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JAWUN A UNiqUe iNdigeNoUs CorporAte pArtNership Model. Learnings and insights 10 years on. october 2010 One of the main reasons why the Cape York Agenda is at the cutting edge of indigenous policy and why our unique combination of theoretical analysis policy advocacy and practical implementation is showing promise is because of our extraordinary partnerships with corporate and philanthropic Australia. Jawun has played a decisive role over the past decade of our work in Cape York Peninsula. It gave us people from the private sector who have helped us to see beyond the welfare horizons that used to dominate indigenous affairs when our sole source of input was government. The combination of key organisations their sustained commitment over a long period of time the commitment of their most valuable resource their people make Jawun a new model for corporate-community partnerships aimed at tackling disadvantage. Noel Pearson Jawun Patron and Indigenous Leader Cape York 04 Introduction 06 Part 1 Building Successful Corporate Indigenous Engagement 19 Part 2 A Place-based Approach to Indigenous Employment 26 Part 3 Economic Development Lessons 4 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. InTRODuCTIOn. Executive Summary The learnings and insights presented in this report are based primarily on the experience of Jawun and its partners in the indigenous communities of Cape York. The report is divided into three main subject areas uildingsuccessfulcorporateindigenous B engagement place-based approachtoindigenous A employment Economicdevelopmentlessons In Part 1 of this report entitled Building Successful Corporate Indigenous Engagement we look at key inhibitors on both sides to corporate indigenous engagement. We synthesise the results from our online survey to present the key drivers in establishing maintaining and building corporate engagement. These insights are augmented by two case studies One case study focuses on Jawun s Senior Executive Visit as a means to build corporate support at the leadership level the other case study looks in detail at KPMG and how its commitment to Jawun and indigenous affairs more broadly has evolved over the years. Also in this section we present the factors which drive effective outcome driven partnerships by again using the results of our online survey to validate and prioritise these insights. A case study follows which takes a detailed look at the origins of the Cape York Institute and why the powerful partnership that was forged between the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) and the indigenous leadership in Cape York has been so effective. Finally in this section we use the results of our online survey to summarise the most important success drivers of the Jawun model. In Part 2 of this report entitled A Place-based Approach to Indigenous Employment we distil the key challenges and emerging insights from our experience to date with our employment pilots in Cairns and Shepparton. We also take a detailed look at Jawun s employment pilot in Shepparton and the unique approach to building local employment coalitions via an Employment Broker. Finally in Part 3 of this report entitled Economic Development Lessons we look at the establishment of the Family Income Management model in Cape York. We specifically look at Westpac s role in this process and the lessons learned to date. Also in this section we examine the challenges of building enterprise in the remote indigenous communities of Cape York. We look at the structural disincentives at play as well as both the supply and demand side challenges. Background Established in 2001 Jawun is a small not for profit organisation with seven permanent employees. Jawun leverages the capabilities of corporate and philanthropic Australia to support innovative programs of change in indigenous communities. Embracing the most challenging social issue in Australia our mission is to help indigenous people build the capabilities to choose a life they have reason to value. 1 In the 2009 10 financial year Jawun facilitated 6.4 million of in-kind value and the support of 144 high calibre corporate secondees from our network of committed corporate partners to the indigenous communities of Goulburn-Murray Cape York Redfern-Waterloo and East Kimberley. Purpose The purpose of this report is to capture and document some of Jawun s key learnings over the past 10 years so that these insights can be shared with government and other key stakeholders. The role of our organisation over the years has been that of a facilitator. Jawun facilitates corporate and philanthropic partnerships which enable indigenous organisations to achieve their own goals. As such this report is not an opinion piece nor is it an in-depth academic review. Furthermore this report is not designed and indeed avoids discussing specific program outcomes. The insights presented in this report have been gathered by leveraging the practical learnings and experience of our organisation and the collective insights of our corporate and indigenous network. Many of these partners have been working with Jawun for 10 years some for a shorter time but all Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 5 have seen considerable experience in corporate philanthropic indigenous partnerships and it is this and our own experience that we have drawn on. It is however not uniformly national experience but draws a lot on work in the Cape and select other locations. It is not based on work in every different sort of community but covers predominantly remote and regional communities - with our work in urban areas being relatively recent. With this context borne in mind however it should provide useful learnings and experience for others to benefit from. Approach In March 2010 Jawun convened a select group of senior long term partners Jawun staff and Board members to initiate a discussion about the key learnings that have emerged from our operations over the past 10 years. From June 2010 to August 2010 Jawun followed on from this initial discussion by undertaking a research process involving a series of interviews workshops and an online survey which form the basis of the insights presented in this report together with the experience of Jawun employees and previous internal work Jawun has done on learnings and best practices. In total 46 stakeholders were either interviewed and or surveyed as part of this process. These stakeholders included corporate partners indigenous partners Jawun staff and Board members. More details on the individual stakeholders consulted during our research process are appended to this report. In September 2010 Jawun conducted a review process of the draft report with its review group of key senior stakeholders and the Jawun Board. 1 Noel Pearson Indigenous Leader 6 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. PART 1 BuILDInG SuCCESSFuL CORPORATE InDIGEnOuS EnGAGEMEnT Introduction and key themes This section of the report breaks down the key factors in building successful corporate indigenous engagement. The following dimensions are examined A. Key inhibitors to corporate engagement B. Key inhibitors to indigenous engagement C. Establishing initial corporate engagement D. Maintaining and building corporate engagement E. Creating effective partnerships that drive outcomes F. Key success factors of the Jawun model As an organisation Jawun had an existing bank of knowledge around the above dimensions. In order to test and expand on these existing learnings we conducted an online survey to gather the perspectives of Jawun s corporate partners staff and Board. The survey was sent to 28 stakeholders and 21 responded yielding a 75% response rate. Further details of the stakeholders who participated in the survey are appended to this report. The results have been ranked based on the level of agreement respondents had with the proposed drivers (versus their level of disagreement). Furthermore a series of in-depth interviews were conducted with select corporate and indigenous stakeholders to further understand the collective perspective on what it takes to build successful corporate indigenous engagement. Finally two case studies are included at the end of this section. The case study on Jawun s Senior Executive Visits explores one way in which Jawun seeks to build corporate support and understanding at the leadership level by carefully structured experiential visits to local indigenous communities. The case study entitled Evolution of KPMG s Support looks in detail at how the support of one of our established corporate partners has grown over the years. A. KEY InhIBItOrS tO COrPOrAtE EngAgEmEnt wIth IndIgEnOuS COmmunItIES Respondents to our online survey ranked the key inhibitors to corporates ability to engage with indigenous communities as follows 1. Knowing where to start how to engage and with which communities. 2. Difficult to manage on the ground logistics to support the secondment experience of employees. 3. Do not have the capabilities or on-site presence to establish manage successful project outcomes. 4. Do not have the capabilities to build the necessary relationships and networks with senior indigenous leaders and communities. 5. Difficult to identify appropriate indigenous communities who are ready and willing for corporate assistance. 6. Organisational risk. All of the survey respondents agreed that Jawun s capabilities in facilitating corporate indigenous partnerships allow corporates to overcome the stated inhibitors. Jawun s brokering role dramatically raises the chances of success and sustainability and widens the field of corporates that can therefore get involved because it lowers the barriers to entry. 2 B. KEY InhIBItOrS tO IndIgEnOuS EngAgEmEnt wIth thE COrPOrAtE SECtOr Inhibitors for indigenous organisations were not covered with the online survey. Instead interviews were conducted with key stakeholders from indigenous organisations in Cape York. Three key considerations emerged from these interviews 1. Indigenous organisations and leadership do not know where to start and how to engage with the corporate sector. Dialogue with indigenous leadership is really difficult because there are so few common anchors with corporate Australia. 3 Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 7 Knowing where to start is an inhibitor for corporate and indigenous organisations alike. We knew that we wanted partnerships with businesses but we had no experience with these and philanthropic organisations before and we didn t really know what the mechanism was for getting support from that world. We had no experience in dealing with corporates and philanthropic bodies. Our whole world was a world of government and bureaucracy. We didn t know how best to engage with that world. We had limited networks and contacts in the private sector. 4 2. the indigenous leadership need to have an agenda and vision for the future. In many indigenous regions across Australia the indigenous leadership is fragmented and the vision and hope for the future is not well defined. It remains unanswered as to what can be done [by corporates] in communities where an indigenous leadership vacuum exists. 5 In order to play a role of enablement and affirm the right of indigenous people to take responsibility the role of the indigenous leadership in the partnership is crucial. In some places indigenous organisations have convictions about reform but a lot of trepidation about prosecuting it. none of these corporates know the world we occupy. We need to provide guidance around this landscape. 6 However some stakeholders acknowledge that there may be certain discrete yet significant areas such as indigenous employment where corporates can support employers employees and local community support organisations without necessarily working under an over-arching reform framework such as noel Pearson s in Cape York. If you get the employment agenda right it s half the battle. 7 3. Indigenous leadership and organisations not knowing how to utilise corporate resources to advance the indigenous agenda. Some of the regional organisations in indigenous communities lack the organisational capacity to manage and utilise corporate resources appropriately. This is where Jawun and its corporate partners can support the building of indigenous organisational capability so that corporate resources can be leveraged effectively. The [indigenous] organisations that want these partnerships need to do a lot of work getting clear on how to use these resources be clear about it timing using this expertise that is available what future work you might have in mind doing some preliminary work etc. To make maximum use of the resources organisations need to have the capacity and put the energy into using them. 8 C. EStABlIShIng COrPOrAtE EngAgEmEnt There are both rational and personal factors which motivate corporate engagement in indigenous communities. In Jawun s experience it has been the personal commitment and belief at the senior levels within an organisation that really drives deep and sustained corporate involvement over time. Corporate leaders recognising the potential developmental benefits to their staff from meaningful engagement in indigenous communities is also a key driver. This was validated with the results of our online survey. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Consultant BCG Senior Stakeholder Cape York Institute Noel Pearson Indigenous Leader Consultant BCG Noel Pearson Indigenous Leader Ex Consultant BCG Noel Pearson Indigenous Leader 8 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. Exhibit 1 Online Survey Results 2010 Trust in the facilitating organisation (e.g. Jawun) to enable and manage the engagement 45% 55% Personal commitment belief and understanding from senior corporate leaders 75% 25% Finally the positive personal experiences of the secondees and corporate leaders involved in the Jawun program leads to support growing virally within corporate organisations deepening the nature of the commitment. The case study on page 14 entitled Evolution of KPMG s Support looks in detail at one of our established corporate partners and how its support and commitment to Jawun and indigenous affairs more broadly has evolved over the years. Corporates recognising the benefits to their organisation around staff engagement and development 60% 35% 5% Exhibit 2 Online Survey Results 2010 Providing senior corporate leader opportunities to acquire hands on understanding of the tangible value of their commitment (e.g. CEO Visit) 62% 38% Corporates recognising the benefits to their organisation s corporate reputation brand 25% 50% 10% 15% Establishing strong upfront personal connections between senior indigenous and corporate leadership 43% 57% Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree neutral The development of corporate support internally by the sharing of positive personal experiences of the secondees and corporate leaders 38% 62% d. mAIntAInIng And BuIldIng COrPOrAtE EngAgEmEnt As validated by the results of our online survey the personal commitment belief and understanding of senior corporate leaders is a critical precursor to the meaningful engagement of corporate organisations and their people. Providing ongoing opportunities for corporate leaders to acquire hands on understanding of the tangible value of their commitment has also proven to be critical in maintaining and building existing corporate relationships. One way in which Jawun seeks to deliver this experience to our corporate partners is via Senior Executive Visits. The case study entitled Senior Executive Visits which follows on page 12 explores this initiative in greater detail. Jawun effectively managing the secondees experiences and cultural engagement (e.g. clarity of brief feedback and debrief survey process etc) to ensure the experience is positive and enlightening 29% 61% 10% Facilitating ongoing understanding and relationships between indigenous and corporate leaders 24% 61% 10% 5% Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree neutral Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 9 Photo courtesy of djarragun College 10 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. E. PArtnErShIPS thAt drIvE OutCOmES As validated by the results of our online survey a pre-condition of a successful corporate indigenous partnership is that the indigenous communities are ready to help themselves and capitalise on the Jawun program. The Jawun model is based on corporate partners signing up to a minimum commitment of five years and a clear Memorandum of understanding which makes the expectations clear on both sides. Key on-site anchor staff from Jawun and its corporate partners play an important role in facilitating the ongoing outcomes and expectations on both sides. The case study that follows on page 17 entitled Origins of the Cape York Institute looks in detail at the origins of the Cape York Institute and why the powerful partnership that was forged between BCG and the indigenous leadership in Cape York has been so effective. Exhibit 3 Online Survey Results 2010 Clearly defined and understood roles and responsibilities between each of the partners 60% 40% The effectiveness of the facilitating organisation (e.g. Jawun) in ensuring realistic expectations of what the partnership can achieve 55% 45% The facilitating organisation (e.g. Jawun) providing sufficient planning and follow-through to ensure continuity and relevance of the assistance provided 30% 70% Readiness of indigenous communities to help themselves and capitalise on the Jawun program 75% 20% 5% Readiness of corporate partners to commit beyond the occasional project for a long term partnership (five years plus) 60% 30% 10% The performance and progress of indigenous organisations receiving assistance is tracked and reported regularly by the facilitating organisation (e.g. Jawun) 50% 40% 5% 5% Equality in the partnership relationship with mutual benefit 35% 55% 10% Establishing ongoing relationships and understanding between indigenous and corporate leaders 25% 65% 5% 5% Corporate understanding of indigenous culture and willingness to support an indigenous driven strategic agenda 30% 55% 10% 5% Upfront involvement by corporates in supporting the development of the indigenous agenda in a given region 25% 60% 10% 5% Indigenous understanding of corporate culture and motivation 10% 75% 15% Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree neutral Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 11 F. SuCCESS drIvErS OF JAwun mOdEl As validated by our online survey corporate partners are attracted to the resonating purpose of an indigenous person s right to take responsibility (as articulated by noel Pearson). The long term commitment of key corporate partners and their people through the Jawun model has been critical. Furthermore the continuity and planning of key anchor staff based in the local communities has lowered the typical barriers to engagement for both corporate and indigenous organisations alike. Exhibit 4 Online Survey Results 2010 Personal long term commitment and action of key corporate leaders to the Jawun program 76% 24% The meaningful contribution of high calibre corporate secondees to indigenous projects and organisations 33% 67% Noel Pearson as a patron of Jawun endorses and is personally involved in the Jawun program 33% 67% Priorities and focus areas for corporate secondee involvement via Jawun are driven by the indigenous organisations and leadership (not top down or outside it) 29% 71% Jawun s work with indigenous partners to articulate project briefs (e.g. via a Regional Director) provides sufficient planning and follow-through to ensure continuity and relevance of the assistance provided 19% 81% Jawun has a clear and resonating purpose derived from the philosophy of an indigenous person s right to take responsibility for their own life (as articulated by Noel Pearson) 71% 24% 5% The Jawun model is based on long-term commitment (e.g. five years) by corporate partners 66% 29% 5% Personal long term commitment and action of key indigenous leaders to the Jawun program 48% 48% 4% The Jawun Board is stable actively engaged and leverages its collective corporate and indigenous networks to build and maintain support for the program 38% 57% 5% The corporate and Jawun secondee selection criteria and interview process ensure high quality Secondees (in both attitude and skills) are appropriately matched to the project organisation 38% 57% 5% The on-site presence of Jawun s anchor staff (e.g. Regional Director) who manage the operational and experiential aspects of corporate secondments 71% 19% 5% 5% The strength of Jawun s networks and relationships within the indigenous communities they operate 52% 33% 5% 10% Jawun ensures the roles and responsibilities of the corporate and indigenous partners are clearly articulated and expectations appropriately managed 29% 56% 5% 10% Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree neutral 12 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. CASE STuDY Senior Executive visits Providing ongoing opportunities for corporate leaders to acquire hands on understanding of the tangible value of their commitment has also proven to be critical in maintaining and building existing corporate relationships. This case study explores one way in which Jawun seeks to build corporate support and understanding at the leadership level via Senior Executive Visits to local indigenous communities. understanding of the tangible value of their commitment to indigenous communities. Attendees included senior leaders from Westpac BMD Group Tourism Australia (Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs) IBM KPMG Qantas Boston Consulting Group Telstra Country Wide. Over the course of the four days the group covered approximately 2 500 kilometres and visited two remote Cape York communities a Land Trust horticultural projects and businesses before heading back to Cairns to spend a morning with Djarragun College students and teachers. Throughout the visit senior leaders were provided the opportunity to participate in informal networking opportunities within the community as well as explore the diverse and beautiful landscapes of the Cape York Peninsula. noel Pearson and other key indigenous leaders shared their vision for the future and ideas for the Cape York agenda going forward. The enthusiastic attendance of corporate senior leaders in Cape York is a strong indicator of their continued support and commitment to help build stronger and more sustainable indigenous communities. ...[The Senior Executive visit] was such an enjoyable thought provoking and truly memorable experience. In particular it was the time spent in the classrooms in Aurukun which had the most profound impact on me. Seeing first hand both the kids actively learning and their parents actively encouraging and advocating was a very powerful message. 10 Background The Senior Executive Visit is designed using an experiential approach in which corporate partners are provided the opportunity to visit and participate informally in a two-way dialogue with the indigenous communities in which secondees are working on the ground. To date Jawun has conducted two Senior Executive Visits in Cape York and one Senior Executive Visit in the East Kimberley. Many years ago when the concept was first talked about I thought it would be too hard to do there has to be continuity every year. I believe it is now so critical absolutely critical for the long term relationship going forward. 9 Benefits Approach In May 2010 Jawun and noel Pearson hosted 10 senior corporate leaders from existing and prospective corporate partners and a federal government representative. The four day visit was a unique opportunity to educate senior corporate leaders and provide the opportunity to develop upfront and personal connections with indigenous leaders and organisations. For existing corporate partners this was also an opportunity to experience a hands on For existing partners the Senior Executive Visit reinforces the value of their current commitment and in some cases results in an increase in the level of commitment. After the visit in May 2010 IBM announced an increase in its support for the Jawun secondment program. It gave the opportunity [to Senior Executives] to see for themselves the results impact their contribution has on the community rather than hearing about it... There is more of an element of intimacy knowledge when one sees something for themselves. 11 Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 13 A short time after the May visit a number of the new corporate executives spoke with Jawun about how they could connect with the agenda. Whilst not all corporates can commit to the Cape York Secondment Program the majority of executives have indicated that they want to be involved and Jawun is currently exploring opportunities for them. The potential involvement of Tourism Australia to lend its expertise and support in the development of the major tourism initiatives in Cape York will be a significant accomplishment for Jawun and the region. Telstra quickly identified opportunities for leadership development within the company and was also keen to investigate the potential synergies that related directly to its core business. The participation of senior government officials in the visit was of enormous value and showcases the potential breadth in which corporates government and indigenous communities can work together creatively. I already had a very strong commitment to the Cape York Welfare reform initiatives... however the trip reinforced my strong view that we must keep up the momentum. 12 9 10 11 12 Richie Ah Mat Indigenous Leader Geoff Wilson CEO KPMG IBM Secondee Senior Government Official 14 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. CASE STuDY Evolution of KPmg s support Ongoing corporate support is critical and the depth of this support grows virally based on the very personal experiences of the secondees and their managers. This case study examines the evolution of KPMG s involvement over the years with indigenous communities via the Jawun model. upon returning Doug immediately began gathering support at the senior level of KPMG with a focus on becoming involved in indigenous communities. It was acknowledged that whilst a core value of KPMG is to give back to the Australian community KPMG was not engaged with indigenous communities at that time. It was further recognised that as an Australian firm in a global partnership KPMG had a corporate responsibility to engage in indigenous Australian communities. As a result KPMG joined Jawun as a corporate partner to fulfil this vision of involvement in indigenous communities. KPMG s Corporate Citizenship Director stated that the drive behind KPMG s involvement in this space was the desire to be innovative and leading in community investment by taking on challenging issues and the unique partnership with Jawun offered an avenue to drive involvement and facilitate positive and meaningful contribution to indigenous communities . Background As a valued corporate partner KPMG initially became involved with Jawun in October 2007 and is currently in year three of a five year commitment. To date more than 60 KPMG secondees have contributed their diverse range of skills and experiences extending to remote parts of Cape York in Queensland and Shepparton in Victoria. In early 2010 KPMG increased its commitment extending its involvement to Redfern-Waterloo in Sydney and the East Kimberley region of Western Australia. The projects in which KPMG secondees have been involved range from assistance in the economic and business development of indigenous organisations such as the Hope Vale Green Box program (which increases access to quality fruit and vegetables in the community) to a host of other regions across Australia in areas of education and training employment assistance with family income management planning and building indigenous organisational capabilities. In total KPMG has provided financial voluntary and in-kind support to the value of approximately 2 million to indigenous communities. Benefits to KPmg It is a credit to Jawun that KPMG secondees have such an enriching experience on projects in indigenous communities which in turn enriches KPMG as a whole. 13 According to KPMG there have been numerous benefits to the organisation as a result of its involvement with the Jawun program rovidingemployeeswithan outofthebox P experience around professional and personal development (which contributes to KPMG being an Employer of Choice ) PMGisrecognisedasabusinessleader K of corporate involvement in indigenous communities by business peers indigenous organisations communities not-for-profit organisations and the Australian government eniorleadersandsecondeesareprovided S business networking opportunities (e.g. at Jawun initiatives such as the Cape York Senior Executive Visit) hereisapositivereflectionontheKPMG T reputation and brand development how KPmg became involved On a trip to Cape York in 2007 Doug Jukes (then KPMG Chairman) was deeply inspired by what he saw being achieved in indigenous communities through corporate involvement via Jawun. Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 15 ndifferentiatingfromcompetitorsbyinvesting I in indigenous communities a competitive edge has emerged for KPMG such as maintaining existing client relationships and an increase in government clients (from which an indigenous business stream has recently been established) econdeesencounteradeeperunderstandingof S indigenous culture and some of the issues facing indigenous communities in an experience that is often positive and life-changing The secondment opened my eyes and I saw first-hand the daily issues faced by indigenous communities I saw the struggles and the effects that drugs and alcohol have on a community but I also saw the positive steps communities are taking to improve quality of life and to educate the young... This secondment exceeded my expectations more than words can ever say. 14 hecontinuedpersonalinvolvementand T commitment from KPMG s senior leaders from the outset has been vital in ensuring growth promotion and success of the program internally eniorleadershavingahandsonexperienceto S directly observe the impact of their commitment is important for engagement in indigenous communities (e.g. Senior Executive Visit) hesupportandintimateknowledgeofGeoff T Wilson (KPMG CEO) and Michael Andrew (KPMG Chairman and Jawun Board member) KPMG continuously go over and above what is required of them (i.e. as agreed in the Mou) ffectivemanagementbyJawunofthe E secondees experiences and cultural engagement (e.g. clarity of brief feedback and debrief survey process etc.) to ensure the experience is positive and enlightening ositivefeedbackfromindigenousorganisations P regarding KPMG secondees involvement which gives confidence that KPMG s contribution is making a difference hestrengthofJawun snetworksontheground T and having established infrastructure to use (e.g. KPMG secondees attend briefings and have ongoing contact with the locally based Jawun Director) heJawunfacilitationmodelisbasedonvalues T which are in-line with the corporate citizenship of KPMG nformal formalbusinessnetworking I opportunities for senior leaders and secondees Whilst all of these have played a role KPMG noted that the level of senior involvement and positive secondee experience have been the primary drivers of the growth and support internally. I think the work we performed made a profound impact and the assistance we provided was valuable. I wanted to have a meaningful experience to make a difference in some way and to learn from this. I had an amazing experience my expectations were exceeded. 15 growth of support within KPmg KPMG noted that since commencing in 2007 the Jawun partnership has become KPMG s flag-ship corporate citizen role for involvement in the community. Support for the Jawun program is actively encouraged within the organisation in the following ways pportunitiesareprovidedforpriorsecondees O to speak of their experiences and act as a support network for potential current secondees econdmentsareactivelypromotedinternally S via KPMG alumni lunchtime sessions hosted by prior secondees internal emails information brochures and the KPMG intranet site PMGhavededicatedstaff infrastructurewithinthe K company to manage KPMG secondee involvement in particular a dedicated corporate contact to manage the program and communicate with Jawun eniorleaderswithinthefirmuseopportunities S such as the KPMG Senior Executive Open Forum to share their personal experiences visiting indigenous communities via Jawun According to KPMG there are a number of the factors that have made KPMG s engagement in indigenous communities through Jawun successful including 13 14 15 KPMG Corporate Citizenship Division KPMG Secondee First KPMG Secondee 2007 16 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. KPmg s reconciliation Action Plan In October 2009 as a natural progression of KPMG s commitment to indigenous communities KPMG became the first accounting firm in Australia to launch a Reconciliation Action Plan (RAP). The RAP created in consultation with Jawun and Reconciliation Australia is a publicly stated commitment by KPMG to promote opportunity and meaningful reconciliation with indigenous Australians. Conclusion KPMG noted that the deep relationship with Jawun was a cornerstone for this [RAP] initiative and it is proud to be a leader in the business community in this regard. KPMG hopes to encourage other firms and the wider business community to get involved in actively closing the gap with indigenous Australians . Within KPMG our involvement is transforming our people and as a result impacting our culture in profound and positive ways. 16 16 CEO KPMG Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 17 CASE STuDY Origins of the Cape York Institute Strong indigenous leadership with a clear agenda for the future has been a precondition for the success of the Cape York Institute and the Welfare Reform Agenda gaining traction in Cape York. The right type of contribution from committed corporate partners who are not seeking to lead the process but who are willing to provide the relevant skills in support of the indigenous leadership has been crucial. This case study looks at the origins of the Cape York Institute and why the powerful partnership that was forged between BCG and the indigenous leadership in Cape York has been so effective. tuning breaking it apart how do we turn this broad direction into practical action. 17 This balance has stayed the same throughout the BCG-CYI relationship. Welfare reform would lose its legitimacy if it wasn t led by indigenous stakeholders. 18 2. relevant core skill set BCG brought a relevant core skill set to the Cape York Institute which involved Problemdefinition Strategicthinking Qualitativeandquantitativeanalysis Effectivestakeholderengagement ...they [corporate partners] were bringing a business angle to it something that had not received a business lens before. We knew all the other angles. 19 The corporate partner can act as a sounding board provide rigorous analysis serve as a friendly critic bash around the ideas approach it from different perspectives. 20 Background The Cape York Institute (CYI) was established in July 2004 as an independent policy and leadership organisation. The Institute champions reform in indigenous economic and social policies and supports the development of current and future Cape York leaders. The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) was actively involved from the beginning in supporting noel Pearson in setting up the Institute and in designing launching and seeking government support for noel Pearson s Welfare Reform Agenda. Here are a few reasons why the type of support provided by BCG to CYI was so effective 3. Full-service support From the beginning BCG provided full-service support to the Cape York Institute and other Cape York organisations. This type of support is not well understood. It is far more about capacity building communication tactical management strategic management and far less about the content of a specific issue. This particular type of support is also critical for ongoing traction and impact. Corporates like BCG play an important role in helping to develop strong and well-functioning indigenous organisations. We took the secondment program very seriously and spent a lot of time preparing for them. We did a lot of project planning so that the BCG secondee would slot into a project framework backed up by a lot of scoping. 21 17 18 19 20 21 1. the right philosophical approach BCG s support was true to Jawun s governing philosophy of corporates coming in behind and supporting (not controlling) the indigenous voice and vision. BCG was critical in translating noel s philosophy into practical action a program of initiatives that was academically rigorous but practically-oriented. However there was always a clear distinction between the philosophical direction and the fine Consultant BCG Consultant BCG Noel Pearson Indigenous Leader Consultant BCG Ex Consultant BCG 18 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. The secondments were structured in the following way 70%ofthetimewasprojectrelated 5%ofthetimewasdedicatedtodeveloping 2 the corporate capability of the organisation (e.g. developing the operating model strategic vision etc.) %ofthetimewasspentprovidingdirect 5 skills transfer to CYI employees (e.g. building modelling skills writing slides) According to noel Pearson If our development problem was just a money challenge then government alone would be able to help us with our problems. However the expertise deficit is our problem. That is the nature of our development challenge ... the most important contribution of corporates is people . However the clash of ideology and culture in this context is not to be underestimated and required careful management. BCG staff are sensitive to the rhythm and meter of different companies. Consultants are good at that. 23 BCG staff come with good general professional skills how to conduct an interview respectfully engage with others fit in. 24 7. mutual benefit The partnership model has many and various personal and professional benefits for employees of both organisations. A partnership with mutual benefit is a powerful dynamic. CYI employees have benefited from the direct and indirect transfer of skills from BCG employees and postgraduate students from Harvard Princeton and Oxford. They have also learned how to leverage consultants skills to achieve the Institute s objectives. The impact on BCG secondees has been considerable. Junior consultants have ssumedgreaterresponsibilitythanthey A otherwise would on project work anagedaprojectteamwellbeforesuchan M opportunity would arise at BCG btainedanewperspectiveondisadvantage O and the immensity of the challenge to address it 4. network credibility and influence BCG s work with CYI enhanced its interactions with government which maximised the prospects of government support for the Welfare Reform Agenda. BCG s support of CYI and the Welfare Reform Agenda was also a catalyst for engagement of other corporate stakeholders. BCG and Westpac s presence gave a lot of other corporates confidence because they could see that it worked it lowered the barriers of risk and uncertainty... 22 5. trust & long term commitment In the initial stages BCG committed key anchor staff to build trust and understanding within CYI and other Cape York organisations. This could not have been done on a fly in fly out basis in the initial stages. BCG and CYI brought different ideas and points of view to bear during the various debates about the Cape York agenda. The relationship of trust that was forged between the parties was crucial because it created an environment in which this rigorous discussion could take place. Contesting ideas with respected partners enabled CYI and BCG to develop a well-tested agenda. Conclusion The Welfare Reform Agenda in Cape York commenced its implementation phase in 2006 after the federal government committed 3 million to the project. The Cape York Institute has established itself as a powerful force in influencing public opinion and government policy particularly in the area of welfare reform. BCG continues through its talented and dedicated people to support the Cape York Institute as well as other indigenous organisations in the region. 6. Flexibility & understanding According to noel Pearson We [Cape York leadership] have benefited hugely from economic rationalists coming in and pushing that [wealth creation] position . 22 23 24 Consultant BCG Cape York Institute Ex Consultant BCG Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 19 PART 2 A PLACE-BASED APPROACH TO InDIGEnOuS EMPLOYMEnT Introduction Jawun s place-based employment approach seeks to build the level of trust engagement and co-operation across existing networks to help focus effort and accelerate and sustain employment outcomes for local indigenous people. Key components are emerging as underpinning success in building local employment coalitions along with key challenges Key success factors Aregionalbroker Employercoalition Supportcoalition Adaptingemploymentapproach Challenges Cooperationandtrust ddressingchallengesinlocalcommunity A organisations Structuralchallengesanddisincentives The case study that follows examines the insights emerging from the Jawun employment pilot currently taking place in Shepparton. 20 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. CASE STuDY Shepparton Employment Pilot This case study examines Jawun s employment pilot in Shepparton by looking at the unique approach to building local employment coalitions via an Employment Broker. The objectives of the employment pilot in Shepparton are as follows ncreasethelevelofcollaborationbetweenlocal I employment and education providers upportlocalemployerstomainstreamtheir S indigenous employment efforts evelopawiderSheppartonindigenous D employment strategy elpbuildtheoperatingcapabilityofAboriginal H employment organisations dentifyfollow-onprojectsthatbuildonthe I insights from the employment pilot Background The indigenous community of Greater Shepparton is the largest Aboriginal community in Victoria and in the top 10% nationally. Employment in the Aboriginal community is significantly lower than in the community as a whole. Although considerable effort has been put into Closing the Gap in recent years progress in Shepparton has been slow. It is estimated on the current rate of progress that it will take 20-30 years for the indigenous results to just meet current non-indigenous levels. There are approximately 30 employment related organisations that operate in the City of Greater Shepparton however there is very little collaboration across agencies and varying levels of long term success. Consequently as part of an overall Employment Program Jawun launched a place-based employment pilot to explore a new approach to Closing the Gap in employment. role of the regional Employment Broker The role of Regional Employment Broker is critical in facilitating support across and between local employers and community organisations alike. This role is further illustrated in the figure below Exhibit 1 Regional broker is the key to facilitating local employers and support organisations Employer coalition Regional broker Support coalition Approach Despite numerous employers having Workforce Diversity and indigenous employment initiatives many employers often do not fully understand the practical steps needed to make these initiatives successful who to work with or how to go about it and similarly many supply-side support organisations do not engage with business effectively or efficiently. Jawun s regional pilots look to address these information gaps by coordinating local stakeholders introducing a single point of contact and providing a simplified communication mechanism. Engage local managers interested in Indigenous employment Local employer champion Support group Information sharing Single point ofcontact to facilitate employment Liaises w employers support orgs Coordinates and supports outcomes Engage local support organisations Local indigenous champion Cooperative case management Provide full range of support Place-based trials in Shepparton and Cairns may be expanded to Redfern and the East Kimberley In February 2010 Jawun appointed a secondee from KPMG for one year to undertake the role of Regional Employment Broker. Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 21 Establishing the employer coalition The first step for the pilot was to understand the barriers to indigenous employment from the point of view of the local employers. Generally local employers indicated ostemployersweregenerallypositiveabout M the local economic conditions and were actively recruiting new staff particularly in the lead up to the Christmas shopping season llmanagersstatedthattheyneverused A Centrelink (or JSA) agencies to advertise vacancies or find suitable new employees hilesomemanagersidentifiedthattheir W company had an indigenous employment strategy they did not know how the strategy worked in their local region llmanagersindicatedthattheyhadreceived A few or no applications for employment from Aboriginals or Torres Strait Islanders for advertised vacancies or walk-in applications oemployerskeptrecordsinregardtothe N number of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander employees that they employed and many believed that their workplace has never had any indigenous employees Strawpolls ofmanyworkplacessuggested that they had no indigenous employees (0% of their total workforce) national and local buy-in to a placed-based program was sought from corporate and other major local employers. The Wesfarmers group made an early commitment to the approach after its CEO senior Shepparton News article on the Wesfarmer visit 4 February 2010 leadership team and local store and office managers met with the indigenous community. Since then the employer partner portfolio has expanded to include Woolworths Australia Post AnZ ATO and other local employers. Establishing the Support Coalition In parallel with building employer support Jawun invested in building a coalition of local employment support organisations. A series of meetings were held with the City of Greater Shepparton Rumbalara Football and netball Club Shepparton Chamber of Commerce & Industry Kialla Planning Council Yorta-Yorta nations Rumbalara Co-op Department of Planning and Community Development and other local stakeholders. The issue of unemployment in Shepparton is so entrenched and long term that the only way to close the gap is for all organisations Aboriginal and mainstream to work collaboratively as no one organisation can do it alone. 25 The key things we sought to understand in the initial stages included the following hecontextandhistoryofpastemployment T initiatives hestakeholders levelsofengagementand T support of past initiatives nylessonslearnedandrecommendationsthat A they may have for what an employment pilot should include owtheorganisationswouldprefertocontinueto H engage with the current pilot and to obtain their commitment to and in support of the current pilot After consulting with a wide spectrum of community organisations to understand the Shepparton employment environment and context an initial support coalition was constituted to work with Jawun and local employers in supporting indigenous job applicants. The support coalition included umbaRipplesanditsoutsourcedemployment R and case management service provider ASHE Ganbina 25 Shepparton Partnership Project 22 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. Regular coordination and planning meetings with the case managers and CEOs of these organisations were used to build the working relationship. Later the support coalition was expanded to include a JSA (CVGT) and AES. A joint approach to matching current and potential job seekers against known and future employer job vacancies was used. A phased approach of matching participants to vacancies was adopted Phase 1 low risk applicants (underway) Worked directly with employers to immediately put forward low risk applicants for existing job vacancies. These low risk applicants required minimal coaching mentoring or external support. It is hoped that the success of these candidates will build the confidence of the community and employers. During this phase the Jawun Employment Broker worked with the support coalition to improve their skills and process in supporting low risk clients. Justin Mohamed Director ASHE Phase 2 medium risk applicants Whilst the first phase is being implemented medium risk candidates are being assessed for placement potential and necessary support programs are being organised. These applicants and employers will be cross supported by two or more community organisations to ensure that they have the social and professional support to be successful in their work placements. It became clear during the first year of the place-based pilot that it would not be possible to rollout a program to adequately support high risk applicants. As such high risk applicants are currently outside the scope of this pilot. The Academy of Sport Health and Education (ASHE) has found its partnership with Jawun to be beneficial to the program. The access to resources and knowledge complement ASHE s vision to provide trusted culturally appropriate education and training for aboriginal students. Jawun has opened up access to organisations providing employment and education avenues for students following their time with ASHE. Working through one of ASHE s parent bodies Rumbalara Football and netball Club Jawun has assisted in the development of the Munarra Institute as well as the My Moola Opening Financial Pathways program which several ASHE participants continue to access. Adapting the standard employment approach Jawun s local employment approach seeks to provide the support that is absent from the standard approach to employment so that it is more appropriate for indigenous job seekers. Additional support is often required for indigenous applicants and existing procedures need to be slightly modified. Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 23 Exhibit 2 Standard employment approach must be adapted to support Aboriginal applicants Traditional pathway No pre-employment support Advertise online Interviews & selection Employment Training I got the job thanx heaps. I m as excited as. Madison Connors nursing student now working at 1st Choice liquors Indigenous pathway Connect with job seekers Pre-employment training Ongoing mentoring and support Culturallyappropriate interviews Employment Ongoing training and mentoring Support is required along every aspect of the employment pathway to improve employment outcomes I m really happy that I got a job and cannot wait to start. I hope it gives me some financial independence. Stephanie Bechurst secondary school student about to commence working at Safeway Key outcomes to date vercomingsomeearlyscepticismand O achieving successful collaboration between three community organisations and eventual inclusion of a mainstream JSA. uccessfullyplacingtenapplicants(asat S July 2010) with local employers as part of phase 1 and implementing a participant support program. ncreasingtheskillsandcapacityofsupport I coalition personnel for the placement and support of low risk applicants. Community organisations are now preparing applicants with little or no support from the Jawun Regional Broker. reatingstrongerworkingrelationshipsand C greater collaboration between the indigenous community and local employers as manifested by extremely strong attendance at the Dungala Kaiela Oration and the success of the Koorie Careers Expo. uildinggreatercapacityandcapabilityinto B the support coalition to support phase 2 which included inviting AES into the coalition. now that I have work at Shepparton Coles I feel really happy because the workers and customers are really nice and friendly there. working at Coles is great because it gives me confidence. Taylor Morgan secondary school student now working at Coles 24 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. EmErgIng InSIghtS Building co-operation & trust stablishingarelationshipoftrustwiththe E community is extremely important before any meaningful collaboration can be expected. In order to establish a profile in the community the Jawun Employment Broker had to relocate to Shepparton for the duration of the pilot and volunteer for various community activities before community members felt comfortable engaging. btainingalignmentandsponsorshipacrossall O levels of employer organisations was needed before significant progress could be made. It was only after Jawun had ensured that all levels were engaged that local store managers felt that they had the necessary mandate to progress with their indigenous employment programs. reatermacro-economictrends suchastheGFC G can place unforeseen constraints on employers and the success of any employment program. hereseemstobeasubstantialportionof T the indigenous population that has no or little dealings with any of the major community employment organisations. aintainingpartnershipandcollaboration M amongst community organisations requires constant effort and is difficult. ifferencesbetweenindigenouscommunity D groups such as Bangarang and Yorta-Yorta hinders community collaboration and may give rise to problems of trust and perceived loyalty. Employment Opportunities and long term benefits to community are starting to be realised. Partnerships through Jawun have enabled community to engage with businesses previously not available to youth. Capacity is growing as we go forward with our heads held high. 26 Structural challenges & disincentives herearemanyunderlyingcausesofthegapin T employment that are systemic and cannot be addressed by an employment initiative alone. Some are rooted in the educational system some are linked to the typical issues currently endemic in indigenous communities and some are directly linked to the disincentives of the welfare state. urrentCentrelinkrulesmayindirectlydiscourage C indigenous applicants from entering or re-entering the work force. e.g. the waiting period for the reinstating of unemployment benefits after an unsuccessful attempt at employment makes applicants unwilling to risk their benefit payments by trialling work. Challenges in working with the local community organisations ommunityorganisationshavevaryinglevelsof C capability and capacity within their organisations. The Jawun Employment Broker had to provide different degrees of support and encourage a more collaborative approach to facilitate skill sharing. A structured and managed approach to implementing the pilot was also essential. otallcommunityorganisationswereopen N to participating in the local pilot. A variety of approaches had to be used to obtain cooperation e.g. visible and vocal support of the local Aboriginal leader (Paul Briggs) persuading the organisations to participate in initial talks on a trial basis with the right of withdrawal at any stage gaining the trust of the organisations by first gaining the support of its follower base etc. ostcommunityorganisationswere M disenfranchised because of past unsuccessful attempts to address the unemployment issue. Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 25 hestructureofJSAoutcomespaymentsmay T act as a disincentive to trialling transition to work programs such as work experience for higher risk candidates. swithmostcommunities thereisconsiderable A duplication of services within Shepparton both in mainstream organisations and indigenous organisations. saresultofalackof core fundingandshorter A funding cycles organisations find it difficult to attract and retain high capability staff. ompetitionforfundingandsometimestraining C and employment outcomes has led to an unhealthy level of competitiveness between local education and employment organisations. This competition is not in the best interest of the community or applicants. heaccuracyofunderlyingdata such T as population figures labour force and unemployment rates is problematic. There is a general recognition that the ABS 2006 figures are undercounted however the extent of the undercount can vary greatly depending on the source of cross-reference data. This makes it difficult to measure the actual extent of the gap and determine what would constitute a significant reduction of the gap . next steps mplementationofPhase2 involvingthe I cross-organisational support of medium risk candidates. ssistthelocalindigenouscommunity through A the Kaiela Planning Council to prepare an indigenous Employment Strategy for the community. nsurethatemployerrelationshipsaremaintained E over the long term by transitioning the working relationships to local community representatives and organisations. ssessthesuccessoftheplace-basedpilotand A document key insights and practices that worked. etermineamodeltocontinuewithdirect D support after the Jawun pilot has ended. As a parent of one of the participants in this program I am extremely impressed. The support given to my daughter has resulted in her gaining part-time employment. The program has encouraged not only my daughter but other Aboriginal children in the community to gain employment and to think about their future goals. Well done and keep up the good work 27 Economic participation for Aboriginal youth is a cornerstone in closing the gap that exists between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. It underpins self determination social and economic standing and an individual s total well being. CEO Ganbina 26 27 GO Tafe Tracey Hearn mother of Shanara Stewart secondary school student now working at Safeway 26 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. PART 3 ECOnOMIC DEVELOPMEnT LESSOnS Introduction In 2005 noel Pearson released the Cape York Agenda which has become the foundation for much of the work that is now driving each of the Cape York Organisations including the Welfare Reform program being trialled in four Cape York communities today. The essence of the Cape York Agenda as outlined by noel Pearson s paper is Our ultimate goal is to ensure that Cape York people have the capabilities to choose a life they have reason to value . The essence of the Cape York Agenda is as follows Wehavearighttoafairplaceintherealeconomy Socialordermustberestored Passivewelfaremustbeattacked Substanceabusemustnotbetolerated Wehavearighttotakeresponsibility tisessentialthatwemaintainouridentity I as a people. 28 Jawun has been operating in Cape York in its current form since 2001 and continues to use noel Pearson s underlying philosophies as the primary interface to establishing partnerships between corporate private philanthropy and indigenous leaders in Cape York. In this section we have chosen to focus on our learnings and insights from Cape York and focus on two particular areas for discussion A. Family Income Management B. The challenges in building real enterprise in Cape York The intent of the discussion in this section of the report is to emphasise the complexity of the challenges faced by the indigenous people of Cape York. This discussion does not seek to draw any particular conclusions or offer solutions to these complex problems. What we are putting forward is a collection of perspectives from our corporate and indigenous network which will hopefully contribute valuable insights and practical learnings to government and other key stakeholders. A. FAmIlY InCOmE mAnAgEmEnt (FIm) Purpose of FIm FIM supports individuals and families to manage money for basic material needs build capabilities through financial literacy and build assets through saving and disciplined money management. The objectives of the program are to nablefamiliestomanagemoneysothatbasic E material needs (food clothing shelter etc) are provided for nablefamiliestobuildassetsandrealise E aspirations through saving and disciplined money management nablefamiliestomanagemoneyasameans E of tackling addictions to alcohol drugs and gambling and to develop alternative ways for people to express cultural reciprocity ebuildsocialnormsandcapabilitiesthrough R financial literacy and cultural reciprocity and akethestressoutofmoneymanagementand T family well being history Cape York Partnerships (CYP) which at that time was headed up by noel Pearson developed the initial FIM concept. In 2002 the federal government agreed to trial FIM as a different way of engaging with communities on managing their income. CYP was not an incorporated entity at this point so the Aurukun Shire Council hosted the management and implementation of the pilot. In 2005 06 CYP became incorporated and the funding and control of FIM transferred from the Shire Council to CYP. Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 27 Given its involvement in the creation of Jawun and Ann Sherry s board position Westpac was introduced to CYP s initial work on the FIM initiative. Westpac s involvement in FIM had resonance because of the broader public debate about the lack of banking services in remote communities. The proposal received important internal support from David Clark the Head of Retail Banking which was the Division that would also provide a large proportion of Westpac s secondees to the program. By the end of 2009 around 1 000 clients had signed up to FIM with the program being supported by 128 corporate secondees since its inception and up to 2.7 million in-kind support from Westpac. The FIM service operates in the Cape York communities of Aurukun Coen Mossman Gorge Hopevale Cooktown Weipa WujalWujal napranum and Mapoon. gaining traction The catalyst for FIM gaining momentum in different Cape York communities was the involvement of senior women. By diligently committing a proportion of their welfare income to a long term savings plan these women were able to apply their expenditure in a way that publicly demonstrated the benefits of their involvement in FIM to the broader community. The link between FIM and the ability to save for key events such as family funerals school needs a refrigerator etc is what ultimately resulted in families seeing benefit. Example 1 hersey and Kenlock Yunkaporta Hersey Yunkaporta is a member of the Aurukun community. Earlier this decade when FIM staff were conducting community consultations as part of the development of the pilot program Hersey then a shy and timid woman was surprised that non-indigenous people were seriously seeking her opinion on an issue. They spoke to her at length about the idea. Hersey positively reinforced the idea. The next day Hersey returned with 50. She wanted to start saving to put a headstone on her son s grave. Hersey encouraged her family members to contribute some of their own income to this objective. Several months later the family hosted a beautiful ceremony to open the new headstone they had purchased. Hersey s son had committed suicide. Westpac s Project Manager in Cape York believes that FIM enabled her and her family to feel like they had done something for him that perhaps they were not able to provide when he was alive. First impressions a major deficiency in financial literacy FIM s initial objective of enabling families to manage money was immediately tested when the first Westpac secondees realised the substantial lack of financial literacy in Cape York communities. For example many individuals did not know how to read a utilities bill and did not appreciate the consequences of not paying the bill. Many locals would provide their bankcard and PIn to a local pilot who would retrieve cash for them in Cairns. It would take communities approximately two years to understand the positive consequences of proper financial management and see any personal benefit from engaging. FIM is essential because it helps people understand the notion of money. 29 28 29 Noel Pearson Indigenous Leader Senior Stakeholder Balkanu 28 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. FIm impacts individuals lives in a material and broader way On a basic level participation in FIM has enabled individuals to acquire material possessions that they may otherwise not have. This can positively impact individuals lifestyles. For example several families have been able to purchase a refrigerator. Apart from providing cold food and drinks in the tropical climate it also meant that these families did not have to go shopping every day. Other FIM participants have directed their savings towards paying for a wedding ceremony or proper funeral for loved ones. Other emerging benefits have also been acknowledged30 Improvedoverallfinancialmanagement airercontributionbyallhouseholdmembersfor F household expenses Improvedfamilyrelationships Longertermplanningoffinances mprovedparticipants capacitytoassistother I people financially or resist requests for financial assistance ncreasedmotivationtoundertakepaidvolunteer I work training study or participate in other community activities Example 2 FIm functions as a pre-condition to business development In Mossman Gorge a few of the original participants in the local FIM program decided to launch a business by pooling their resources. They prepared and printed a flyer which was distributed through local hotels in Port Douglas. Soon the business was running tours of the Gorge for tourists and the benefits were flowing back to those involved. In a more profound way FIM impacts an individual s sense of self-determination. According to a Jawun Board member The most fundamental change that came out because of FIM is that people feel like they have some control over their own lives and they can make choices as opposed to everything being imposed on them and having a terrible learned hopelessness which is a downward spiral for individuals families and communities ... Communities cannot function properly if the local people do not have control over their own lives... the criticality of FIM is that this is the mechanism to give people some control over their own lives. Greater control of one s life can also lead to positive behavioural changes. For example Westpac s Project Manager in Cape York has observed a remarkable change in Hersey Yunkaporta. Once a very timid person Hersey has since met with then Prime Minister John Howard and senior executives of Jawun s corporate partners. FIM has changed their whole outlook and they continue to save for new things. It has given them a great deal of pride in what they are able to achieve. westpac brought customer-facing and technical banking capabilities to the partnership Westpac contributed a variety of skills to the FIM program fundamentalunderstandingofhowto A manage money create a budget read a bank book transfer money etc. and retail staff with the customer service skills to be able to instill that understanding and overcome basic financial illiteracy estpacalsoestablishedtheunderlying W infrastructure to facilitate the program s operation estpacsetupaBSBandsupportnumberfor W each FIM site estpacalsonegotiatedrelieffromASICfrom W the identification procedures necessary for account opening in remote communities given the difficulty that many indigenous people face in providing 100 points of identification Although Westpac did not have a major role in FIM s original design staff were able to influence the development of FIM via Westpac Fellows seconded to Cape York Partnerships. In this capacity Westpac secondees were able to influence the evolving shape of FIM programs based on their experience on the ground. Moreover the placement of these secondees with community experience provided an alternative viewpoint within CYP. The process of determining what would work best in communities became Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 29 more contested there were more voices about what communities wanted and the voice that had the connection to the local community regularly prevailed. InSIGHT FOR GOVERnMEnT Furthermore Westpac s work in the communities unlocked a lot of new opportunities that Westpac did not know existed. For example BT was able to work with land councils to enable them to earn a better return on their royalty income. The engagement has given Westpac fantastic insight into what seemed like good ideas developed in head office and normalised for the whole of Australia but that did not work on the ground (e.g. seeing individuals hand over keycards to strangers). This personal experience drove changes in the way banking is delivered to remote communities not just Aboriginal (e.g. how do you make cash available make simple online banking accessible etc.). 31 During the rollout of FIM CYP benefited from the commercial capabilities and pragmatism of Westpac. However the dynamics of the relationship between Westpac and CYP at the time was also crucially important. Corporate organisations like Westpac often have more flexibility than government in how they let their staff be deployed and are more inclined to play an enablement versus ownership role. Furthermore corporate organisations are more able to adapt to execution challenges as they are not wedded to a particular course of action because of a prevailing policy position. learnings for future rollouts After eight years of operation in the Cape it is clear that at a policy level FIM could be rolled out in other remote communities around Australia. However there are useful lessons around the execution of the program from the Cape experience. Corporate partners have also benefited from the relationship Westpac s involvement in FIM enabled it to develop learnings systematically within the organisation about how to improve its relationship with the community and with its own business estpacdevelopedtheManageYourMoney W Program based on its initial results from the FIM pilot. Over time the bank has defined the program and rolled it out more broadly into schools and the general community romotedculturalawarenessinbrancheswith P high indigenous populations hebankhasstartedwork-basedtraineeships T in branches with high indigenous population and encouraged indigenous employment in those areas until Westpac commenced its engagement in the Cape it viewed banking services as typically a 1 1 relationship. The capacity to run more communal banking where multiple people feed into an account was very challenging for Westpac because it was a thinking technology and risk problem. Every element of the service pushed a lot of problem solving back into the organisation. This experience developed a more responsive way of thinking in the bank culturally it changed the way people thought about problems to be solved. 1. the overall objective of FIm needs to be clear from the outset According to one senior stakeholder the objective of FIM should be self-sufficiency and the ability to manage money by saving into special purpose accounts with the ability for family members to jointly contribute . The self-sufficiency dimension of this objective is crucial and should drive staff training and flexibility in the manner of engagement when a FIM program is rolled out into a community. 30 31 2005 FIM Review by FaHCSIA Senior Stakeholder Westpac 30 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. 2. local FIm staffing should remain constant According Westpac s Project Manager in Cape York FIM has been most successful in the two communities that have had consistent staffing over the last eight years Coen and Mossman. In particular Mossman had local indigenous staff from its inception some of whom are still working there. Coen had the same FIM staff member for the first seven years she had a close association with the community. As a result Coen saw higher penetration and greater achievements. Although it does not entirely explain the lower success level in Aurukun that community has had a procession of staff during its operation and the FIM results are not as good. 4. refine the FIm product to ensure effective isolation of savings When most FIM accounts were migrated from the General Ledger model to the mainstream banking platform in 2007 (because it was labour-intensive and susceptible to fraud) FIM clients were able to access their funds more freely by WithdrawingcashinEFTPOStransactions ransferringmoneybetweentheirsavings T and discretionary accounts via telephone or internet banking The difficulty of accessing funds immediately is critical to affording protection for individuals against humbugging and succumbing to spontaneous temptation. Westpac is currently examining a product solution that addresses this challenge. 3. Staff members must receive comprehensive training that is aligned to the objectives of the FIm program It is essential that FIM is managed as a program that provides specialised support to individuals and families and that it is not perceived as a generalist advisory service (for example by liaising with Centrelink on the participant s behalf). If FIM is to achieve its broader objectives of improving people s lifestyles staff need to be trained to proactively promote these objectives. In particular it is important for FIM staff to better engage households rather than individuals in honest discussions about how FIM can help everyone. FIM s effectiveness in a household can be undermined by destructive individuals who do not want to participate. Moreover there is scope for staff to better engage participants in the broader support toolkit that Cape York Partnerships offers such as directing funds towards Student Education Trusts. 5. Engage the right people from the start Senior women in the community can set an influential precedent through their participation in FIM. It took communities around two years to start to understand that if they dealt with their money in a different way they could get a different outcome. In both communities [Mossman Gorge and Aurukun] it took the participation of several older women to achieve that outcome. Their example of purchasing a fridge paying for a funeral and sending their kids to school gave FIM momentum. 32 32 Senior Stakeholder Westpac Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 31 6. Balancing flexibility in the rollout process with a certain level of standardisation to ensure the model is scalable and leverages best practice Flexibility is required in the design and implementation of FIM because of the cultural and social vicissitudes of remote communities. Getting the community engaged and finding a way into the community needs to be approached on a case by case basis. In 2002 a Project Manager was appointed to manage the rollout of the FIM pilot and the initial philosophy was that each of the sites should develop independently. However there are challenges in a completely decentralised approach. While these variances may be manageable across a small number of sites expansion of the model into other communities can become problematic. Subsequent efforts to standardise the program can meet resistance in certain communities because they are accustomed to their own way of doing things. For example each of the FIM communities has a different way of managing the food account. In some communities there were arrangements with the store that it knew they would be paid by FIM. In other sites there were vouchers. A certain level of consistency is necessary particularly with regard to clarity around the main objectives of the program and consistency in the areas of staff recruitment retention and training. The coordinating entity should regularly monitor the implementation of the program across different sites and ensure learnings across sites are also being leveraged. 32 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. B. ChAllEngES In BuIldIng EntErPrISE In CAPE YOrK Introduction Building sustainable enterprise in Cape York that generates employment opportunities for indigenous people lies at the heart of the Welfare Reform Agenda. under the agenda individual engagement in the economy should be promoted and passivity reduced. All able-bodied people should be employed in real jobs or be participating in education or training either in the communities or elsewhere. At its inception the founding Board members of Jawun (or IEP as it was then known) agreed that this objective of sustainable economic development could only be achieved by addressing the broader societal factors that influence enterprise creation and development and the capacity and motivation of individuals to engage in the labour market. The diagram below sets out some of the drivers that stimulate enterprise creation and growth which in turn create employment opportunities for individuals. It also identifies the factors that enable individuals to capitalise on those opportunities. Supply Motivation & capability Challenges opportunities Sense of hope possibility Participation (breaking down welfare passivity) Education Work exposure experience Entrepreneurial skills experience Business operational administrative skills experience Underway Every child is special Ready Set Go Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy MULTI-TILT FIM SETs Jawun support of Welfare Reform Agenda through CYP & CYI. Specific support of Djarragun College FIM mentorship & support of Indigenous entrepreneurs through Balkanu Demand Leveraging existing employment opportunities Challenges opportunities Indigenous employment opportunities in remote parts of Cape York (limited) Cairns based indigenous employment opportunities Employment outside community orbiting Underway Jawun employment pilot in Cairns brokering local support coalitions and local employer collations to create successful indigenous employment outcomes Building local enterprise Challenges Opportunities Supporting small business development & indigenous entrepreneurs Employment creation via local economic development Underway Jawun supports small business development through Balkanu (high investment low success rate) Jawun supports economic development projects through Balkanu e.g. Land Trusts Ongoing structural challenges inhibitors Land Reform Scale and location of remote economy Regulatory complexity involved and setting up and running a business Access to capital Skewed incentives Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 33 Jawun its corporate partners and indigenous Regional Organisations (IROs) have worked to develop the local economy over the last 10 years. This work has involved awun ssecondmentprogram(fiveweeks) J in which secondees from organisations such as Westpac The Boston Consulting Group KPMG and IBM have worked with Balkanu and individual enterprises to conduct feasibility studies and develop business models for potential business ideas and provide direct advice and hands on assistance to entrepreneurs heWestpacFellowsProgram underwhich T Westpac employees are placed with an IRO in the Cape for 12 months Example 1 westpac fellowship program A Westpac secondee to Balkanu has been providing extensive business advisory support to local farmers in the Cape York region. His support has been crucial in helping the farmers to gain access to capital improve their financial management and also to facilitate their access to new markets in Cairns. The fellowship arrangement is a much better model because you need that kind of relationship built up and the longer term understanding ... and the corporate knowledge within Balkanu ... they know the history of what people have wanted to do. 33 alkanu sday-to-daysupportofentrepreneurs B including Brainstorming and developing new business ideas Supporting individuals interested in business development to create and pursue their own business ideas Mentoring indigenous management of enterprises and providing specialist management advice Example 2 Cairns to Cape mentoring Program Balkanu operates the Cairns to Cape Program an initiative which brokers connections between Balkanu s client businesses in Cape York and successful long-standing enterprises in Cairns. distilling 10 years of experience Jawun s key learnings This extensive engagement with the local economy has yielded important insights into the effectiveness of different economic development models and the obstacles that need to be overcome to grow sustainable enterprise in Cape York for the long term. The slow progress of economic development in Cape York and the low level of skills and education have created an underwhelming atmosphere in many of these communities. As a Jawun Board member notes these places lack a great sense of possibility ... Low expectation kills lots of opportunity it is the cancer of these communities 1. low education levels prevent many indigenous people from entering the labour force but local regional organisations are working to address this in Cape York s younger generation The education outcomes of indigenous students across remote Australia are well below those of non-indigenous students. Poor education outcomes have causes in a student s cultural background or socio-economic status in remote Australia this is compounded by poorly performing schools and poor quality teaching. This has had a detrimental impact on the local economy in several ways anyindigenousstudentsleaveschoolearlybut M do not pursue immediate economic engagement through an apprenticeship or full-time employment ewindigenousstudentsthatdofinishhigh F school are interested in developing their own businesses in the Cape venfewerstudentsprogresstouniversityand E return to the local community Consistent with Jawun s founding recognition of the importance of a broader societal response to developing the local economy local regional 33 Senior Balkanu Stakeholder 34 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. organisations are today pursuing a raft of programs to improve educational outcomes for students in Cape York. In particular Cape York Partnerships is currently managing the following initiatives EveryChildisSpecial Ready Set Go CapeYorkAboriginalAustralianAcademy MULTILIT SETs See the Education section of the Cape York Partnerships website for further information on these programs http education. A senior Cape York Institute Stakeholder notes The emergence of entrepreneurs is dependent on upfront engagement in the labour market and observation of employers by employees over time . A senior Balkanu stakeholder agrees Being job ready is one thing but being ready to run a disciplined business is a huge challenge for anyone much less people in remote communities. There are few capable individuals who are motivated to develop a business successfully in Cape York. Furthermore those individuals that are involved in business often lack the formal training qualifications and experience to manage a company successfully. For example a common oversight by indigenous entrepreneurs is complying with basic taxation requirements. Many indigenous enterprises fail to regularly complete a BAS statement. Sometimes these enterprises have refused expert assistance from organisations like Balkanu to their detriment. Example 3 western Cape Earth moving Western Cape Earth Moving was a profitable enterprise that provided earth moving services to Comalco. Although the Board comprised a large number of indigenous people experienced in the industry most lacked management experience and expertise. Moreover there were some clan politics that affected the Board s operation. There was very little independence. Over time management broadened WCEM s business activities into areas that it was less experienced in (e.g. road building). The business struggled to compete in the open market in an industry that it did not fully understand. Management continued to resist Balkanu s offers of support. ultimately the company entered receivership. In many of his discussion papers noel Pearson highlights the importance of enhancing the capabilities that exist within indigenous communities so that people can become mobile . In turn mobility means that people then have the option of engaging in both local and non-local employment. Given the very real structural challenges and disincentives with building real economies in the remote communities of Cape York Pearson endorses the idea of people orbiting outside of the community to gain experience and enhance their capabilities elsewhere and then return to home base again. 2. low employment levels mean few individuals have developed on thejob learning required to successfully manage a business The chart below illustrates that unemployment rates among the working age population in Cape York are significantly higher than the Australian average. Proportion of working age population by status (excluding CDEP %) 100 28 40 75 54 22 3 50 56 38 75 25 38 0 8 Aurukun Not in the labour force Unemployment Employment 16 Hope Vale 22 Cape York Australia Source Australian Bureau of Statistic National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2008 Australian Bureau of Statistic regional profiles. This broad lack of engagement in the workforce inhibits the development of individuals understanding of the economy and the role of an effectively functioning business. Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 35 36 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. Jawun is currently sponsoring an employment pilot in Cairns to support indigenous job seekers in obtaining employment opportunities in Cairns. This local employment approach seeks to provide the support that is absent from the standard approach to employment so that it is more appropriate for indigenous job seekers. Furthermore a local Employment Broker has been appointed to build coalitions of local community support organisations and local employers to facilitate more positive employment outcomes for indigenous people in Cairns. Section 2 of this report entitled A Place-based Approach to Indigenous Employment explores the emerging learnings and insights of this approach looking in detail at the employment pilot currently underway in Shepparton. This has resulted in some evidence in Cape York of a lack of take-up of the limited but available opportunities for indigenous employment that have been generated. Example 4 Fruit-picking jobs go untaken Some fruit-picking operations in the Cape have much difficulty obtaining sufficient labour. These vacant opportunities highlight the distorted incentives for some welfare recipients. Assuming a position for a fruit-picker requires 60 hours of work per fortnight and pays 12 per hour before tax the marginal benefit for a person receiving 400 in welfare income to take up employment is approximately 4 per hour. Without a firm appreciation of the opportunity cost of money we are not going to tackle passive welfare. until people are able to understand a particular expenditure can be equated back to a pay packet and how much effort has gone into that pay packet our ambitions around defeating passive welfare will be frustrated. 34 3. the characteristics of the local economy inhibit sustainable business development Approximately 10-15 thousand people live in Cape York a region whose size is analogous to Victoria. As a Jawun Board member observed the scale of this economy is too small to create a virtuous economic cycle . The geographic isolation of the small communities dispersed throughout the peninsula inhibits the growth of tourism and the attraction of other industries to the region. It also translates to higher costs of goods and services and an inflated cost base for businesses that seek to compete domestically and internationally. A Jawun Board member comments You cannot run a bakery on 300 loaves of bread a day. 5. many indigenous enterprises cannot access capital Many businesses in Cape York have difficulty accessing finance because they fail to meet the preconditions required by commercial lending entities. This difficulty is a function of several factors heabilityofnewenterprisestoachievea T market based financial return is mixed substantial complexregulatoryburdencan A thwart entrepreneurial ambition ocalfactorshavehistoricallydrivenlowlabour L productivity nsecurityofpropertyrightsunderminesinvestment I hereisanasymmetrybetweenadisparatepool T of potential investors and the businesses that require investment 4. welfare reform needs to properly remove the welfare pedestal that encourages people to obtain welfare and remain on it Due to a combination of the size of payments the structure of the program and the net effect of other welfare payments a person can actually benefit more financially through being on CDEP rather than investing in their future through study or entry-level employment. Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 37 InSIGHT FOR GOVERnMEnT Indigenous Business Australia (IBA) is a government-owned organisation that promotes and encourages self-management self-sufficiency and economic independence for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples . However some stakeholders have questioned the effectiveness of IBA and providing finance to enterprises that are typically overlooked by mainstream financial institutions. They note the high burden of compliance and bureaucratic processes that dissuade many enterprises from seeking finance. In particular many indigenous entrepreneurs are offended by the requirement to prove Aboriginality. For example a Kowanyama fencing contractor attempted to raise 10 000 from IBA to upgrade tools and equipment but he abandoned the effort because he found the paperwork too onerous. How can we actually get capital that s not going to take months or a year or more to turn it around It s quite clear the ILC and IBA models and government grants only work for big projects like the Mossman Gorge but if you are a young family wanting 50k it would cost that amount of money to get it. That cost is actually Balkanu s support. One of the things we ve found is that government will fund projects but they don t realise what it actually takes to get from an idea to a project and they don t fund that gap. 35 The assumption that you can only achieve success in a communal way is destructive. 36 InSIGHT FOR GOVERnMEnT Public management of enterprise has routinely failed The takeaway shop in Hopevale operated successfully until it was handed to Council. under the Council s management the shop ran up significant debts. A new private owner restored the shop s financial position before returning it to Council. However Council mismanaged the cafe and it has since been closed for five years. Similarly the Edward River Crocodile Farm commenced as a Commonwealth-funded project in 1969. In 1983 commercial viability was proven. under current management the Crocodile farm has incurred significant debt and is barely covering variable costs. According to conservative projections the Crocodile farm is yet viable with new management and working capital. Both the Enterprise and Farm Manager lack the capacity or experience to manage strategic management capital allocation and other implementation issues. Communal enterprise has occasionally been successful where ownership is held collectively but management is conducted separately. For example the Lockhart River cabins are owned by the community but the enterprise is run by expert independent managers. Collective enterprise does have the benefit of allowing a diverse pool of interested people who individually lack the capability to start their own business to still engage in entrepreneurialism. Moreover the communal nature of enterprise may be more appropriate to certain types of enterprise such as land management. Balkanu and other regional organisations could potentially focus more closely on this ownership and management model. 6. Collectivist indigenous enterprises have had mixed success the balance between the benefits of communalism and the successful features of capitalism must be weighed carefully There is some evidence of successful communal enterprise in Cape York but these limited examples must be weighed against the failed attempts by local government to create collective enterprises potentially because of Alackofclearaccountabilitywithinthegroup nsufficientmanagementexperiencewithin I the collective We have not confronted some of those questions about ... ownership and the clash between communalism and the imperatives of capitalism ... 34 35 36 Senior Stakeholder Cape York Institute Senior Balkanu Stakeholder Noel Pearson Indigenous Leader 38 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. 7. Intense mentoring of individual indigenous business persons can be an effective mechanism for developing indigenous entrepreneurs but it is highly resource-intensive. Willie Gordon is the manager and owner of Guurrbi Tours based in Cooktown a highly successful and well-recognised tour guide company. Willie launched Guurrbi Tours in 2003 operating on a very limited budget with no government funding. Today Willie s Aboriginal tours are recognised as amongst the best in Australia and his small business has received a host of accolades both locally and overseas. Willie s success underscores the importance of entrepreneurial initiative and ambition that is broadly lacking in the Cape. You still need the individual to sit down and rub the sticks together and sweat in the hot sun until you get the spark. 37 Furthermore Willie s success has been partly driven by the extensive and ongoing mentoring from Judy Bennett his business partner. Similarly the fellowship model of support brokered by Jawun in which a long term secondee from Westpac is seconded to the Cape to provide longer term mentoring and support has been highly effective in empowering local indigenous entrepreneurs (see Example 1 Westpac Fellowship Program). Whilst the nature of this engagement has various benefits compared to the more ad-hoc short term provision of support for activities like developing business plans this investment is relatively more expensive. A key challenge is to identify effective ways to leverage the nature and quantum of this support beyond the individual entrepreneur such that this entrepreneur becomes a role model in the broader community. In some cases despite being successful intense support of individuals can be counterproductive unless the broader community also supports the journey and sees benefit coming back to the community. We ve narrowed our focus on the individual and most times when the individual is not as strong as Willie is we find that we get frustrated because of other pressures in the community they haven t got agreement with the mob they get affected by the jealousy they decide to pull the pin all of our effort has gone it s all about support structures... 38 8. the role of social enterprise in Cape York should not be underestimated and should arguably form part of Balkanu s mandate Some stakeholders emphasise the importance of social entrepreneurialism in building the Cape s economy. Social enterprise involves the manager of a business broadening his her focus to consider the social impact of his her company s operations and the social return on the investment. As leaders of my community what can I do to change the way that we do business. 39 On one interpretation social enterprise could also involve Balkanu providing its expertise and support to individuals who pursue a business idea not simply on pure economic merit alone. The idea is that the broader social benefits of participation and engagement in the economy should also be considered alongside the hard economics of the enterprise. Balkanu s philosophy around social entrepreneurship is that we never say no ... There s no point providing support if that person hasn t put up their hand - that s welfare that s proven failure they have to have skin in the game they have to have the drive when they have made the decision to do it the worst thing that could happen is for the council government or Balkanu to knock them back.. 40 However given Balkanu s resource constraints and the cost of providing the required support to individual entrepreneurs the challenge is in stimulating this type entrepreneurial activity in an efficient but impactful way that balances the economics with the potential social benefits. InSIGHT TO GOVERnMEnT Some stakeholders believe that we have not properly examined the basic economics of economic development in remote indigenous communities . There are two categories of business in remote communities There s one category of Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 39 business which may well be self-sustaining in a normal way due to natural demand and other factors. There is another category of business which is not sustainable in Cape York even though businesses like it would be sustainable elsewhere. In the latter case if a broader social benefit exists the government and others will then need to decide about subsidies. According to one stakeholder the outstanding question is Can we systematically work through the variety of subsidy mechanisms and what incentives they create what risks they transfer don t transfer and what behaviours they create along the way for economic development. the company could not offer the land as collateral for debt financing. Instead the motel is currently undertaking a more drawn out process which involves seeking debt and equity funding from a suite of government investors. 10. Other regulatory complexity is limiting economic activity housing heeasewithwhichhousingcanbedeveloped T varies according to the zoning of the land in question ariousbuildingcodesandstandardsmustbe V complied with Environment ultiplestatuteshavebeenpropagatedwiththe M purpose of conserving Cape York s environment for example the Environmental Protection Act 1994 Water Act 2000 Fisheries Act 1994 Cape York Peninsula Heritage Act 2007 and Wild Rivers Act 2005. These statutes often indirectly limit building and development in applicable areas heclearingofnativevegetationfor T development is greatly restricted by the Vegetation Management Act 1999 which presents difficulties given the density of native vegetation cover across Cape York 9. Complexity and quantum of land regulation is limiting the development of enterprise A patchwork of land estates exist and interact in Cape York including freehold Aboriginal freehold Deed of Grant in Trust (DOGIT) mining tenure pastoral (and other) leases and various conservation reserves. Additionally a complex planning regime regulates and restricts development occurring on Cape York through legislation such as the Sustainable Planning Act the Cook Shire Council Planning Scheme and the Wild Rivers Code. We have got to have more far-reaching land reform that enables private ownership. 41 Formal development applications are necessary for many types of development. Obtaining legal certainty in regard to land tenure continues to be a particularly challenging issue for start-up businesses. Example 5 Pormpuraaw motel Pormpuraaw Motel in south western Cape York proposes to build motel cabin-style accommodation to address the undersupply of accommodation facilities in the community. There is a frequent surplus of guests (80% government workers) that are unable to be accommodated who often have to reschedule their work travel plans around the availability of accommodation. The proposed site is land that is subject to a deed of grant in trust which is inalienable. As a result 37 38 39 40 41 Gerhardt Pearson Balkanu Gerhardt Pearson Balkanu Gerhardt Pearson Balkanu Gerhardt Pearson Balkanu Noel Pearson Indigenous Leader 40 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. Example 6 lockhart campground A group of entrepreneurs in Lockhart River proposed to develop a camping ground by the wharf. However the group spent approximately three years negotiating the various legislative requirements that affected the proposed development. At the end of this period the state government advised that the proposal could not proceed because of new legislation relating to the coastline that prohibited development within 500m of the beach. As a result the group decided not to progress their idea any further. Closing comments The learnings of Jawun local regional organisations and corporate partners in seeking to develop sustainable enterprise in Cape York emphasise the complexity and difficulty of the challenge. Growing sustainable businesses in a small geographically remote location which is saddled with low-growth structural factors endemic labour force challenges and large capability deficits is extremely challenging. Initiatives to improve the educational health and social outcomes of the next generation of Cape York augurs well for the region s long term economic viability but a refreshed approach can do more to support and develop opportunities for the current workforce. The need for a multi-faceted multi-stakeholder approach to the challenge is underscored by the quantum of government investment that will be made in Cape York over the next 10 years. Such significant investment will create opportunities to address the challenges that Jawun its corporate partners and local regional organisations have encountered over the last 10 years. Learnings and Insights 10 years on. 41 APPEnDIX list of People Interviewed and or Surveyed for this report StAKEhOldEr nAmE OrgAnISAtIOn 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 11. Ah mat richie Andrew michael Banerjee Subho Baylis Karyn Berg tony Bowman greg Buchanan Ben Burt tony Carter Colin Coates murray Indigenous Leader Jawun Board Ex BCG Jawun Staff Jawun Board Balkanu Development BCG IBM Jawun Board Wesfarmers Jawun Staff Jawun Staff Jawun Consultant Jawun Staff Cape York Partnerships Jawun Board Jawun Board Jawun Staff Jawun Staff KPMG Cape York Institute Jawun Consultant BCG Westpac KPMG BCG Jawun Staff Jawun Board KPMG Jawun Staff Westpac Indigenous Leader Indigenous Leader StAKEhOldEr nAmE OrgAnISAtIOn 34. raffi Ben 35. raffin luke 36. rimmer Ben 37. roediger Anthony 38. rothfield Steven 39. Scott mark 40. Sherry Ann 41. Sugden Susie 42. tudge Alan 43. von Oertzen tom 44. williams tammy 45. wilson geoff 46. winer mike BCG BCG Ex BCG BCG Jawun Board Westpac Jawun Board BCG Ex BCG BCG Jawun Board KPMG Cape York Institute 10. Chaney Kate 12. Cooke Brad 13. Croker Chris 14. Curran Jackie 15. denigan Bernardine 16. gordon (dr.) Sue 17. hanlon Peter 18. hughes Anne 19. hughson lyndal 20. hunter Catherine 21. Iles Stephen 22. Kahlil magda 23. Kamener larry 24. Koci vit 25. lindgren georgia 26. love ross 27. manzini rose 28. myer rupert 29. naidoo Bhavani 30. neill melissa 31. Paterson graham 32. Pearson gerhardt 33. Pearson noel 42 Jawun A Unique Indigenous Corporate Partnership Model. CORPORATE & PHILAnTHROPIC PARTnERS. Corporate Philanthropic government meaning of Our name and logo Jawun is a word meaning strong friendship in the Kuku Yalanji language. Our logo represents Indigenous markings for meeting place. Together our name and logo reflect our key aim to bring corporate philanthropic and Indigenous organisations together to build the capability of Indigenous people and organisations across Australia. In 2010 Jawun approached Ivy Minniecon & Cassandra Cairns to depict our logo on canvas. Ivy is an Indigenous artist based in Cairns and comes from the Kuku Yalanji people of Mossman Gorge. PO Box A199 Sydney South NSW 1235 e info p 02 9253 3619 Booklet designed by lavender Communications group Photography by daniel linnet