link Road Along the frontages of the River Lee especially along the Lower Glanmire and Carrigrohane Roads in order to preserve the river s amenity In the Blackpool area in view of the importance of improving its physical appearance On or close to a Protected Structure a public open space or an important view Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 263 16 x Volume One Written Statement In predominantly residential areas especially on prominent gable walls Where a proliferation of billboards exists On street elevations On buildings in the central commercial core On stone walls in suburban areas Where they may cause a road hazard Where there may be a visual implication. 16.122 Permanent cross street banners advertisement symbols will not be permitted in any location within the city unless an agreed timetable for use has been approved by the City Council. Tri vision signage will not be permitted. Free Standing Advertising Displays 16.123 The Cork City Council will consider appropriately designed and located public information display panels in the City Centre. Panels must be of high quality design and materials and must not obstruct pedestrians cyclists vehicles etc. Fingerpost Signs 16.124 The erection of fingerpost signs will require a licence from the Planning Authority and should comply with the following Directional signs for major tourist attractions and community purposes will be considered but business and product advertising will not be permitted Signs must be of a standard size and colour and where permitted will be provided by the licencee but will be erected by the City Council Signs which interfere with the City Council s or the National Roads Authority s (NRA) directional signs will not be permitted. Tourism Signage 16.125 Where permitted tourism signage will be required to comply with Criteria for the Provision of Tourist Attraction and Accommodation Signs issued by the Dept. of the Environment 1998. 16 264 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Chapter 16 Development Management x Part I Natural Heritage Conservation & Archaeology Natural Heritage 16.126 There are a number of habitats plant animal and bird species within the Cork City s boundary which are protected under National and EU legislation. These include designations such as Natural Heritage Areas (NHAs) Special Protection Areas (SPA) designated under the Birds Directive and Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) designated under the Habitats Directive. In addition certain plant animal and bird species are also protected by law. This includes plant species listed in the Flora Protection Order 1999 and animals and birds listed in the Wildlife Act the Habitats Directive and the Birds Directive. Detailed policies are set out in Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage. 16.127 Under the current legislation any plan project and any associated works individually or in combination with other plans or projects are subject to Appropriate Assessment Screening to ensure there are no likely significant effects on the integrity (defined by the structure and function) of any Natural 2000 site (s) and that the requirements of Article 6 (3) and 6(4) of the EU Habitats Directive are fully satisfied. When a plan project is likely to have a significant effect on a Natura 2000 site or there is uncertainty with regard to effects it shall be subject to Appropriate Assessment. The plan project will proceed only after it has been ascertained that it will not adversely affect the integrity of the site or where in the absence of alternative solutions the plan project is deemed imperative for reasons of overriding public interest all in accordance with the provisions of Article 6(3) and 6(4) of the EU Habitats Directive. All development proposals which may impact on an NHA or SPA or the species or habitats for which they are designated shall be referred to the National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS). Chapter 10 (paragraph 10.37). 16.128 A detailed ecological report carried out by a suitably qualified expert shall accompany all developments for proposals involving The culverting diverting undergrounding or alteration to the banks of streams rivers or impacting on water quality. These proposals shall be referred to the South Western Regional Fisheries Board (SWRFB) for comment See Chapter 10 (paragraphs 10.50-10.57) Areas containing or used by protected habitats flora and fauna. These proposals shall be referred to the National Parks and Wildlife Service for comment as appropriate. The mitigation measures and monitoring recommendations from all EIS and ecological reports should be carried out with the approval of and to the satisfaction of the Local Authority. See Chapter 10 (paragraph 10.47). 16.129 Minimum set backs from river and waterway corridors maybe imposed and are outlined in Objective 10.9 of Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage. 16.130 Where invasive non-native plant and animal species (alien species) are present on a site an invasive species management plan shall produced and implemented with the approval of and to the satisfaction of the Local Authority. See Chapter 10 (paragraph 10.67). 16.131 Conditions may be imposed relating to tree and hedgerow management. See Chapter 10 (paragraphs 10.62-10.69) works being carried out during the bird breeding and nesting seasons and areas of non designated local biodiversity value (see Chapter 10 paragraphs 10.48-10.49). Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 265 16 x Volume One Written Statement Architectural Conservation Areas 16.132 The requirements for planning application documentation for development within Architectural Conservation Areas and for their subsequent assessment are set out in the Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines (DOEHLG 2004). Further refinement in respect of development management policies will be provided through subsequent special planning control schemes detailing relevant development requirements for each selected area. The overall guiding principle is positive enhancement of the unique qualities that make a place special because of its particular character. Detailed policies are set out in Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology (paragraph 9.14-9.29). Archaeology 16.133 Archaeological remains are a non-renewable resource and so it is essential that they are properly safeguarded and managed. A variety of different types of development may affect archaeological remains. These include new buildings modifications and extensions to existing buildings the construction of carparks road surfaces and the installation of services. Developers are required to contact the City Council s Archaeologist to find out if there may be any archaeological implications requirements within their proposed development site. This is especially necessary for sites which are located within the historic core (CO074-03401) of the city. The cost of all archaeological work (including post-excavation analysis) necessitated by a proposed development are to be met by the developer. 16.134 Developers are required to supply an archaeological assessment and method statement outlining construction procedures. An archaeological assessment should be carried out by a suitably qualified archaeologist and should include the following A detailed account of the historical and archaeological background of the site including examination of all relevant maps The nature extent and locations of any archaeological fabric including industrial archaeological features or buildings within the areas proposed for demolition and redevelopment. This shall be based on detailed inspections of standing structures Identification of all constraints within the proposed development such as occupied buildings. The likely impact of the proposed development on any archaeological fabric Suggested mitigation procedures for addressing these impacts. 16.135 Preservation in-situ and preservation by record are the two approaches applied in the protection of the archaeological heritage. In relation to archaeological considerations the following shall apply The archaeological remains of potentially significant sites within the Zone of Archaeological Potential of a Recorded Monument (RMP) will be preserved in-situ or by record Outside the Zone of Archaeological Potential of a Recorded Monument (RMP) where in the opinion of the Planning Authority developments involve major ground disturbance archaeological conditions may also be applied particularly in the vicinity of known monuments The City Council will require that archaeological investigation be undertaken prior to the commencement of development. All such investigations must be undertaken by a qualified archaeologist in consultation with Cork City Council and the Department of Environment Heritage and Local Government Conditions which modify the development may be imposed in order to facilitate the archaeological investigation or preserve the archaeological record Detailed assessment and survey of sites of industrial archaeological importance is essential in order to assess the impact of a proposed development. The impact on the aesthetic and architectural merits of the buildings is an additional consideration. 16 266 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Appendix A Statement of Compliance with Ministerial Guidelines x Appendix A Statement of Compliance with Ministerial Guidelines Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 267 x Volume One Written Statement 268 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Appendix A Statement of Compliance with Ministerial Guidelines x APPENDIX A STATEMENT OF COMPLIANCE WITH MINISTERIAL GUIDELINES Introduction The required statement under section 28 of the Planning and Development Act 2000 as amended in relation to the draft Cork City Development Plan 2014 is set out below. Statement of Compliance Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines for Planning Authorities (Revised 2011) Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology in particular 9.30-9.63 sets out measures to protect the architectural heritage of the city and takes account of these guidelines. Architectural Heritage Protection for Places of Public Worship Chapter 9 Built Heritage and Archaeology sets out clearly the Cork City Council s policy on protecting the City s architectural heritage. Best Practice Urban Design Manual (May 09) Parts 1& 2 Chapter 16 Development Management addresses urban design issues and detailed standards for development. Design statements will be required for all significant developments (Objective 16.1). Childcare Facilities Guidelines Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods takes account of these guidelines and addresses Childcare issues in paragraph 7.9-7.11 and in Objectives 7.6 and 7.7. They are also addressed in paragraph 16.83. Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets (2013) Chapter 5 Transportation and Chapter 13 City Centre and Docklands refers to the Design Manual and requires that it be followed in the design of all future public and private projects in the city. Design Standards for New Apartments (2007) Chapter 16 Development Management sets out the requirements for apartments talking account of these standards. Development Contribution Guidelines - Jan 2013 A new Development Contribution Scheme will be prepared on adoption of this Plan and it will be in compliance with these guidelines. Development Management Guidelines (2007) The objectives in the Plan will be used to assess and determine applications for various developments in the City and these guidelines will be complied with when assessing applications. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 269 x Volume One Written Statement Development Plan Guidelines (2007) This draft Plan has been prepared in accordance with sections 11 and 12 of the Planning and Development Act 2000 (as amended) and in accordance with the Development Plan guidelines. Draft Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines (July 2012) The purpose of the guidelines is to provide practical guidance to planning authorities and An Bord Plean la on procedural and technical issues arising from the requirement to carry out an environmental impact assessment (EIA) in relevant cases. They are not directly relevant to the preparation of this Plan but will come into play at the project assessment stage. Funfair Guidance These Guidelines relate to the licensing and requirements for a specific type of land use funfairs. They are not relevant to the preparation process of the Plan. Section 261A of Planning & Development Act 2000 -Guidelines (January 2012) and Section 261A of Planning and Development Act 2000 Supplementary Guidelines (July 2012) These guidelines are not considered to have direct relevance to preparation of the Development Plan for Cork City. Government Policy Statement on Transmission and Other Energy Infrastructure Chapter 12 addresses transmission and other energy infrastructure. Guidelines for Planning Authorities & An BordPlean la on carrying out Environmental Impact Assessments (March 2013) These guidelines are not considered to have direct relevance to preparation of the Development Plan for Cork City but will come into play at the project assessment stage. Implementing Regional Planning Guidelines - Best Practice Guidelines (2010) The South West Regional Planning Guidelines (SWRPGs) were adopted in July 2010. The RPGs have given effect to the national population targets. The population targets outlined in Chapter 2 Core Strategy of this draft Plan and are consistent with same. Implementation of New EPA Code of Practice on Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems serving Single Houses Circular Letter PSSP 1 10 There is no specific reference to this in the Plan as there are only a tiny number of houses in the city not linked to the public sewerage system. Local Area Plan Guidelines for Planning Authorities (June 2013) and Local Area Plans Manual (June 2013) Local area plans are listed in Chapter 1 of the Plan. These Guidelines will be adhered to in the preparation of Local area plans that are prepared within the framework of this Plan. Quarries and Ancillary Activities Guidelines for Planning Authorities (2004) These Guidelines are not considered to have direct relevance to the Cork City Plan preparation process. Retail Planning Guidelines (April 2012) Cork City and County Councils have prepared a Joint Retail Strategy for Metropolitan Cork in compliance with the Retail Planning Guidelines which has informed the preparation of this draft plan. See Chapter 4 Retail Strategy. 270 Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Appendix A Statement of Compliance with Ministerial Guidelines x Retail Design Manual (April 2012) Chapter 16 Development Management sets out the requirements for design of commercial development including retail development and seeks to deliver high quality design in new retail developments in accordance with this Design Manual. The Provision of Schools and the Planning System Code of Practice for Planning Authorities (2008) Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods takes account of this Code of Practice. Provision of schools is particularly addressed in paragraph 7.12 and in Objective 7.8. Sustainable Residential Developments in Urban Areas-Guidelines for Planning Authorities (May 2009) Chapter 6 Residential Strategy Chapter 7 Inclusive Neighbourhoods and Chapter 16 Development Management outline the City Councils requirements for sustainable residential communities. Spatial Planning and National Roads Guidelines (2012) Chapter 5 Transportation and in particular paragraphs 5.28-5.33 and Objectives 5.1e. 5.6 5.7 and 5.8 outline the Cork City Council s policies regarding the National Road Network. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Guidelines (2004) Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is the process by which environmental considerations are required to be fully integrated into the preparation and adoption of plans and programmes. The results of the SEA process were fully considered and integrated into the preparation and making of the City Development Plan and are outlined in Volume 4 of this Plan. Sustainable Rural Housing Development Guidelines (2005) and Sustainable Rural Housing Development Guidelines Map These Guidelines are not considered to be of relevance in the preparation of the City Plan Telecommunications Antennae and Support Structures (1996) Chapter 16 Development Management paragraph 16.101 refers to this document. Draft Guidelines for Landscape and Landscape Assessment (2000) Cork City Landscape Strategy 2008 has been incorporated into the City Plan (Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage) and addresses landscape issues. The Guidelines are geared towards rural landscapes rather than urban landscapes so are not directly relevant to the preparation of the City Plan. The Planning System and Flood Risk Management -Guidelines for Planning Authorities (Nov 09) and The Planning System and Flood Risk Management -Guidelines for Planning Authorities Technical Appendices (Nov 09) Cork City Council carried out a Strategic Flood Risk Assessment of the policies and objectives contained in this plan in accordance with the above Guidelines. This assessment is contained in Volume 4. Tree Preservation Guidelines Chapter 10 Landscape and Natural Heritage lists the exiting TPOs and recommends additional TPOs to be prepared in a range of locations in the city (paragraphs 10.62-69 and Objective 10.10). Wind Energy Development Guidelines (2006) Due to the urban nature of the Plan area there is little scope for development of significant wind energy in the city. There may be some scope for micro turbines (paragraph 12.33). Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 271 Glossary of Terms Affordable Housing Owner-Occupied or shared ownership housing provided at a price below the market value. Appropriate Assessment An ecological assessment of the likely impact of any plan programme or project on the conservation objectives of Natura 2000 sites (Special Protection Areas and candidate Special Areas of Conservation). Bio-diversity The variety of plants and animals that makes up the natural environment including species richness ecosystem complexity and genetic variation. Bring Site An area where glass aluminium cans paper and cardboard etc. can be deposited for recycling. Brownfield Sites Disused land or buildings available for re-use redevelopment. CASP Study Area The CASP study area includes Cork City and the Ring towns of Kinsale Bandon Macroom Mallow Fermoy Youghal and the towns of Cobh Passage West Midleton Blarney Ballincollig and Carrigaline. Comparison Retail Retail goods category includes clothing and footwear furniture furnishing and household equipment (excluding non-durable household goods) medical and pharmaceutical products therapeutic appliances and equipment educational and recreation equipment excluding wholesale retail of the above. Convenience Retail Retail goods category includes food alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages tobacco and nondurable household goods excluding wholesale retail of the above. Civic Amenity Site A recycling centre serving the City as a whole including recycling facilities on a greater scale and wider range of materials than a Bring Site. Cork Area Strategic Plan (CASP) Joint Cork City and Cork County Council framework plan providing an integrated lands-use transportation social economic and environmental strategy for the Cork City Region. Cork Metropolitan Area Cork City the satellite towns of Ballincollig Blarney Carrigaline Douglas Glanmire Glounthaune Carrigtowill Midleton and Cobh together with smaller settlements in between the above and the City. Metropolitan Cork Joint Retail Study A Retail Study commissioned by Cork City and Cork County Council providing a comprehensive strategy and planning policy framework for retail development. The Retail Study is the background document of the Joint Retail Strategy. Metropolitan Cork Joint Retail Strategy The strategy forms the agreed basis on which the Cork Local Authorities will be able to formulate appropriate development plan objectives or policies for retail development in its areas. City Development Board The City Development Board led by local government seeks to bring about the coordinated delivery of publicly funded services at local level in the areas of economic social and cultural development. Curtilage The enclosed land around a house or building(s). Design Brief Document defining the broad objectives and preferred approach to the development of a site. Development Brief Document providing guidance on how a site of significant size or sensitivity should be developed. Development Contributions Scheme Scheme which allows a Planning Authority to levy financial contributions for the provision of public infrastructure facilities project or service as a condition of planning. Gateway City The National Spatial Strategy (NSS) identifies Gateway Cities including Cork. A Gateway city is expected to drive development across the urban and rural areas as they influence and support more balanced patterns of national level development. Green Routes Transport corridors with dedicated road space and or traffic management priority for buses cycle lanes and improved footpath spaces. Greenfield Sites Previously undeveloped land. Gross Density The number of (housing) units on a land area including distributor roads primary schools places of worship local shops etc open spaces serving a wider area and significant landscape buffer strips. Infill Housing Housing which fills gaps in otherwise continuous built-up frontage and is appropriate to the character of the street and or village. Integrated Land Use and Transportation Planning Coordinating land-use planning with transportation planning in a holistic manner seeking multi-modal approaches to transportation with supportive land use development patterns to create a variety of transportation options. Integrated Pollution Control Licence EPA licence regulating large complex industrial and other processes with significant polluting potential. One licence is issued in relation to all aspects of air water waste and noise pollution. Joint Housing Strategy A joint strategy for the Cork Planning Authorities to address the housing needs of the existing and future population of Cork. Legibility The degree to which a place can be easily understood or traversed. Local Agenda 21 Global Initiative to promote sustainable development at local level. Metropolitan Cork A geographical area including Cork City the satellite towns of Ballincollig Blarney Carrigaline Douglas Glanmire Glounthaune Carrigtwohill Midleton and Cobh together with the smaller settlements located between these towns and the city. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Mobility Management Plans A package of measures to promote support sustainable travel patterns. Also known as a Workplace Travel Plan. Modal Shift Behavioural change relating to mode means of transport such as car to bicycle use. National Climate Change Strategy An action framework strategy to meet the Kyoto Protocol climate change commitments. National Spatial Strategy National framework for spatial development over a 20 year period to achieve balanced and sustainable regional development. Net Density The number of (housing) units on a land area including directly related uses such as access roads private gardens car parking incidental open spaces landscaping and children s play areas. North-West Regeneration Masterplan 2011 A framework for the regeneration of the north-west suburbs of the city focussed on Knocknaheeny and Holyhill. Permeability The degree to which an area has a variety of pleasant convenient and safe routes through it. Plot Ratio The ratio between the total floor area of a building(s) and the site area. Precautionary Principle Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing costeffective measures to prevent degradation. Public Transport Corridor A linear area served by public transport infrastructure namely a rail-line. RAPID Revitalising Areas by Planning Investment and Development. A programme to support the development of disadvantaged areas through an integrated approach to planning investment and development. Ring Towns Kinsale Bandon Macroom Mallow Fermoy and Youghal. Satellite Towns Ballincollig Carrigaline Midleton and Blarney. Sequential Test A principle to assess and determine the appropriate location for new retail developments prioritizing development within existing town retail centres ahead of edge-of-centre sites and edge-of-centre sites ahead of out-of-town sites. SEVESO II Sites Sites involved in the storage and or production of dangerous substances that present a major accident hazard subject to the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH) Directive (or Seveso II Directive) 96 82 EC which seeks to reduce the risk and limit the consequences of accidents. Site Coverage Site coverage is determined by dividing the building footprint by the gross floor area of the building. Strategic Development Zone (SDZ) A designation under the Planning & Development Act 2000 which seeks to identify and facilitate the residential or industrial development of sites of national economic or social importance. Strategic Environmental Assessment The formal systematic assessment of the likely significant effects on implementing a plan or programme before a decision is made to adopt the plan or programme. Social Housing Rented housing provided either by the Local Authority or a voluntary or cooperative Housing Body. Social Inclusion Series of policies and actions aimed at achieving an inclusive and fair society combating inequality social exclusion and poverty. Sustainable Development Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Techniques replicating natural systems to reduce the potential impact of development with respect to surface water drainage discharges through collection storage and cleaning prior to managed release into water courses. Transport Assessment Assessment of transport impacts of a proposed development and measures required to ensure continued adequacy of road network to accommodate the associated road traffic. Vernacular The way in which ordinary buildings were built in a particular place making use of local styles techniques and materials and responding to local economic and social conditions and resources. Water Framework Directive The EU Water Framework Directive is environmental legislation aimed at improving water quality in rivers lakes groundwater estuaries and coastal waters. The directive requires achieving good status to all waters maintaining existing high status waters and preventing any deterioration of waters by 2021. Windfall Sites Previously developed land which unexpectedly becomes available for redevelopment. Workplace Travel Plan Package of measures supporting sustainable travel promoting walking cycling public transport car sharing the use of technology instead of travel and flexible working practices. Also known as Mobility Management Plans. Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Abbreviations AA ACA AFA AHLV ASPC BER BRT BWAAP CAFE CASP CATS CCA CCRA CETB CFRAM CFRAMS CFRMP CHP CIT COMAH CUH DEAF DECLG DOEHLG EIA EIS EMS END EPA ERI ESB ESDP ESRI EU FDI GHG HSE IAP ICRN ICT IDA IPCC IWTN LAP Appropriate Assessment Architectural Conservation Area Area of Further Assessment (re. Flood Risk) Areas of High Landscape Value Areas of Special Planning Control Building Energy Rating Bus Rapid Transit Bishopstown and Wilton Area Action Plan 2007 EU Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe Directive Cork Area Strategic Plan (and CASP Update 2008) Cork Area Transit Study (City Centre) Commercial Core Area City Centre Retail Area Cork City and County Education and Training Board Catchment Flood Risk Assessment and Management Catchment Flood Risk Assessment and Management Study Catchment based Flood Risk Management Plan Combined Heat and Power Cork Institute of Technology (Seveso II Directive) Control of Major Accident Hazards Involving Dangerous Substances Cork University Hospital Dwelling Energy Assessment Procedure Department of Environment Community and Local Government Department of Environment Heritage and Local Government Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Management System EU Environmental Noise Directive Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Research Institute Electricity Supply Board European Spatial Development Perspective Economic and Social Research Institute European Union Foreign Direct Investment Greenhouse Gas Emission Health Service Executive Integrated Area Plan Inner City Residential Neighbourhood Information and Communication Technology Industrial Development Authority Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Irish Walled Towns Network Local Area Plan Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 LAP LCA LEA LEAP LEO LOTS LPZ LUTS NCCS NEAP NDLAP NDP NHA NIAH NMRC NPWS NRA NSS OPW PCT PFRA pNHA RBD RAPID RMP RPG RPS SAC SEA SDLAP SDZ SFRA SME SPA SUDS SWRA SWRPG SWRFB TEAM TPO TTA UCC VIA WFD Local Areas for Play Landscape Character Assessment Local Energy Agency Local Equipped Area for Play Local Enterprise Office Living over the Shop Landscape Preservation Zone Land Use and Transportation Study National Climate Change Strategy Neighbourhood Equipped Area for Play North Docks Local Area Plan National Development Plan 2007-2013 Natural Heritage Area National Inventory of Architectural Heritage National Microelectronics Research Centre National Parks and Wildlife Service National Roads Authority National Spatial Strategy Office of Public Works Primary Care Teams Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment Proposed Natural Heritage Areas River Basin District (SWRBD South West River Basin District) Revitalising Areas by Planning Investment and Development Record of Monuments and Places Regional Planning Guidelines Record of Protected Structures Special Areas of Conservation Strategic Environmental Assessment South Docks Local Area Plan 2008 Strategic Development Zone Strategic Flood Risk Assessment Small and Medium Enterprise Special Protection Areas Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems South West Regional Authority South West Regional Planning Guidelines 2010 - 2022 South West Regional Fisheries Board Tourism Events Arts Marketing Unit (Cork City Council) Tree Preservation Order Traffic and Transport Assessment University College Cork Visual Impact Assessment Water Framework Directive Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021 Acknowledgments This plan is the result of a two year collaborative process of research and consultation involving the Development Plan team the Elected Members of Cork City Council staff from various Directorates within Cork City Council and a whole range of stakeholders ranging from sectors such as industry business and technology education the voluntary sector service providers and environmental groups. The valuable input from the general public throughout the plan preparation process is also acknowledged. The plan was prepared by the following staff Senior Planner Ann Bogan Senior Executive Planners Jeremy Ward Thomas Watt Evelyn Mitchell Executive Planners Erin O Brien Mary Doyle Conservation Officer Pat Ruane City Archaeologist Ciara Brett Heritage Officer Niamh Twomey Senior Executive Technician M ire Harrington Technician Grade 1 Helen O Sullivan Assistant Staff Officer Geraldine Harris Clerical Officer Helen Sheehan Planning Assistants Mairead O Sullivan Sarah Carroll Additional Acknowledgements Directors and staff from the following Directorates Roads and Transportation ICT and Business Services Environment and Recreation Housing and Community Services Corporate and External Affairs City Architects Law Graphic Design Snap Cork Printing Hacketts Lord Mayor Cllr. Mary Shields Elected Members North East Electoral Area Cllr. Tim Brosnan Cllr. Ted Tynan Cllr. Stephen Cunningham Cllr. Joe Kavanagh North Central Electoral Area Cllr. Mick Barry Leas Ard-Mh ara Cllr. Kenneth O Flynn Cllr. Thomas Gould Cllr. Noel O Flynn Cllr. Lil O Donnell Cllr. John Sheehan North West Electoral Area Cllr. Tony Fitzgerald Cllr. Mick Nugent Cllr. Kenneth Collins Cllr. Marion O Sullivan South East Electoral Area Cllr. Des Cahill Cllr. Laura McGonigle Cllr. Terry Shannon Cllr. Chris O Leary Cllr. Kieran McCarthy Cllr. Nicholas O Keeffe Cllr. Shane O Shea South Central Electoral Area Cllr. Se n Martin Cllr. Mick Finn Cllr. Fiona Kerins Cllr. Paudie Dineen Cllr. Tom O Driscoll South West Electoral Area Cllr. John Buttimer Ard-Mh ara Cllr. Mary Shields Cllr. Henry Cremin Cllr. Fergal Dennehy Cllr. P.J. Hourican Cllr. Thomas Moloney Management Team Ann Doherty - Chief Executive Dan Buggy - Assistant City Manager and Director of Services Housing and Community Patrick Ledwidge - Director of Services Strategic Planning and Economic Development Jim O Donovan - Director of Services Environment and Recreation Valerie O Sullivan - Director of Services Corporate and External Affairs Gerry O Beirne - Director of Services Roads and Transportation Michael Burke - Acting Director of Services HR Management and Organisational Reform Tim Healy Head of Finance Ruth Buckley Head of ICT and Business Systems Tony Duggan - City Architect Deborah Hegarty - Law Agent. Patrick Ledwidge Patrick Ledwidge Director of Services Strategic Planning and Economic Development The staff of the Development Management Team Comhairle Cathrach Chorca Cork City Council